inflammatory mediators
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ramana Vaka ◽  
Saad Khan ◽  
Bin Ye ◽  
Yousef Risha ◽  
Sandrine Parent ◽  

Abstract Background Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Methods All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Results Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products. Conclusions The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 130-141
S. Dzhumabekov ◽  
Zh. Shambetov

Comparison of the techniques of valgus osteotomy with resection osteotomy of the fibula in combination with sanitation arthroscopy. Resection of the fibula, debridement arthroscopy is characterized by minimally invasiveness, targeted therapeutic effect on the focus of destruction of the cartilaginous cover, removal of inflammatory mediators with abundant lavage, low-trauma intervention. Abrasive chondroplasty, subchondral tunneling during arthroscopy make it possible to create conditions for reparative processes, and the formation of hyaline-like cartilage in the defect zone. Corrective osteotomy may result in fractures of the tibial plateau, fractures of the cortical loop (instability of fixation), false joints, and fractures of metal structures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Geetha Parthasarathy ◽  
Shiva Kumar Goud Gadila

AbstractEven after appropriate treatment, a proportion of Lyme disease patients suffer from a constellation of symptoms, collectively called Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS). Brain PET scan of patients with PTLDS have demonstrated likely glial activation indicating persistent neuroinflammatory processes. It is possible that unresolved bacterial remnants can continue to cause neuroinflammation. In previous studies, we have shown that non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi can induce neuroinflammation and apoptosis in an oligodendrocyte cell line. In this follow-up study, we analyze the effect of sonicated remnants of B. burgdorferi on primary rhesus frontal cortex (FC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. Five FC and three DRG tissue fragments from rhesus macaques were exposed to sonicated B. burgdorferi and analyzed for 26 inflammatory mediators. Live bacteria and medium alone served as positive and negative control, respectively. Tissues were also analyzed for cell types mediating inflammation and overall apoptotic changes. Non-viable B. burgdorferi induced significant levels of several inflammatory mediators in both FC and DRG, similar to live bacteria. However, the levels induced by non-viable B. burgdorferi was often (several fold) higher than those induced by live ones, especially for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2. This effect was also more profound in the FC than in the DRG. Although the levels often differed, both live and dead fragments induced the same mediators, with significant overlap between FC and DRG. In the FC, immunohistochemical staining for several inflammatory mediators showed the presence of multiple mediators in astrocytes, followed by microglia and oligodendrocytes, in response to bacterial remnants. Staining was also seen in endothelial cells. In the DRG, chemokine/cytokine staining was predominantly seen in S100 positive (glial) cells. B. burgdorferi remnants also induced significant levels of apoptosis in both the FC and DRG. Apoptosis was confined to S100 + cells in the DRG while distinct neuronal apoptosis was also detected in most FC tissues in response to sonicated bacteria. Non-viable B. burgdorferi can continue to be neuropathogenic to both CNS and PNS tissues with effects likely more profound in the former. Persistence of remnant-induced neuroinflammatory processes can lead to long term health consequences.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 196
Yun-Jiao Shi ◽  
Xin-Huai Zhao

In this study, papain-generated casein hydrolysates (CH) with a degree of hydrolysis of 13.7% were subjected to a papain-mediated plastein reaction in the absence or presence of one of the exogenous amino acids—Gly, Pro, and Hyp—to prepare four plastein modifiers, or mixed with one of three amino acids to prepare three mixtures. The assay results confirmed that the reaction reduced free NH2 for the modifiers and caused amino acid incorporation and peptide condensation. When RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the CH, modifiers, and mixtures, these samples promoted macrophage growth and phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the CH shared similar activity in the cells as the mixtures, while the modifiers (especially the PCH-Hyp prepared with Hyp addition) exerted higher potential than CH, the mixtures, and PCH (the modifier prepared without amino acid addition). The plastein reaction thus enhanced CH bioactivity in the cells. When RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the inflammatory cells produced more lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and caused more four inflammatory mediators (NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6) and two anti-inflammatory mediators (TGF-β1 and IL-10). However, the PCH-Hyp, PCH, and CH at dose levels of 100 μg/mL could combat against the LPS-induced inflammation. Overall, the PCH-Hyp was more active than the CH and PCH in reducing LDH release, ROS formation, and the secretion of these inflammatory mediators, or in increasing the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediators. The qPCR and Western blot analysis results further confirmed that these samples had anti-inflammatory effects on the stimulated cells by suppressing the LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, via regulating the mRNA/miRNA expression of iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, TLR4, IL-10, TGF-β1, miR-181a, miR-30d, miR-155, and miR-148, as well as the protein expression of MyD88, p-IKKα, p-IκBα, p-NF-κB p65, and iNOS, involved in this signaling pathway. In addition, the immunofluorescence assay results revealed that these samples could block the LPS-mediated nuclear translocation of the p65 protein and displayed the same function as the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. It was concluded that CH could be endowed with higher anti-inflammatory activity to the macrophages by performing a plastein reaction, particularly that in the presence of exogenous Hyp.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xia Guo ◽  
Christudas Sunil ◽  
Guoqing Qian

