active faults
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huifang Xu ◽  
Kuang-Sheng Hong ◽  
Meiye Wu ◽  
Seungyeol Lee

ABSTRACT A high concentration of hydrogen gas occurs in fracture zones of active faults that are associated with historical earthquakes. To explain the described phenomenon, we propose the piezoelectrochemical (PZEC) effect as a mechanism for the direct conversion of mechanical energy to chemical energy. When applied to natural piezoelectric crystals including quartz and serpentine, hydrogen and oxygen are generated via direct water decomposition. Laboratory experiments show H2 gas is generated from strained piezoelectric material due to the extremely low solubility of H2, suggesting that the deformed or strained mineral surfaces can catalyze water decomposition. If the strain-induced H2 production is significant, hydrogen measurements at monitoring sites can offer information on deformation of rocks operating at depth prior to earthquakes. Oxygen can be measured in water due to its high solubility compared to hydrogen. Our experimental results demonstrate that dissolved oxygen generated from the PZEC effect can oxidize dissolved organic dye and ferrous iron in an aqueous Fe(II)–silicate metal complex. The hydrogen and oxygen formed through stoichiometric decomposition of water in the presence of strained or deformed minerals in fault zones (including subduction zones and transform faults) may be referred to as tectonic hydrogen and tectonic oxygen. Tectonic hydrogen could be a potential energy source for deep subsurface and glacier-bedrock interface microbial communities that rely on molecular hydrogen for metabolism. Tectonic oxygen may have been an important oxidizing agent when dissolved in water during times in early Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels were extremely low. Reported “whiffs” of dissolved oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event might have been related to tectonic activity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chengjun Feng ◽  
Guangliang Gao ◽  
Shihuai Zhang ◽  
Dongsheng Sun ◽  
Siyu Zhu ◽  
...  

Abstract. The Tangshan region is one of the most seismically active areas in the North China, and the 1976 M 7.8 earthquake occurred on July 28th near the Tangshan fault zone. The Matouying Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) field is located ~90 km away from Tangshan City. Since the late 2020, preliminary hydraulic stimulation tests have been conducted at depths of ~3965–4000 m. Fluid injection into geothermal reservoir facilitates heat exchanger system. However, fluid injection may also induce earthquakes. In anticipation of the EGS operation at the Matouying uplift, it is essential to assess how the fault slip potential of the nearby active and quiescent faults will change in the presence of fluid injection. In this study, we first characterize the ambient stress field in the Tangshan region by performing stress tensor inversions using 98 focal mechanism data (ML ≥ 2.5). Then, we estimate the principal stress magnitudes near the Matouying EGS field by analyzing in situ stress measurements at shallow depths (~600–1000 m). According to these data, we perform a quantitative risk assessment using the Mohr-Coulomb framework in order to evaluate how the main active faults might respond to hypothetical injected-related pore pressure increases due to the upcoming EGS production. Our results mainly show that most earthquakes in the Tangshan seismic region have occurred on the faults that have relatively high fault slip potential in the present ambient stress field. At well distances of less than 15 km, the probabilistic fault slip potential on most of the boundary faults increase with continuing fluid injection over time, especially on these faults with well distances of ~6–10 km. The probabilistic fault slip potential increases linearly with the fluid injection rate. However, the FSP values decrease exponentially with increased unit permeability. The case study of the Matouying EGS field has important implications for the deep geothermal exploitation in China, especially for Gonghe EGS (in Qinghai province) and Xiong’an New Area (in Hebei province) geothermal reservoirs that are close to the Quaternary active faults. Ongoing injection operations in the regions should be conducted with these understandings in mind.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Author(s):  
Zorigt Tumurbaatar ◽  
Hiroyuki Miura ◽  
Tsoggerel Tsamba

