scholarly journals Tactile perception by mouth: Perceiving properties of objects when vision is impaired

2020 ◽  
pp. 026461962093593
Andrea Urqueta Alfaro ◽  
Laura Walker ◽  
Chris Lee ◽  
Daisy Lei

The lips and tongue demonstrate similar or greater spatial acuity than the fingertips. Indeed, infants use the mouth to perceive properties of objects such as hardness, texture, and shape. In normal development, it is assumed that mouthing decreases in favour of increasingly advanced hand exploration patterns. However, anecdotal reports suggest that mouthing continues to serve a perceptual function when a person’s vision is abnormal. This study explored blind or visually impaired (BVI) adults’ self-reported use of mouthing to perceive properties of objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 BVI adults with visual acuities ranging from no light perception to 20/40. Data were analysed using content analysis to identify specific properties perceived by the mouth. Despite social norms that discourage mouthing, some BVI adults use oral tactile perception of texture, shape, temperature, and taste to better characterize objects. These findings suggest that compensatory behaviours using the mouth can support the rehabilitation of individuals with abnormal vision.

Tiago Pereira ◽  
Fábio Alexandre Borges

ResumoNeste trabalho discutimos alguns aspectos apresentados por estudantes com deficiência visual quanto às suas respectivas escolarizações inclusivas enfocando a disciplina de matemática. Foram entrevistados quatro sujeitos, atuais acadêmicos no ensino superior, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, que foram norteadas por um roteiro de perguntas construído com subsídios de uma revisão bibliográfica anterior. Na análise, empregamos os pressupostos da análise de conteúdo, e para expormos nossos resultados, utilizamos categorias elencadas por meio das convergências existentes nas falas dos entrevistados. As categorias identificadas foram: a diferenciação docente de conteúdos e atividades escolares entre estudantes com deficiência visual e videntes; o desconhecimento docente das necessidades educativas do aluno com deficiência visual; negligências/omissões docentes no ensino de estudantes com deficiência visual, incluso quanto aos seus aprendizados; tentativas isoladas de apoio docente como reflexo da falta de um trabalho coletivo escolar mais amplo.Palavras-chave: Deficiência visual, Ensino de matemática inclusivo, Narrativas de estudantes.AbstractIn this paper, we discuss some aspects presented by visually impaired students about their inclusive schooling focusing on mathematics. Four subjects, current higher education students, answered semi-structured interviews we prepared guided by a script of questions constructed with subsidies from a previous bibliographic review. In the analysis, we used the assumptions of content analysis, and to expose our results, we used categories listed through the convergences existing in the statements of the respondents. The categories identified were: the teaching differentiation of school content and activities between visually impaired and sighted students; the teachers' lack of knowledge of the educational needs of the visually impaired student; negligence/omissions in teaching visually impaired students, including their learning; isolated attempts at teaching support as a reflection of the lack of broader collective school work.Keywords: Visual impairment, Teaching of inclusive mathematics, Narratives of students.ResumenEn este artículo se discuten algunos aspectos presentados por estudiantes con discapacidad visual sobre su escolarización inclusiva con enfoque en matemáticas. Cuatro sujetos, estudiantes actuales de educación superior, respondieron entrevistas semiestructuradas que preparamos basados en un guión de preguntas construido con subsidios de una revisión bibliográfica previa. En el análisis, usamos los supuestos del análisis de contenido, y para exponer nuestros resultados, usamos categorías listadas a través de las convergencias existentes en las declaraciones de los encuestados. Las categorías identificadas fueron: la diferenciación docente del contenido y las actividades escolares entre estudiantes con discapacidad visual y con videntes; el desconocimiento de los profesores sobre las necesidades educativas del alumno con discapacidad visual; negligencia / omisiones en la enseñanza de estudiantes con discapacidad visual, incluido su aprendizaje; intentos aislados de apoyo a la enseñanza como reflejo de la falta de un trabajo escolar colectivo más amplio.Palabras clave: Discapacidad visual, Enseñanza inclusiva de las matemáticas, narrativas de estudiantes.

