scholarly journals Fast Pyrolysis Biochar Flammability behavior for Handling and Storage

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 23
Bernardo Del Campo ◽  
Thomas Brumm ◽  
Nir Keren

Biochar is a fairly new material in the research arena with limited information on safety aspects related to transportation, storage, disposal or field application methods. The objective of this research was to assess the flammability characteristics of fast pyrolysis biochars with test methods EPA 1030 and ASTM 4982. Results indicated that biochar is a non-flammable substance when tested with EPA 1030 ignitability of solids. However, when tested with ASTM D4982, a fast screening method, biochars showed potential risks of flammability. However, the addition of 20-50% moisture reduced any flammability concern. Fast pyrolysis biochar was more prone to be flammable than traditional charcoal and slow pyrolysis biochar tested in this study. Still, fast pyrolysis biochars presented lower flammability potential (ASTM 4982) in comparison to its precursor biomass. The flammability propagation measured with EPA 1030, had high correlations with oxygen content and surface area of the fast pyrolysis biochar. The combustion reaction of fast pyrolysis biochar is a flameless combustion process, with a slow burning rate, and most commonly exhibiting a hot ember smoldering propagation front. This paper illustrates the necessity of performing recurring tests due to biochar’s intrinsic variability stemming from the different modes of production and feedstock used.

2017 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-36
Yuan Shi-bao ◽  
Jiang Hai-yan ◽  
Wang Boyi ◽  
Li Qing-qing

Background: In-situ combustion is a complex process with multi-factors, like geology, development and engineering. All of the factors can affect the ultimate effect of in-situ combustion. Objective: Strengthen the research of candidate reservoir screening method and mode for fire flooding. Method: On the basis of summarizing formers' single factor screening conditions, and according to the strength degree of the influence factors on geology and development. The candidate reservoirs are divided into three types for screening, first, second and not suitable. Then the in-situ combustion process is taken as a grey system on the analysis of the influence factors. The fire flooding evaluation model is established using the method of correlation analysis that selects the main factors. Results: Block selection mode of fire flooding is established and using an example to calculate and evaluate the applicability. Conclusion: This fire flooding reservoir screening model breaks through the traditional single index screening model, and selects out suitable reservoirs for fire flooding, which improved the test success rate. The J function is convenient to calculate the fire flooding effect, and accurately guide the in-situ combustion experimental blocks screening and in-situ combustion project evaluation.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yujia Chen ◽  
Ao Li ◽  
Dingding Yang ◽  
Tianyu Liu ◽  
Xiaowei Li ◽  

In order to ensure the intactness of pressure-measuring boreholes and the accuracy of gas pressure determination, pregrouting treatment with polymer materials is frequently applied to bedding drilling in coal mines. However, the existing polyurethane materials are of high viscosity, low permeability, and poor safety, bringing great difficulties to their field promotion and application. In view of this problem, after optimization and experiments, polylactide polyol/polyether polyol 4110/isocyanate was determined as the target system. Bio-based benzoxazine (Boz-F), red phosphorus, and melamine with a mass ratio of 2 : 1 : 2 were used as the flame retardant, which then underwent mechanical modification by hollow glass bubbles. Finally, the pregrouting material with low viscosity and high permeability was compounded, and its interaction with coal was experimentally studied. The results show that compared with traditional polyurethane, the new material increases the effective consolidation distance in the coal seam by 40% on average. Its permeation radius is also larger than the calculated radius of the plastic softening zone of a borehole. In addition, the strengths of coal-new material consolidated products with different ratios fully surpass those of coal-polyurethane material consolidated products. The enhancement of compressive strength and bending strength is up to 153% and 161%, respectively. The field application indicates that after pregrouting treatment of boreholes in the coal seam with the new material, the borehole formation rate reaches 100%. Therefore, the new material is safe and practical for gas pressure measurement through bedding drilling on site.

