scholarly journals Medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens and its effect in vitro against Fasciola gigantica

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 004-007
Kumar Pradeep

Fascioliasis is a one of the most important serious parasitic zoonotic disease which caused by trematode giant liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica among cattle’s and humans. The infection of Fasciola can be control by the use of phytochemicals as anthelmintic components. The anthelmintic activities of dried root powder of medicinal plant Potentilla fulgens and their different preparations (organic extracts and column purified fraction) are uses in vitro against liver fluke F. gigantica. The dried root powder, different organic extract, and column fractions were time and concentration-dependent. Among all the organic extracts, ethanol extract was high toxic than other organic extracts. The toxic effect of ethanolic extract of P. fulgens after 2h exposure the LC50 value is 5.22 mg/ml against F. gigantica. The column purified fraction of dried root powder of P. fulgens shows more toxicity. The 2h LC50 of column purified fraction was 3.25 mg/ml whereas in 8h exposure the LC50 is 1.24 mg/ml. The phytochemicals of the P. fulgens may be used as anthelmintic components against liver fluke F. gigantica.

2016 ◽  
Vol 5 (04) ◽  
pp. 4512
Jackie K. Obey ◽  
Anthoney Swamy T* ◽  
Lasiti Timothy ◽  
Makani Rachel

The determination of the antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition) and minimum inhibitory concentration of medicinal plants a crucial step in drug development. In this study, the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract of Myrsine africana were determined for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The zones of inhibition (mm±S.E) of 500mg/ml of M. africana ethanol extract were 22.00± 0.00 for E. coli,20.33 ±0.33 for B. cereus,25.00± 0.00 for S. epidermidis and 18. 17±0.17 for S. pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) is the minimum dose required to inhibit growth a microorganism. Upon further double dilution of the 500mg/ml of M. africana extract, MIC was obtained for each organism. The MIC for E. coli, B. cereus, S. epidermidis and S. pneumoniae were 7.81mg/ml, 7.81mg/ml, 15.63mg/ml and 15.63mg/ml respectively. Crude extracts are considered active when they inhibit microorganisms with zones of inhibition of 8mm and above. Therefore, this study has shown that the ethanol extract of M. africana can control the growth of the four organisms tested.

2021 ◽  
Vol 120 (3) ◽  
pp. 979-991
Rebekah B. Stuart ◽  
Suzanne Zwaanswijk ◽  
Neil D. MacKintosh ◽  
Boontarikaan Witikornkul ◽  
Peter M. Brophy ◽  

AbstractFasciola hepatica (liver fluke), a significant threat to food security, causes global economic loss for the livestock industry and is re-emerging as a foodborne disease of humans. In the absence of vaccines, treatment control is by anthelmintics; with only triclabendazole (TCBZ) currently effective against all stages of F. hepatica in livestock and humans. There is widespread resistance to TCBZ and its detoxification by flukes might contribute to the mechanism. However, there is limited phase I capacity in adult parasitic helminths with the phase II detoxification system dominated by the soluble glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily. Previous proteomic studies have demonstrated that the levels of Mu class GST from pooled F. hepatica parasites respond under TCBZ-sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO) challenge during in vitro culture ex-host. We have extended this finding by exploiting a sub-proteomic lead strategy to measure the change in the total soluble GST profile (GST-ome) of individual TCBZ-susceptible F. hepatica on TCBZ-SO-exposure in vitro culture. TCBZ-SO exposure demonstrated differential abundance of FhGST-Mu29 and FhGST-Mu26 following affinity purification using both GSH and S-hexyl GSH affinity. Furthermore, a low or weak affinity matrix interacting Mu class GST (FhGST-Mu5) has been identified and recombinantly expressed and represents a new low-affinity Mu class GST. Low-affinity GST isoforms within the GST-ome was not restricted to FhGST-Mu5 with a second likely low-affinity sigma class GST (FhGST-S2) uncovered. This study represents the most complete Fasciola GST-ome generated to date and has supported the potential of subproteomic analyses on individual adult flukes.

