scholarly journals Nr4a2 Transcription Factor in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity, Memory and Cognitive Dysfunction: A Perspective Review

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Judit Català-Solsona ◽  
Alfredo J. Miñano-Molina ◽  
José Rodríguez-Álvarez

Long-lasting changes of synaptic efficacy are largely mediated by activity-induced gene transcription and are essential for neuronal plasticity and memory. In this scenario, transcription factors have emerged as pivotal players underlying synaptic plasticity and the modification of neural networks required for memory formation and consolidation. Hippocampal synaptic dysfunction is widely accepted to underlie the cognitive decline observed in some neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular pathways regulating gene expression profiles may help to identify new synaptic therapeutic targets. The nuclear receptor 4A subfamily (Nr4a) of transcription factors has been involved in a variety of physiological processes within the hippocampus, ranging from inflammation to neuroprotection. Recent studies have also pointed out a role for the activity-dependent nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 (Nr4a2/Nurr1) in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this review, we highlight the specific effects of Nr4a2 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory formation and we discuss whether the dysregulation of this transcription factor could contribute to hippocampal synaptic dysfunction, altogether suggesting the possibility that Nr4a2 may emerge as a novel synaptic therapeutic target in brain pathologies associated to cognitive dysfunctions.

2007 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Amitava Karmaker ◽  
Kihoon Yoon ◽  
Mark Doderer ◽  
Russell Kruzelock ◽  
Stephen Kwek

Summary Revealing the complex interaction between trans- and cis-regulatory elements and identifying these potential binding sites are fundamental problems in understanding gene expression. The progresses in ChIP-chip technology facilitate identifying DNA sequences that are recognized by a specific transcription factor. However, protein-DNA binding is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for transcription regulation. We need to demonstrate that their gene expression levels are correlated to further confirm regulatory relationship. Here, instead of using a linear correlation coefficient, we used a non-linear function that seems to better capture possible regulatory relationships. By analyzing tissue-specific gene expression profiles of human and mouse, we delineate a list of pairs of transcription factor and gene with highly correlated expression levels, which may have regulatory relationships. Using two closely-related species (human and mouse), we perform comparative genome analysis to cross-validate the quality of our prediction. Our findings are confirmed by matching publicly available TFBS databases (like TRANFAC and ConSite) and by reviewing biological literature. For example, according to our analysis, 80% and 85.71% of the targets genes associated with E2F5 and RELB transcription factors have the corresponding known binding sites. We also substantiated our results on some oncogenes with the biomedical literature. Moreover, we performed further analysis on them and found that BCR and DEK may be regulated by some common transcription factors. Similar results for BTG1, FCGR2B and LCK genes were also reported.

2021 ◽  
Salem El-aarag ◽  
Amal Mahmoud ◽  
Mahmoud ElHefnawi

Abstract The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has not been fully discovered. This study aims to decipher potentially hidden parts of the pathogenesis of COVID-19, potential novel drug targets, and to identify potential drug candidates. Two gene expression profiles (GSE147507-GSE153970) were analyzed and overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected for which top enriched transcription factors and kinases were identified and pathway analysis was performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) of DEGs was constructed, hub genes were identified and module analysis was also performed. DGIdb database was used to identify drugs for the potential targets (hub genes and the most enriched transcription factors and kinases for DEGs). A drug-potential target network was constructed and drugs are ranked according to the degree. L1000FDW web-based utility was used to identify drugs that can reverse transcriptional profiles of COVID-19. We identified drugs currently in clinical trials and novel potential 8 drugs. Besides the well-known pathogenic pathways, It was found that axon guidance is a potential pathogenic pathway. Sema7A, which may exacerbate hypercytokinemia, is considered a potential novel drug target. Another potential novel pathway is related to TINF2 overexpression which may induce potential telomere dysfunction and hence DNA damage that may exacerbate lung fibrosis.

Genes ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 305 ◽  
Zhou ◽  
Sun ◽  
Dai ◽  
Feng ◽  
Zhang ◽  

Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flowering in plants. Adonis amurensis, a perennial herbaceous flower that blooms in early spring in northeast China where the temperature can drop to −15 °C, is an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of flowering at extremely low temperatures. This study first investigated global gene expression profiles at different developmental stages of flowering in A. amurensis by RNA-seq transcriptome and iTRAQ proteomics. Finally, 123 transcription factors (TFs) were detected in both the transcriptome and the proteome. Of these, 66 TFs belonging to 14 families may play a key role in multiple signaling pathways of flowering in A. amurensis. The TFs FAR1, PHD, and B3 may be involved in responses to light and temperature, while SCL, SWI/SNF, ARF, and ERF may be involved in the regulation of hormone balance. SPL may regulate the age pathway. Some members of the TCP, ZFP, MYB, WRKY, and bHLH families may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of flowering genes. The MADS-box TFs are the key regulators of flowering in A. amurensis. Our results provide a direction for understanding the molecular mechanisms of flowering in A. amurensis at low temperatures.