2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 53-80
Sari Hanafi

This study investigates the preachers and their Friday sermons in Lebanon, raising the following questions: What are the profiles of preachers in Lebanon and their academic qualifications? What are the topics evoked in their sermons? In instances where they diagnosis and analyze the political and the social, what kind of arguments are used to persuade their audiences? What kind of contact do they have with the social sciences? It draws on forty-two semi-structured interviews with preachers and content analysis of 210 preachers’ Friday sermons, all conducted between 2012 and 2015 among Sunni and Shia mosques. Drawing from Max Weber’s typology, the analysis of Friday sermons shows that most of the preachers represent both the saint and the traditional, but rarely the scholar. While they are dealing extensively with political and social phenomena, rarely do they have knowledge of social science

2021 ◽  
pp. 030802262098847
Tawanda Machingura ◽  
Chris Lloyd ◽  
Karen Murphy ◽  
Sarah Goulder ◽  
David Shum ◽  

Introduction Current non-pharmacological treatment options for people with schizophrenia are limited. There is, however, emerging evidence that sensory modulation can be beneficial for this population. This study aimed to gain insight into sensory modulation from the user’s and the treating staff’s perspectives. Method A qualitative content analysis design was used. Transcripts from occupational therapists ( n=11) and patients with schizophrenia ( n=13) derived from in-depth semi-structured interviews were analysed for themes using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from this study: Service user education on the sensory approach is the key; A variety of tools should be tried; Sensory modulation provides a valued treatment option; There are challenges of managing perceived risk at an organisational level; and There is a shortage of accessible and effective training. Conclusion People with schizophrenia and treating staff had congruent perceptions regarding the use of sensory modulation as a treatment option. The findings suggest that sensory modulation can be a valued addition to treatment options for people with schizophrenia. We suggest further research on sensory modulation intervention effectiveness using quantitative methods so these results can be further explored.

Wei-Ju Chen ◽  
Zihan Zhang ◽  
Haocen Wang ◽  
Tung-Sung Tseng ◽  
Ping Ma ◽  

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and restricted or repetitive behaviors. Parental perceptions of the etiology of their child’s ASD can affect provider–client relationships, bonding between parents and their children, and the prognosis, treatment, and management of children with ASD. Thus, this study sought to examine the perceptions of ASD etiology of parents of children with ASD. Methods: Forty-two parents of children diagnosed with ASD were recruited across Texas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually. All interviews were recorded and later transcribed verbatim for content analysis utilizing NVivo 12.0 (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia). Results: The content analysis identified the following themes regarding parental perceptions of ASD etiology: Genetic factors (40.5%), environmental factors (31.0%), problems that occurred during pregnancy or delivery (23.8%), vaccinations (16.7%), other health problems (7.1%), parental age at the time of pregnancy (4.8%), and spiritual or religious factors (2.4%). Conclusions: The parental perceptions of ASD etiology were diverse, but several views, such as vaccinations and spiritual or religious factors, were not based on scientific evidence. Health professionals and researchers can use these findings to develop and provide targeted education to parents who have children with ASD. Our findings also support policymakers in developing campaigns designed to increase parental ASD awareness and knowledge.

Dementia ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 2206-2219
Mahin Kiwi

This article discusses Iranian family members’ attitudes towards the culturally profiled nursing home, their relationships with the staff, the obstacles, their hopes and their fears. This study is based on qualitative research using 29 semi-structured interviews with family members who had previously been informal caregivers, as well as using fieldwork, all in the same nursing home. The interviews were analysed by the three steps of content analysis. The results show the identification of three main categories with nine main subcategories. The categories and subcategories in the table clarify and explain how the interviewees tended to compare the situation in Iran with that in Sweden, how they perceived the situation in Sweden and finally how they also saw the culturally profiled nursing home.