Obesity is an epidemic worldwide and the obese people suffer from a range of respiratory complications including fibrotic changes in the lung. The influence of obesity on the lung is multi-factorial, which is related to both mechanical injury and various inflammatory mediators produced by excessive adipose tissues, and infiltrated immune cells. Adiposity causes increased production of inflammatory mediators, for example, cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines, both locally and in the systemic circulation, thereby rendering susceptibility to respiratory diseases, and altered responses. Lung fibrosis is closely related to chronic inflammation in the lung. Current data suggest a link between lung fibrosis and diet-induced obesity, although the mechanism remains incomplete understood. This review summarizes findings on the association of lung fibrosis with obesity, highlights the role of several critical inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF-α, TGF-β, and MCP-1) in obesity related lung fibrosis and the implication of obesity in the outcomes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

Barbara Fazekas ◽  
Senthilkumar Alagesan ◽  
Luke Watson ◽  
Olivia Ng ◽  
Callum M. Conroy ◽  

Summary Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) ameliorate pre-clinical sepsis and sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) but clinical trials of single-dose MSCs have not indicated robust efficacy. This study investigated immunomodulatory effects of a novel MSC product (CD362-selected human umbilical cord-derived MSCs [hUC-MSCs]) in mouse endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis models. Initially, mice received intra-peritoneal (i.p.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by single i.p. doses of hUC-MSCs or vehicle. Next, mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by intravenous (i.v.) doses of hUC-MSCs at 4 h or 4 and 28 h. Analyses included serum/plasma assays of biochemical indices, inflammatory mediators and the AKI biomarker NGAL; multi-color flow cytometry of peritoneal macrophages (LPS) and intra-renal immune cell subpopulations (CLP) and histology/immunohistochemistry of kidney (CLP). At 72 h post-LPS injections, hUC-MSCs reduced serum inflammatory mediators and peritoneal macrophage M1/M2 ratio. Repeated, but not single, hUC-MSC doses administered at 48 h post-CLP resulted in lower serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators, lower plasma NGAL and reversal of sepsis-associated depletion of intra-renal T cell and myeloid cell subpopulations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of all 48-h serum/plasma analytes demonstrated partial co-clustering of repeated-dose hUC-MSC CLP animals with a Sham group but did not reveal a distinct signature of response to therapy. It was concluded that repeated doses of CD362-selected hUC-MSCs are required to modulate systemic and local immune/inflammatory events in polymicrobial sepsis and SA-AKI. Inter-individual variability and lack of effect of single dose MSC administration in the CLP model are consistent with observations to date from early-phase clinical trials. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-49
Hesham Fathy Hassan Hassan ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Mansour ◽  
El-Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Zhangsheng Yang ◽  
Milomir O. Simovic ◽  
Peter R. Edsall ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  
Tomas S. Cancio ◽  

Several preclinical and clinical reports have demonstrated that levels of circulating high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are increased early after trauma and are associated with systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes. However, the mechanisms of the interaction between HMGB1 and inflammatory mediators that lead to the development of remote organ damage after trauma remain obscure. HMGB1 and inflammatory mediators were analyzed in plasma from 54 combat casualties, collected on admission to a military hospital in Iraq, and at 8 and 24 h after admission. In total, 45 (83%) of these patients had traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls. HMGB1 plasma levels were significantly increased in the first 8 h after admission, and were found to be associated with systemic inflammatory responses, injury severity score, and presence of TBI. These data provided the rationale for designing experiments in rats subjected to blast injury and hemorrhage, to explore the effect of HMGB1 inhibition by CX-01 (2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin). Animals were cannulated, then recovered for 5–7 days before blast injury in a shock tube and volume-controlled hemorrhage. Blast injury and hemorrhage induced an early increase in HMGB1 plasma levels that coincided with severity of tissue damage and mortality. CX-01 inhibited systemic HMGB1 activity, decreased local and systemic inflammatory responses, significantly reduced tissue and organ damage, and tended to increase survival. These data suggest that CX-01 has potential as an adjuvant treatment for traumatic hemorrhage.

2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 15 ◽  
pp. 33-52
Danuta Wrona ◽  
Irena Majkutewicz ◽  
Grzegorz Świątek ◽  
Joanna Dunacka ◽  
Beata Grembecka ◽  

Data in Brief ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107787
Thaise Mayumi Taira ◽  
Vítor Luís Ribeiro ◽  
Yuri Jivago Silva Ribeiro ◽  
Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva ◽  
Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva ◽  

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