2021 ◽  
Kimberly R. Bennett ◽  
Monique C. Surles-Zeigler ◽  
Cathrerine J. Augello ◽  
Etchi Ako ◽  
Victor G.J. Rodgers ◽  

Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is growth factor that has been investigated for its neuroprotective properties following ischemic stroke. While NRG-1 has shown significant promise in preventing neuronal damage following stroke, the mechanisms behind its neuroprotective effects are unclear. The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of NRG-1 treatment on ischemia-induced gene expression profiles following a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Rats were sacrificed twelve hours following MCAO and either vehicle or NRG-1 treatment. RNA extracted from the peri-infarct cortex of the brain was hybridized to an Affymetrix Rat Genome 2.0st Microarray Gene Chip. Data were analyzed using the Affymetrix Transcriptome Analysis Console (TAC) 4.0 software and the STRING Protein-Protein Interaction Networks database.  Our results showed that NRG?1 delivery increased the regulation of pro-survival genes. Most notably, NRG-1 treatment upregulated the CREB1 and FOXO1 transcription factor pathways which are involved in increasing anti-inflammatory and cell proliferation responses and decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress responses, respectively. Luminex multiplex transcription factor assays demonstrated that the activities of CREB1 and FOXO1 were increased by NRG-1 treatment with MCAO. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in NRG-1 mediated neuroprotection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Hana Votavova ◽  
Zuzana Urbanova ◽  
David Kundrat ◽  
Michaela Dostalova Merkerova ◽  
Martin Vostry ◽  

Deferasirox (DFX) is an oral iron chelator used to reduce iron overload (IO) caused by frequent blood cell transfusions in anemic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. To study the molecular mechanisms by which DFX improves outcome in MDS, we analyzed the global gene expression in untreated MDS patients and those who were given DFX treatment. The gene expression profiles of bone marrow CD34+ cells were assessed by whole-genome microarrays. Initially, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined between patients with normal ferritin levels and those with IO to address the effect of excessive iron on cellular pathways. These DEGs were annotated to Gene Ontology terms associated with cell cycle, apoptosis, adaptive immune response and protein folding and were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The deregulation of multiple cancer pathways in iron-overloaded patients suggests that IO is a cofactor favoring the progression of MDS. The DEGs between patients with IO and those treated with DFX were involved predominantly in biological processes related to the immune response and inflammation. These data indicate DFX modulates the immune response mainly via neutrophil-related genes. Suppression of negative regulators of blood cell differentiation essential for cell maturation and upregulation of heme metabolism observed in DFX-treated patients may contribute to the hematopoietic improvement.

Edward C. Emery ◽  
Patrik Ernfors

Primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) respond and relay sensations that are felt, such as those for touch, pain, temperature, itch, and more. The ability to discriminate between the various types of stimuli is reflected by the existence of specialized DRG neurons tuned to respond to specific stimuli. Because of this, a comprehensive classification of DRG neurons is critical for determining exactly how somatosensation works and for providing insights into cell types involved during chronic pain. This article reviews the recent advances in unbiased classification of molecular types of DRG neurons in the perspective of known functions as well as predicted functions based on gene expression profiles. The data show that sensory neurons are organized in a basal structure of three cold-sensitive neuron types, five mechano-heat sensitive nociceptor types, four A-Low threshold mechanoreceptor types, five itch-mechano-heat–sensitive nociceptor types and a single C–low-threshold mechanoreceptor type with a strong relation between molecular neuron types and functional types. As a general feature, each neuron type displays a unique and predicable response profile; at the same time, most neuron types convey multiple modalities and intensities. Therefore, sensation is likely determined by the summation of ensembles of active primary afferent types. The new classification scheme will be instructive in determining the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying somatosensation, facilitating the development of rational strategies to identify causes for chronic pain.

Zhenhua Dang ◽  
Yuanyuan Jia ◽  
Yunyun Tian ◽  
Jiabin Li ◽  
Yanan Zhang ◽  

Organisms have evolved effective and distinct adaptive strategies to survive. Stipa grandis is one of the widespread dominant species on the typical steppe of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, and is regarded as a suitable species for studying the effects of grazing in this region. Although phenotypic (morphological and physiological) variations in S. grandis in response to long-term grazing have been identified, the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations and plastic responses remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to investigate changes in gene expression of S. grandis under four different grazing intensities. A total of 2,357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among the tested grazing intensities, suggesting long-term grazing resulted in gene expression plasticity that affected diverse biological processes and metabolic pathways in S. grandis. DEGs were identified that indicated modulation of Calvin–Benson cycle and photorespiration metabolic pathways. The key gene´expression profiles encoding various proteins (e.g., Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glycolate oxidase etc.) involved in these pathways suggest that they may synergistically respond to grazing to increase the resilience and stress tolerance of S. grandis. Our findings provide scientific clues for improving grassland use and protection, and identify important questions to address in future transcriptome studies.