2022 ◽  
Emily Robb ◽  
Erin McCammick ◽  
Duncan Wells ◽  
Paul McVeigh ◽  
Erica Gardiner ◽  

Fasciola spp. liver fluke have significant impacts in veterinary and human medicine. The absence of a vaccine and increasing anthelmintic resistance threaten sustainable control and underscore the need for novel flukicides. Functional genomic approaches underpinned by in vitro culture of juvenile Fasciola hepatica facilitate control target validation in the most pathogenic life stage. Comparative transcriptomics of in vitro and in vivo maintained 21 day old F. hepatica finds that 86% of genes are expressed at similar levels across maintenance treatments suggesting commonality in core biological functioning within these juveniles. Phenotypic comparisons revealed higher cell proliferation and growth rates in the in vivo juveniles compared to their in vitro counterparts. These phenotypic differences were consistent with the upregulation of neoblast-like stem cell and cell-cycle associated genes in in vivo maintained worms. The more rapid growth/development of in vivo juveniles was further evidenced by a switch in cathepsin protease expression profiles, dominated by cathepsin B in in vitro juveniles and then by cathepsin L in in vivo juveniles. Coincident with more rapid growth/development was the marked downregulation of both classical and peptidergic neuronal signalling components in in vivo maintained juveniles, supporting a role for the nervous system in regulating liver fluke growth and development. Differences in the miRNA complements of in vivo and in vitro juveniles identified 31 differentially expressed miRNAs, notably fhe-let-7a-5p , fhe-mir-124-3p and, miRNAs predicted to target Wnt-signalling, supporting a key role for miRNAs in driving the growth/developmental differences in the in vitro and in vivo maintained juvenile liver fluke. Widespread differences in the expression of neuronal genes in juvenile fluke grown in vitro and in vivo expose significant interplay between neuronal signalling and the rate of growth/development, encouraging consideration of neuronal targets in efforts to dysregulate growth/development for parasite control.

Triana Hertiani ◽  
Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi ◽  
Iramie Duma Kencana Irianto ◽  
Aini Febriana

Dental plaque prevention can be achieved by inhibition of mouth cavity microbes to built biofilm. Kaempferia galanga rhizome has been known as a potential antibacterial agent. This research aimed to reveal the potency of Kaempferia galanga extract and essential oil as anti plaque active agents, based on their in vitro inhibitory activity against the planktonic growth and biofilm of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 21752. Kaempferia galanga extract was obtained by defatting dried-pulverized samples in petroleum ether prior to immersion in 70% ethanol. The fresh rhizome was steam-hydro distilled for 6 h to yield the essential oil. Antibacterial and anti biofilm assays were measured by micro dilution technique on polystyrene 96-wells micro titer plates at 37°C. The percentage of inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance of samples to the vehicle (control) measured by micro plate reader at 595 nm. Biofilms formed were first stained by 1% crystal violet. The above assays were performed in triplicates. This study revealed that both K. galanga rhizome essential oil and ethanolic extract showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity towards S. mutans. The ethanol extract showed MIC90 value at 0.091% w/v and MBC at 2.724% w/v for antibacterial activity; IC50 at 0.048 % w/v for anti biofilm formation activity; and EC50 at 0.052%w/v for biofilm degradation activity. Until the highest concentration tested (0.6%w/v), the MIC90 and MBC values of the essential oil were not revealed, but higher biofilm inhibitory activity i.e. IC50 at 0.025 % w/v; and EC50 at 0.034 %w/v were observed. Key words: biofilm inhibitor, antibacterial, Kaempferia galanga

Marianne Marianne ◽  
Urip Harahap ◽  
Emil Salim ◽  
Dadang Irfan Husori ◽  
Fahrumsyah Jali Rambe ◽  

 Objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Eriobotrya japonica leaves (EEEJL) pre-incubated with theophylline and aspirin on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains against acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction.Methods: The effect of EEEJL (1-8 mg/Ml) on the isolated tracheal strips was tested in vitro. Furthermore, the mechanism of relaxant effects of EEEJL was evaluated in the presence of theophylline and aspirin.Results: The contractile response evoked by Ach (1.25 × 10−3 M) was decreased by EEEJL (effective concentration50 = 1.36 mg/mL) and has no significant difference of relaxant effect to that of EEEJL pre-incubated with theophylline and aspirin (p>0.05).Conclusion: The EEEJL decreased the ACh-induced contraction through the inhibition of PDE and the protective effect on prostaglandin E2.