2019 ◽  
Vol 56 (4) ◽  
pp. 3-16
O. Krickis ◽  
N. Zeltins

Abstract A number of international, European Union and Latvian legislative acts have been developed, which regulate the efficiency of gas combustion plants and greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. These legislative acts require the development of new scientifically efficient methods for gas optimal combustion with a minor impact on the environment. In order to achieve such a goal, different methods can be used, but the most efficient is an intensive electrostatic field application to control combustion and harmful emission formation in premixed flames. In the framework of the current study, the authors developed a hybrid burner, which allowed generating an intensive electrostatic field with intensity of more than 1000 kV/m. The study also investigated the impact of such a field on the formation of harmful emissions, including CO2 and flue gas temperature. The empirical results showed that an intensive DC electrostatic field generated inside of the burner had an impact on the flame shape, CO2, NOx emissions and flue gas temperature. In its turn, by applying an intensive pulsating electrostatic field (multivariable experiment) it was possible to achieve the reduction in NOx, CO emissions with a simultaneous increase in flue gas temperature, which was related to combustion process efficiency enhancement.

2021 ◽  
pp. 985-991
Johnson J. Katanga ◽  
Vibeke Rasch ◽  
Rachel Manongi ◽  
Andrea B. Pembe ◽  
Julius D. Mwaiselage ◽  

PURPOSE Cervical cancer screening is one of the strategies to prevent the disease among women at risk. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is increasingly used as the cervical cancer screening method because of its high sensitivity. Self-collection of cervical specimens has the potential to improve participation. However, there is only limited information on comparison between self-collected and provider-collected samples with regard to detection of high-risk HPV using the careHPV method. The study aimed to compare HPV detection by careHPV in self-collected and provider-collected cervical samples and to assess the acceptability of self-collection techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS Women attending cervical cancer screening clinics at Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre or Mawenzi Hospital in Tanzania were included in the study. They underwent a face-to-face interview, HIV testing, and collected a self-sample using Evalyn Brush. Subsequently, they had a cervical sample taken by a health provider. Both samples were tested for high-risk HPV DNA using careHPV. RESULTS Overall, 464 women participated in the study. The high-risk HPV prevalence was 19.0% (95% CI, 15.6 to 22.9) in the health provider samples, but lower (13.8%; 95% CI, 10.9 to 17.3) in the self-collected samples. There was a good overall agreement 90.5% (95% CI, 87.5 to 93.0) and concordance (κ = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.75) between the two sets of samples. Sensitivity and specificity were 61.4% (95% CI, 50.4 to 71.6) and 97.3% (95% CI, 95.2 to 98.7), respectively, varying with age. Most women preferred self-collection (79.8%). CONCLUSION Overall, self-sampling seems to be a reliable alternative to health-provider collection and is acceptable to the majority of women. However, instructions on proper procedures for sample collection to the women are important.

Sohyun Park ◽  
Sunhyeon Park ◽  
Park Young ◽  
Muhammad Hilmy Alfaruqi ◽  
Jang-Yeon Hwang ◽  

The search for advanced electrode materials in K-ion batteries (KIBs) is a significant challenge due to the lack of an efficient throughput screening method in modern battery technology. Layered oxides...

George H. Wagner

An outline of the federal regulations which require toting and continuous monitoring of combustion process emissions is presented. A discussion of the NOx RACT regulations and the differences between selected state agencies is presented. A brief review of the components of the proposed enhanced monitoring rule is provided. The technology and types of continuous emission monitors (CEM) currently available for criteria and hazardous air pollutants are described. The new CEM technologies being developed for criteria and hazardous air pollutants are summarized. The factors to be considered in purchasing, installing, certifying and operating a CEM system are outlined. The approved EPA test methods, procedures for new test method development and the new EPA stationary source and analyses database are reviewed. The use of continues monitors to develop individual combustion curves for optimization of reduced emissions is summarized. The Office of Air Quality Planning and Standard (QAQPS) network of databases is introduced.