During the last two decades, the rapid urbanization movement has increased the concentration of population and buildings in Ulaanbaatar city (UB), Mongolia. There are several active faults around UB. The estimated maximum magnitude of 7 in the Emeelt fault has been expected to significantly impact the UB region because the fault is only 20 km from the city. To consider the disaster mitigation planning for such large earthquakes, assessments of ground shaking intensities and building damage for the scenarios are crucial. In this study, we develop the building inventory data in UB, including structural types, construction year, height, and construction cost in order to assess the buildings’ vulnerability (repair cost) due to a scenario earthquake. The construction costs are estimated based on the procedure of the Mongolian construction code from the coefficients of cost per floor area for each structural type, and coefficients for heating system, floor areas, and buildings’ locations. Finally, the scenario’s economic loss of the damaged buildings is evaluated using the developed building inventory, global vulnerability curves of GAR-13, and estimated spectral accelerations.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Talat Kangarli ◽  
Tahir Mammadli ◽  
Fuad Aliyev ◽  
Rafig Safarov ◽  
Sabina Kazimova

The stress state of the earth’s crust in the Eastern Caucasus, located in the zone of collision junction of the North Caucasian, South Caucasian, and Central Iranian continental massifs, is a consequence of the inclusion of the Arabian indenter into the buffer structures of the southern framing of Eurasia at the continental stage of alpine tectogenesis. This evidenced from the results of geophysical observations of the structure and seismic-geodynamic activity of the region’s crust. The latter, at the neotectonic stage, was presented as underthrust of the South Caucasian microplate under the southern structures of Eurasia. The analysis and correlation of historical and recent seismic events indicate the confinement of most earthquake foci to the nodes of intersection of active faults with various orientations or to the planes of deep tectonic ruptures and lateral displacements along unstable contacts of material complexes of various competencies. The focal mechanisms of seismic events reveal various rupture types, but in general, the earthquake foci are confined to the nodes of intersection of faults of the general Caucasian and anti-Caucasian directions. Based on the observed weak seismicity, active areas of deep faults were identified, which are accepted as potential source zones.


Geosciences ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Author(s):  
Anna Chiaradonna ◽  
Marco Spadi ◽  
Paola Monaco ◽  
Felicia Papasodaro ◽  
Marco Tallini

Many of the urban settlements in Central Italy are placed nearby active faults and, consequently, the ground motion evaluation and seismic site effects under near-fault earthquakes are noteworthy issues to be investigated. This paper presents the results of site investigations, the seismic site characterization, and the local seismic response for assessing the effects induced by the Mw 6.7 2 February 1703, near-fault earthquake at the Madonna delle Fornaci site (Pizzoli, Central Italy) in which notable ground failure phenomena were observed, as witnessed by several coeval sources. Even though recent papers described these phenomena, the geological characteristics of the site and the failure mechanism have never been assessed through in-situ investigations and numerical modeling. Within a project concerning the assessment of soil liquefaction potential and co-seismic ground failure, deep and shallow continuous core drilling, geophysical investigations and in-hole tests have been carried out. Subsequently, the geotechnical model has been defined and the numerical quantification of the different hypotheses of failure mechanisms has been evaluated. Analyses showed that liquefaction did not occur, and the excess pore water pressure induced by the shaking was not the source of the ground failure. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the sinkhole was likely caused by earthquake-induced gas eruption.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Juliette Grosset ◽  
Stéphane Mazzotti ◽  
Philippe Vernant

Abstract. The understanding of the origins of seismicity in intraplate regions is crucial to better characterize seismic hazards. In formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia North America or the Western Alps, stress perturbations from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) have been proposed as a major cause of large earthquakes. In this study, we focus on the Western Alps case using numerical modeling of lithosphere response to the Last Glacial Maximum icecap. We show that the flexural response to GIA induces present-day stress perturbations of ca. 1–2 MPa, associated with horizontal extension rates up to ca. 2.5 × 10−9 yr−1. The latter is in good agreement with extension rates of ca. 2 × 10−9 yr−1 derived from high-resolution geodetic (GNSS) data and with the overall seismicity deformation pattern. In the majority of simulations, stress perturbations induced by GIA promote fault reactivation in the internal massifs and in the foreland regions (i.e., positive Coulomb Failure Stress perturbation), but with predicted rakes systematically incompatible with those from earthquake focal mechanisms. Thus, although GIA explains a major part of the GNSS strain rates, it tends to inhibit the observed seismicity in the Western Alps. A direct corollary of this result is that, in cases of significant GIA effect, GNSS strain rate measurements cannot be directly integrated in seismic hazard computations, but instead require detailed modeling of the GIA transient impact.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8328
Author(s):  
Arjun Kohli ◽  
Mark Zoback

