Despite of the popularity of interactive movie trailers, rigorous research on one of the most apparent features of these interfaces – the level of user control – has been scarce. This study explored the effects of user control on users’ immersion and enjoyment of the movie trailers, moderated by the content type. We conducted a 2 (high user control versus low user control) × 2 (drama film trailer versus documentary film trailer) mixed-design factorial experiment. The results showed that the level of user control over movie trailer interfaces decreased users’ immersion when the trailer had an element of traditional story structure, such as a drama film trailer. Participants in the high user control condition answered that they were less fascinated with, absorbed in, focused on, mentally involved with, and emotionally affected by the movie trailer than participants in the low user control condition only with the drama movie trailer. The negative effects of user control on the level of immersion for the drama trailer translated into users’ enjoyment. The impact of user control over interfaces on immersion and enjoyment varies depending on the nature of the media content, which suggests a possible trade-off between the level of user control and entertainment outcomes.
Â There is scant research-based evidence on the development and adoption of open access (OA) and institutional repositories (IRs) in Africa, and in Kenya in particular. This article reports on a study that attempted to fill that gap and provide feedback on the various OA projects and advocacy work currently underway in universities and research institutions in Kenya and in other developing countries. The article presents the findings of a descriptive study that set out to evaluate the current state of IRs in Kenya. Webometric approaches and interviews with IR managers were used to collect the data for the study. The findings showed that Kenya has made some progress in adopting OA with a total of 12 IRs currently listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) and five mandatory self-archiving policies listed in the Registry of Open Access Repositories Mandatory Archiving Policies (ROARMAP). Most of the IRs are owned by universities where theses and dissertations constitute the majority of the content type followed by journal articles. The results on the usage and impact of materials deposited in Kenyan IRs indicated that the most viewed publications in the repositories also received citations in Google Scholar, thereby signifying their impact and importance. The results also showed that there was a considerable interest in Swahili language publications among users of the repositories in Kenya.
In the present study, we examined how the influence of exercise-related social media content on exercise motivation might differ across content type (with images vs. without images) and account type (individual vs. corporate). Using a 2 × 2 within-subjects experimental design, 229 participants viewed a series of 40 actual social media posts across the four conditions (individual posts with images, corporate posts with images, individual posts without images, and corporate posts without images) in a randomized order. Participants rated the extent to which they felt each social media post motivated them to exercise, would motivate others to exercise, and was posted for extrinsic reasons. Participants also completed other measures of individual differences including their own exercise motivation. Posts with images from individuals were more motivating than posts with images from corporations; however, corporate posts without images were more motivating than posts without images from individuals. Participants expected others to be similarly motivated by the stimuli, and perceived corporate posts as having been posted for more extrinsic reasons than individuals’ posts. These findings enhance our understanding of how social media may be used to promote positive health behaviors.
Object. The effects of gamma thalamotomy for parkinsonian and other kinds of tremor were evaluated.
Methods. Thirty-six thalamotomies were performed in 31 patients by using a 4-mm collimator. The maximum dose was 150 Gy in the initial six cases, which was reduced to 130 Gy thereafter. The longest follow-up period was 6 years. The target was determined on T2-weighted and proton magnetic resonance (MR) images. The point chosen was in the lateral-most part of the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus. This is in keeping with open thalamotomy as practiced at the authors' institution. In 15 cases, gamma thalamotomy was the first surgical procedure. In other cases, previous therapeutic or vascular lesions were visible to facilitate targeting.
Two types of tissue reaction were onserved on MR imaging: a simple oval shape and a complex irregular shape. Neither of these changes affected the clinical course. In the majority of cases, the tremor subsided after a latent interval of approximately 1 year after irradiation. The earliest response was demonstrated at 3 months. In five cases the tremor remained. In four of these cases, a second radiation session was administered. One of these four patients as well as another patient with an unsatisfactory result underwent open thalamotomy with microrecording. In both cases, depth recording adjacent to the necrotic area revealed normal neuronal activity, including the rhythmic discharge of tremor. Minor coagulation was performed and resulted in immediate and complete arrest of the remaining tremor.
Conclusions. Gamma thalamotomy for Parkinson's disease seems to be an alternative useful method in selected cases.
Object. A consecutive series of 240 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) between March 1993 and March 1999 was evaluated to assess the efficacy and safety of radiosurgery for cerebral AVMs larger than 10 cm3 in volume.
Methods. Seventy-six patients (32%) had AVM nidus volumes of more than 10 cm3. During radiosurgery, targeting and delineation of AVM nidi were based on integrated stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray angiography. The radiation treatment was performed using multiple small isocenters to improve conformity of the treatment volume. The mean dose inside the nidus was kept between 20 Gy and 24 Gy. The margin dose ranged between 15 to 18 Gy placed at the 55 to 60% isodose centers. Follow up ranged from 12 to 73 months.