2018 ◽  
Qingqi Chen ◽  
Xiangyang Xu ◽  
Jingbin Jiang ◽  
Jingfu Li

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating viruses of cultivated tomato in both tropical and subtropical regions. Five major genes (Ty-1, Ty-2, Ty-3, Ty-4 and Ty-5) from wild tomato species have been associated with resistance to TYLCV. Researchers have recently attempted to determine the functions of these resistance genes, but molecular mechanisms underlying the observed resistance remain unclear. Here, resistant (cv. CLN3212A-23, carrying Ty-5) and susceptible (cv. Moneymaker) plants were either left untreated (R and S, respectively) or artificially inoculated with TYLCV via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (RT and ST, respectively). The transcriptomes of the plants in the four groups were then analyzed by RNA-Seq, and the results identified 8,639 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the R and RT groups, 2,818 DEGs between the RT and ST groups, 8,899 DEGs between the S and ST groups, and 707 DEGs between the R and S groups. The gene expression profiles in both the resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars appeared to undergo notable changes after viral inoculation, and functional classification revealed that most DEGs were associated with 18 GO terms. Moreover, the functional classification of the response of Ty-5-carrying tomato plants to TYLCV infection identified the importance of the GO term “response to stimulus” in the BP category, which is related to disease resistance. In addition, 28 genes were significantly enriched in the “Plant hormone signal transduction”, “Carbon metabolism”, “ Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms ” and “ Glutathione metabolism ” pathways. The differential expression levels of 12 select genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The present study indicates that the Ty-5 gene activates the expression of multiple genes involved in the resistance process and will aid a more in-depth understanding of the effects of the Ty-5 gene on resistance based on its molecular mechanism with the aim of improving TYLCV disease management in tomato.

2021 ◽  
Hongpeng Fang ◽  
Zhansen Huang ◽  
Xianzi Zeng ◽  
Jiaming Wan ◽  
Jieying Wu ◽  

Abstract Background As a common malignant cancer of the urinary system, the precise molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer remain to be illuminated. The purpose of this study was to identify core genes with prognostic value as potential oncogenes for the diagnosis, prognosis or novel therapeutic targets of bladder cancer. Methods The gene expression profiles GSE3167 and GSE7476 were available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Next, PPI network was built to filter the hub gene through the STRING database and Cytoscape software and GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotter were implemented. Frequency and type of hub genes and sub groups analysis were performed in cBioportal and ULCAN database. Finally,We used RT-qPCR to confirm our results. Results Totally, 251 DEGs were excavated from two datasets in our study. We only founded high expression of SMC4, TYMS, CCNB1, CKS1B, NUSAP1 and KPNA2 was associated with worse outcomes in bladder cancer patients and no matter from the type of mutation or at the transcriptional level of hub genes, the tumor showed a high form of expression. However, only the expression of SMC4,CCNB1and CKS1B remained changed between the cancer and the normal samples in our results of RT-qPCR. Conclusion In conclusion,These findings indicate that the SMC4,CCNB1 and CKS1B may serve as critical biomarkers in the development and poor prognosis.

2021 ◽  
Giulia Zancolli ◽  
Maarten Reijnders ◽  
Robert Waterhouse ◽  
Marc Robinson-Rechavi

Animals have repeatedly evolved specialized organs and anatomical structures to produce and deliver a cocktail of potent bioactive molecules to subdue prey or predators: venom. This makes it one of the most widespread convergent functions in the animal kingdom. Whether animals have adopted the same genetic toolkit to evolved venom systems is a fascinating question that still eludes us. Here, we performed the first comparative analysis of venom gland transcriptomes from 20 venomous species spanning the main Metazoan lineages, to test whether different animals have independently adopted similar molecular mechanisms to perform the same function. We found a strong convergence in gene expression profiles, with venom glands being more similar to each other than to any other tissue from the same species, and their differences closely mirroring the species phylogeny. Although venom glands secrete some of the fastest evolving molecules (toxins), their gene expression does not evolve faster than evolutionarily older tissues. We found 15 venom gland specific gene modules enriched in endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response pathways, indicating that animals have independently adopted stress response mechanisms to cope with mass production of toxins. This, in turns, activates regulatory networks for epithelial development, cell turnover and maintenance which seem composed of both convergent and lineage-specific factors, possibly reflecting the different developmental origins of venom glands. This study represents the first step towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the repeated evolution of one of the most successful adaptive traits in the animal kingdom.

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