We investigated the relationship between stratigraphy, stress, and microseismicity at the Hydraulic Fracture Test Site-1. The site comprises two sets of horizontal wells in the Wolfcamp shale and a deviated well drilled after hydraulic fracturing. Regional stresses indicate normal/strike-slip faulting with E-W compression. Stress measurements in vertical and horizontal wells show that the minimum principal stress varies with depth. Strata with high clay and organic content show high values of the least compressive stress, consistent with the theory of viscous stress relaxation. By integrating data from core, logs, and the hydraulic fracturing stages, we constructed a stress profile for the Wolfcamp sequence, which predicts how much pressure is required for hydraulic fracture growth. We applied the results to fracture orientation data from image logs to determine the population of pre-existing faults that are expected to slip during stimulation. We also determined microseismic focal plane mechanisms and found slip on steeply dipping planes striking NW, consistent with the orientations of potentially active faults predicted by the stress model. This case study represents a general approach for integrating stress measurements and rock properties to predict hydraulic fracture growth and the characteristics of injection-induced microseismicity.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Laura Hughes

<p>Repeating earthquakes provide a novel way of monitoring how stresses load faults between large earthquakes. In this thesis, we develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes in New Zealand and present New Zealand’s first long-duration repeating earthquake catalogue. This thesis addresses three primary objectives: (1) develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes; (2) build a long-duration catalogue of repeating earthquakes for the Raukumara Peninsula; and (3) apply the method and composite criterion in different tectonic settings to investigate whether it can be applied more broadly elsewhere in New Zealand. The systematic identification of repeating earthquakes in New Zealand provides the first step in being able to monitor the state of stresses of New Zealand’s active faults in situ throughout the earthquake cycle.  Studies elsewhere, particularly in Japan and California, have developed case-specific criteria for identifying repeating earthquakes. Building on these studies, we develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes in New Zealand, focusing on seismicity around the Raukumara Peninsula. Our composite criterion states that for events to be identified as repeating earthquakes, two or more events must have a normalised cross-correlation of at least 0.95 at two or more seismic stations, when calculated for 75% of the earthquake coda. Sensitivity to correlation window length, filtering frequency-band and correlation threshold were tested during the development of the composite criterion. These tests indicated that small perturbations to the parameter thresholds did not affect our ability to detect repeating earthquakes using the composite criterion.  By applying our composite criterion to seismicity around the Raukumara Peninsula, we identified 62 repeating earthquake families occurring between 2003 and 2018, consisting of 160 individual earthquakes. These families have a magnitude range of MW 1.5–4.5, and have recurrence intervals and family durations of < 1–12 years. High-precision absolute and relative locations were calculated using manual phase picks and cross-correlation re-picking. Focal mechanisms for 56 of the families were also determined, using P-wave first motions, revealing predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting at shallow depths, low-angle reverse faulting along the subduction interface, and normal faulting in the subducting plate. We compared the timing of the repeating earthquakes to slow-slip events previously identified using geodetic measurements around the Raukumara Peninsula and observed that repeating earthquakes occurred during 26 of the 31 identified periods of slow-slip. We also compared the seismic moment– recurrence interval relationship of the Raukumara Peninsula repeating earthquakes to that of earthquakes near Parkfield, California, identified by Nadeau and Johnson (1998), and observed a similar functional relationship. Slip-rates of the Raukumara Peninsula repeating earthquake families were also calculated using a slip-rate–moment relationship and were found to vary from < 10mm/yr to 80mm/yr.  We applied the method and composite criterion developed for the Raukumara Peninsula to two other locations to ensure it could be applied successfully in other New Zealand regions with different seismotectonic characteristics. Using our workflow, we successfully identified four families in Marlborough, and three families around Fiordland. These families differ from those identified around the Raukumara Peninsula in that they had relatively short recurrence intervals and family durations, of 2 minutes– 15 months. The ability of the composite criterion to identify these families confirms its suitability for further studies of repeating earthquakes throughout New Zealand.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Laura Hughes