There was complete obliteration in 24 patients with an AVM volume of more than 10 cm3 and in 91 patients with an AVM volume of less than 10 cm3. The latency for complete obliteration in larger-volume AVMs was significantly longer. In Kaplan—Meier analysis, the complete obliteration rate in 40 months was 77% in AVMs with volumes between 10 to 15 cm3, as compared with 25% for AVMs with a volume of more than 15 cm3. In the latter, the obliteration rate had increased to 58% at 50 months. The follow-up MR images revealed that large-volume AVMs had higher incidences of postradiosurgical edema, petechiae, and hemorrhage. The bleeding rate before cure was 9.2% (seven of 76) for AVMs with a volume exceeding 10 cm3, and 1.8% (three of 164) for AVMs with a volume less than 10 cm3. Although focal edema was more frequently found in large AVMs, most of the cases were reversible. Permanent neurological complications were found in 3.9% (three of 76) of the patients with an AVM volume of more than 10 cm3, 3.8% (three of 80) of those with AVM volume of 3 to 10 cm3, and 2.4% (two of 84) of those with an AVM volume less than 3 cm3. These differences in complications rate were not significant.
Conclusions. Recent improvement of radiosurgery in conjunction with stereotactic MR targeting and multiplanar dose planning has permitted the treatment of larger AVMs. It is suggested that gamma knife radiosurgery is effective for treating AVMs as large as 30 cm3 in volume with an acceptable risk.
Object. The authors sought to evaluate the effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) on cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and the factors associated with complete occlusion.
Methods. A total of 301 radiosurgical procedures for 277 cerebral AVMs were performed between December 1988 and December 1999. Two hundred seventy-eight lesions in 254 patients who were treated with GKS from May 1992 to December 1999 were analyzed. Several clinical and radiological parameters were evaluated.
Conclusions. The total obliteration rate for the cases with an adequate radiological follow up of more than 2 years was 78.9%. In multivariate analysis, maximum diameter, angiographically delineated shape of the AVM nidus, and the number of draining veins significantly influenced the result of radiosurgery. In addition, margin radiation dose, Spetzler—Martin grade, and the flow pattern of the AVM nidus also had some influence on the outcome. In addition to the size, topography, and radiosurgical parameters of AVMs, it would seem to be necessary to consider the angioarchitectural and hemodynamic aspects to select proper candidates for radiosurgery.
✓ By definition, the term “radiosurgery” refers to the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose in a single fraction, not simply the use of stereotaxy. Multiple-fraction delivery is better termed “stereotactic radiotherapy.” There are compelling radiobiological principles supporting the biological superiority of single-fraction radiation for achieving an optimal therapeutic response for the slowly proliferating, late-responding, tissue of a schwannoma. It is axiomatic that complication avoidance requires precise three-dimensional conformality between treatment and tumor volumes. This degree of conformality can only be achieved through complex multiisocenter planning. Alternative radiosurgery devices are generally limited to delivering one to four isocenters in a single treatment session. Although they can reproduce dose plans similar in conformality to early gamma knife dose plans by using a similar number of isocenters, they cannot reproduce the conformality of modern gamma knife plans based on magnetic resonance image—targeted localization and five to 30 isocenters.
A disturbing trend is developing in which institutions without nongamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) centers are championing and/or shifting to hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas. This trend appears to be driven by a desire to reduce complication rates to compete with modern GKS results by using complex multiisocenter planning. Aggressive advertising and marketing from some of these centers even paradoxically suggests biological superiority of hypofractionation approaches over single-dose radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas. At the same time these centers continue to use the term radiosurgery to describe their hypofractionated radiotherapy approach in an apparent effort to benefit from a GKS “halo effect.” It must be reemphasized that as neurosurgeons our primary duty is to achieve permanent tumor control for our patients and not to eliminate complications at the expense of potential late recurrence. The answer to minimizing complications while maintaining maximum tumor control is improved conformality of radiosurgery dose planning and not resorting to homeopathic radiosurgery doses or hypofractionation radiotherapy schemes.
Object. The authors sought to assess the functional tolerance and tumor control rate of cavernous sinus meningiomas treated by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS).
Methods. Between July 1992 and October 1998, 92 patients harboring benign cavernous sinus meningiomas underwent GKS. The present study is concerned with the first 80 consecutive patients (63 women and 17 men). Gamma knife radiosurgery was performed as an alternative to surgical removal in 50 cases and as an adjuvant to microsurgery in 30 cases. The mean patient age was 49 years (range 6–71 years). The mean tumor volume was 5.8 cm3 (range 0.9–18.6 cm3). On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the tumor was confined in 66 cases and extensive in 14 cases. The mean prescription dose was 28 Gy (range 12–50 Gy), delivered with an average of eight isocenters (range two–18). The median peripheral isodose was 50% (range 30–70%). Patients were evaluated at 6 months, and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 years after GKS.