Nedal H. Arar ◽  
Divya Nandamudi

Background: The work of multidisciplinary research teams (MDRTs) is vital for translational research. The objectives of this study were 1) to understand the structure and function of MDRTs, and 2) to develop effective strategies to enhance collaboration among team members. Methods and Findings: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 participants involved in multidisiplinary research work at two San Antonio, Texas, institutions. Interview materials were tape-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed using qualitative methods.Themes that emerged from the content analysis were used to develop and refine strategies to enhance the work of MDRTs. The findings showed that MDRTs operate through multiple cycles of: 1) team formation, 2) team collaboration, 3) sustainable collaborative activities, and 4) team maturity. Content analysis identified four interrelated basic elements within the MDRT tract that facilitate team cycles: 1) shared interest/vision among agreeable team leader and members, 2) viable means of communication, 3) available resources, and 4) perceived gain/benefit of teamwork.Conclusions: Our findings highlighted several opportunities and challenges in the formation, dynamics, and growth of MDRTs. Effective strategies to enhance teamwork should levearge these opportunities and address challenges, taking into consideration the interdependent aspects of the basic elements within the MDRTs tract.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Komal Chopra

Purpose The purpose of the study was to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to understand consumer motivation for preventive health care in India using content analysis. Design/methodology/approach Content analysis approach which is a qualitative-based approach was adopted. The responses were collected through semi-structured interviews using purposeful sampling method, and the responses were analyzed using content analysis approach. Sub themes and main themes were derived from the data which related to concepts in Maslow’s theory. Findings The results indicate the following: healthy food, healthy diet and health supplements are the basic need; sustainability of health and fitness and health security relate to safety and security need; feeling of pride in being fit, being a role model of fitness for others and influence of electronic media relate to social and self-esteem need; freedom from disease and peace of mind fulfill the need for self-actualization. Research limitations/implications To strengthen the external validity, a mix of alternate research methodologies adopting qualitative and quantitative approach need to be adopted. Practical implications This study will help to better understand motivation for preventive health care. It will enable health-care companies to design health-care marketing programs based on Maslow’s theory to motivate individuals to purchase health products. The public health-care departments can issue guidelines based on Maslow’s theory to motivate citizens toward preventive health care. Originality/value Maslow’s theory was applied in the context of preventive health care.

2014 ◽  
Vol 48 (4) ◽  
pp. 610-617 ◽  
Diene Monique Carlos ◽  
Maria das Graças Carvalho Ferriani ◽  
Michelly Rodrigues Esteves ◽  
Lygia Maria Pereira da Silva ◽  
Liliana Scatena

Objective: Assess the understanding of adolescents regarding the social support received in situations of domestic violence. Method: A qualitative study with data collection carried out through focus groups with 17 adolescent victims of domestic violence, institutionally welcomed in Campinas-SP, and through semi-structured interviews with seven of these adolescents. Information was analyzed by content analysis, thematic modality. Results: Observing the thematic categories it was found that social support for the subjects came from the extended family, the community, the Guardianship Council, the interpersonal relationships established at the user embracement institution and from the religiosity/spirituality. Conclusion: The mentioned sources of support deserve to be enhanced and expanded. With the current complexity of the morbidity and mortality profiles, especially in children and adolescents, the (re)signification and the (re)construction of health actions is imperative.

2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Asnat Dor

This qualitative study is an examination of the attitudes of national religious Jewish Israeli mothers toward their daughters’ singlehood. The daughters were in their mid to late twenties, when the religious and social expectation is that they be married. The study is designed to explore the main issues faced by the mothers, including perceived difficulties and advantages of their daughters' unmarried status. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 middle-class mothers, whose responses underwent content analysis and revealed a combination of traditional ideas with modern, liberal, and feminist values: internal and external concerns on behalf of the mothers, together with listing advantages and mothers supporting the daughters not to rush into marriage. The findings reveal that confronting social expectations means coping with the old norms while being aware of new possibilities and opportunities. Limitations of the study are discussed.

2015 ◽  
Vol 8 (7) ◽  
pp. 100 ◽  
Masoud Bahrami ◽  
Paymaneh Shokrollahi ◽  
Shahnaz Kohan ◽  
Ghodratollah Momeni ◽  
Mozhgan Rivaz

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband’s violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women’s reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence.</p><p><strong>METHOD:</strong> Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories<strong> </strong>through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor.</p><p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In the present study, ways of coping with a husband’s violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman’s capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account.</p>

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