Pinky Sarmah ◽  
Nako Kobing ◽  
Jyotchna Gogoi ◽  
Ananta Madhab Dutta

<p><strong>Objective</strong>:<strong> </strong>The present study aims to investigate <em>in vitro</em> anthelmintic and anti-amylase properties of the ethanolic fruit extract of <em>Garcinia pedunculata</em>.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>:<strong> </strong>For the study, mature fruits of <em>G. pedunculata</em> were collected from local markets during April-May. Fleshy pericarps of fruits were chopped into small pieces, dried and extracted by using a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethanol extract of <em>G. pedunculata</em> was used for evaluation of <em>in vitro</em> anthelmintic and anti-amylase activities. <em>In vitro</em> anthelmintic activity was evaluated in animal models, <em>Pheretima posthuma</em>, an earthworm species. <em>In vitro</em> anti-amylase activity was evaluated by using zymographic, achromic point analysis (Starch-Iodine method) and spectrophotometric method [Di Nitro Salicylic acid (DNS)–Maltose method].</p><p><strong>Results</strong>:<strong> </strong>Ethanolic extract of <em>G. pedunculata</em> showed anthelmintic activity at a concentration of 75 mg/ml, paralysis and death timing was reported at 0.62±0.26 min and 1.42±0.07 min, respectively. The reference standard (Albendazole) showed paralysis time: 2.13±0.28 min and death time: 5.12±0.29 min. In the anti-amylase study, a zymographic density analysis of <em>G. pedunculata</em> showed significant variation in band intensity as compared to Starch–Iodine achromic point analysis and DNS–Maltose method. A concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of extract showed inhibition of amylase: 67.65±1.53 % as compared to other concentrations and control sets.</p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:<strong> </strong>It could be concluded that ethanolic extract of <em>G. pedunculata</em>has biological properties which could be utilised in medicine by characterising its bioactive components.<p> </p>

2019 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-26
Sayema Khanum ◽  
Md Shahid Sarwar ◽  
Mohammad Safiqul Islam

Wedelia chinensis is a widely used anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective medicinal plant in Bangladesh. In this study, analgesic, neurological, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the ethanolic extract of leaf and stem bark of W. chinensis were investigated. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of W. chinensis (200- and 300-mg/kg body weight) was investigated on animal model for neurological activity using open field test and hole cross test. Acetic acid induced writhing method was used to assess the analgesic activity. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was used for determining the antioxidant activity, while brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used for investigating cytotoxicity. The ethanol extract of the plant produced significant reduction (P<0.05) of locomotion in both doses (200- and 300-mg/kg body weight) indicating pronounced neurological activity. Oral administration of alcoholic leaves and stem extracts significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited writhing response in mice. The percentage of scavenging of DPPH free radical was found to be concentration dependent with IC50 value of 44.10 ± 0.65 and 38.96 ± 0.50 μg/ml for leaves and stem extracts, respectively. Our findings indicate that W. chinensis may be a source of natural antioxidant with potent analgesic, neurological and cytotoxic activities. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 22(1): 18-26, 2019

2012 ◽  
Vol 7 (5) ◽  
pp. 1934578X1200700
Khine Swe Nyunt ◽  
Ahmed Elkhateeb ◽  
Yusuke Tosa ◽  
Kensuke Nabata ◽  
Ken Katakura ◽  

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of Vitis repens led to the isolation of resveratrol (1), 11- O-acetyl bergenin (2), and stigmast-4-en-3-one (3). The compounds were examined for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activities against trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma evansi. Resveratrol showed antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 0.13 μM, whereas 11- O-acetyl bergenin and stigmast-4-en-3-one exhibited IC50 values of 0.17 and 0.15 μM, respectively.

2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 376-382
Abosede M. EBABHI ◽  
Adedotun A. ADEKUNLE ◽  

Oral hygiene is important to the generality of the human healthcare system. For this, the antifungal activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of four medicinal plants of Jatropha curcas (stem), Eucaluptus golbulus (leaves), Vernonia amygdalina (stem) and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (root) were carried out in vitro against three species of Candida associated with oral thrush namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis using the disc diffusion agar assay. The zones of inhibition varied with the test organisms as well as the extracts. The ethanolic extract of Jatropha curcas showed the highest zone of inhibition of 10.88 ± 0.22 mm against C. albicans while the least zone of inhibition (6.13 ± 0.13 mm) was exhibited by the ethanol extract of Z. zanthoxyloides on C. glabrata. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannin, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in all plant samples. This study can be further used as a foundation for the screening of phytochemical constituents by pharmaceuticals for the control and eradication of oral thrush.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document