The median follow-up period was 30.5 months (range 12–79 months). Tumor stabilization after GKS was noted in 51 patients, tumor shrinkage in 25 patients, and enlargement in four patients requiring surgical removal in two cases. The 5-year actuarial progression-free survival was 92.8%. No new oculomotor deficit was observed. Among the 54 patients with oculomotor nerve deficits, 15 improved, eight recovered, and one worsened. Among the 13 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, one worsened (contemporary of tumor growing), five remained unchanged, four improved, and three recovered. In a patient with a remnant surrounding the optic nerve and preoperative low vision (3/10) the decision was to treat the lesion and deliberately sacrifice the residual visual acuity. Only one transient unexpected optic neuropathy has been observed. One case of delayed intracavernous carotid artery occlusion occurred 3 months after GKS, without permanent deficit. Another patient presented with partial complex seizures 18 months after GKS. All cases of tumor growth and neurological deficits observed after GKS occurred before the use of GammaPlan. Since the initiation of systematic use of stereotactic MR imaging and computer-assisted modern dose planning, no more side effects or cases of tumor growth have occurred.
Conclusions. Gamma knife radiosurgery was found to be an effective low morbidity—related tool for the treatment of cavernous sinus meningioma. In a significant number of patients, oculomotor functional restoration was observed. The treatment appears to be an alternative to surgical removal of confined enclosed cavernous sinus meningioma and should be proposed as an adjuvant to surgery in case of extensive meningiomas.
Object. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) and adjuvant stereotactic procedures by assessing the outcome of 31 consecutive patients harboring craniopharyngiomas treated between March 1993 and December 1999.
Methods. There were 31 consecutive patients with craniopharyngiomas: 18 were men and 13 were women. The mean age was 32 years (range 3–69 years). The mean tumor volume was 9 cm3 (range 0.3–28 cm3). The prescription dose to the tumor margin varied from 9.5 to 16 Gy. The visual pathways received 8 Gy or less. Three patients underwent stereotactic aspiration to decompress the cystic component before GKS. The tumor response was classified by percentage reduction of tumor volume as calculated based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Clinical outcome was evaluated according to improvement and dependence on replacement therapy.
An initial postoperative volume increase with enlargement of a cystic component was found in three patients. They were treated by adjuvant stereotactic aspiration and/or Ommaya reservoir implantation. Tumor control was achieved in 87% of patients and 84% had fair to excellent clinical outcome in an average follow-up period of 36 months. Treatment failure due to uncontrolled tumor progression was seen in four patients at 26, 33, 49, and 55 months, respectively, after GKS. Only one patient was found to have a mildly restricted visual field; no additional endocrinological impairment or neurological deterioration could be attributed to the treatment. There was no treatment-related mortality.
Conclusions. Multimodality management of patients with craniopharyngiomas seemed to provide a better quality of patient survival and greater long-term tumor control. It is suggested that GKS accompanied by adjuvant stereotactic procedures should be used as an alternative in treating recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas if further microsurgical excision cannot promise a cure.
Object. This investigation was performed to determine the tolerance and toxicities of split-course fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (FSRS) given in combination with conventional external-beam radiation therapy (CEBRT).
Methods. Eighteen patients with previously unirradiated, gliomas treated between March 1995 and January 2000 form the substrate of this report. These included 11 patients with malignant gliomas, six with low-grade gliomas, and one with a recurrent glioma. They were stratified into three groups according to tumor volume (TV). Fifteen were treated using the initial FSRS dose schedule and form the subject of this report. Group A (four patients), had TV of 5 cm3 or less (7 Gy twice pre- and twice post-CEBRT); Group B (six patients), TV greater than 5 cm3 but less than or equal to 15 cm3 (7 Gy twice pre-CEBRT and once post-CEBRT); and Group C (five patients), TV greater than 15 cm3 but less than or equal to 30 cm3 (7 Gy once pre- and once post-CEBRT). All patients received CEBRT to 59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Dose escalation was planned, provided the level of toxicity was acceptable. All patients were able to complete CEBRT without interruption or experiencing disease progression. Unacceptable toxicity was observed in two Grade 4/Group B patients and two Grade 4/Group C patients. Eight patients required reoperation. In three (38%) there was necrosis without evidence of tumor. Neuroimaging studies were available for evaluation in 14 patients. Two had a partial (≥ 50%) reduction in volume and nine had a minor (> 20%) reduction in size. The median follow-up period was 15 months (range 9–60 months). Six patients remained alive for 3 to 60 months.
Conclusions. The imaging responses and the ability of these patients with intracranial gliomas to complete therapy without interruption or experiencing disease progression is encouraging. Excessive toxicity derived from combined FSRS and CEBRT treatment, as evaluated thus far in this study, was seen in patients with Group B and C lesions at the 7-Gy dose level. Evaluation of this novel treatment strategy with dose modification is ongoing.