1978 ◽  
Vol 100 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-39 ◽  
D. G. Grossman ◽  
J. G. Lanning

Rotary lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) ceramic regenerator cores for gas turbines have had limited durability in applications using sulphur bearing hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel oil. The presence of sulphuric acid from the combustion process caused a lithium/hydrogen ion exchange and resulted in core failure. This paper describes a unique low thermal expansion aluminous keatite material (Corning Code 9460) which was developed to overcome the foregoing problem. Cores made from this new material have now operated over 6000 hr in Ford 707 gas turbines.

2020 ◽  
Vol 143 (2) ◽  
Wenzhou Du ◽  
Kuo Niu ◽  
Houwang Wang ◽  
Yansong Zhang ◽  
Haizhou Song

Abstract An effective way to slow down the process of coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) is by injecting inhibitor liquid into the coal body. Research on inhibitors has achieved good effects, but many have occurred only under laboratory conditions; for applications in actual underground coal mines, there may be many limitations. In this paper, MgCl2, CaCl2, and NH4H2PO4 are selected, and they are prepared as inhibitor liquids and injected into coal samples from three coal mines to obtain inhibitor coal samples. Industrial analysis (IA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of raw and inhibitor coal samples were carried out under laboratory conditions. Finally, MgCl2 was selected as the inhibitor to carry out a field test in a coal mine working face. The results show that the volatile content, fixed carbon content, and calorific value decrease and the ash content increases after injection of the inhibitor. NH4H2PO4 has the greatest influence on coal, which is more obvious in the Nantun coal samples. MgCl2 and CaCl2 have stronger inhibitory effects in the temperature range of 0–200 °C, and the inhibitory effects decrease in the high-temperature stage. This is due to the evaporation of water and the loss of active components under high temperature. The inhibitory effect of NH4H2PO4 at high temperature is stronger than those of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The CO concentration was significantly reduced after injection of the inhibitor liquid in an underground field, which delays the oxidation process of coal for approximately 10 days and greatly reduces the risk of CSC.

2018 ◽  
Vol 7 (3.24) ◽  
pp. 68 ◽  
Shahrulnizam Jamen ◽  
Ahmad Makmom Abdullah

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) emission generated from devices such as printer and photocopy machines are known as potential risks to human health. However, limited information is available to study UFPs exposure generate from larger printer. Thus, this study aimed to determine the concentration of UFPs such as particle number (PN) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) and investigates the influence of physical environment factors on UFPs in two types of offset lithographic printing rooms such as monochrome and color, across West Malaysia. The measurements of PN and LDSA were taken by using a condensation particle counter and the diffusion charger dosimeter during the printing activities. The mean values for PN and LDSA are 22215 particles/cm3 and 43 µm2/cm3, respectively. The exposure of UFPs from the monochrome room was found to be significantly higher than the color room (p < 0.001 for PN; p < 0.001 for LDSA) due to variation in the ventilation system. Based on correlation analysis, the physical environment factors, such as relative humidity, temperature, and air movement, were observed to influence the UFPs concentrations in printing room.  The findings imply that a good selection of the ventilation system is important to minimize worker’s exposure to UFPs emission.  

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Baek-Joong Kim ◽  
Heebok Choi

The design criteria for a structural foundation with soil cement injected precast piles (SIP) indicate that the cement milk gains a conservatively high compressive strength. In addition, a certain amount of the cement milk is lost to the surrounding soil as a result of the high water-cement ratio. Furthermore, the cost increases since the material needs to be exported to the outside of the construction site to dispose of the waste soil. This study was carried out to develop a new mixing method to replace a portion of the cement milk with site soil and a cement hardener. The applicability of this method was confirmed by examining the basic physical characteristics of the new material by on-site conducting dynamic pile loading and bond capacity tests. The test results indicate that the new filling material reduced the bleeding and reduced the loss of filling material when compared to cement milk, but the compressive strength and the results of the dynamic pile loading and bond capacity tests were lower than those obtained for cement milk. However, the new filling material satisfies the standard criterion for structure design, and the economic benefits of implementing the proposed method, including saving on the amount of cement used and reducing the costs of transporting waste soil, were confirmed.

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