<p>Repeating earthquakes provide a novel way of monitoring how stresses load faults between large earthquakes. In this thesis, we develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes in New Zealand and present New Zealand’s first long-duration repeating earthquake catalogue. This thesis addresses three primary objectives: (1) develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes; (2) build a long-duration catalogue of repeating earthquakes for the Raukumara Peninsula; and (3) apply the method and composite criterion in different tectonic settings to investigate whether it can be applied more broadly elsewhere in New Zealand. The systematic identification of repeating earthquakes in New Zealand provides the first step in being able to monitor the state of stresses of New Zealand’s active faults in situ throughout the earthquake cycle.  Studies elsewhere, particularly in Japan and California, have developed case-specific criteria for identifying repeating earthquakes. Building on these studies, we develop a method and composite criterion for identifying repeating earthquakes in New Zealand, focusing on seismicity around the Raukumara Peninsula. Our composite criterion states that for events to be identified as repeating earthquakes, two or more events must have a normalised cross-correlation of at least 0.95 at two or more seismic stations, when calculated for 75% of the earthquake coda. Sensitivity to correlation window length, filtering frequency-band and correlation threshold were tested during the development of the composite criterion. These tests indicated that small perturbations to the parameter thresholds did not affect our ability to detect repeating earthquakes using the composite criterion.  By applying our composite criterion to seismicity around the Raukumara Peninsula, we identified 62 repeating earthquake families occurring between 2003 and 2018, consisting of 160 individual earthquakes. These families have a magnitude range of MW 1.5–4.5, and have recurrence intervals and family durations of < 1–12 years. High-precision absolute and relative locations were calculated using manual phase picks and cross-correlation re-picking. Focal mechanisms for 56 of the families were also determined, using P-wave first motions, revealing predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting at shallow depths, low-angle reverse faulting along the subduction interface, and normal faulting in the subducting plate. We compared the timing of the repeating earthquakes to slow-slip events previously identified using geodetic measurements around the Raukumara Peninsula and observed that repeating earthquakes occurred during 26 of the 31 identified periods of slow-slip. We also compared the seismic moment– recurrence interval relationship of the Raukumara Peninsula repeating earthquakes to that of earthquakes near Parkfield, California, identified by Nadeau and Johnson (1998), and observed a similar functional relationship. Slip-rates of the Raukumara Peninsula repeating earthquake families were also calculated using a slip-rate–moment relationship and were found to vary from < 10mm/yr to 80mm/yr.  We applied the method and composite criterion developed for the Raukumara Peninsula to two other locations to ensure it could be applied successfully in other New Zealand regions with different seismotectonic characteristics. Using our workflow, we successfully identified four families in Marlborough, and three families around Fiordland. These families differ from those identified around the Raukumara Peninsula in that they had relatively short recurrence intervals and family durations, of 2 minutes– 15 months. The ability of the composite criterion to identify these families confirms its suitability for further studies of repeating earthquakes throughout New Zealand.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruth Amey ◽  
John Elliott ◽  
C. Scott Watson ◽  
Richard Walker ◽  
Marco Pagani ◽  
...  

Many cities are built on or near active faults, which pose seismic hazard and risk to the urban population. This risk is exacerbated by city expansion, which may obscure signs of active faulting. Here we estimate the risk to Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan, due to realistic earthquake scenarios based on historic earthquakes in the region and improved knowledge of the active faulting. We use previous literature and fault mapping, combined with new high-resolution digital elevation models to identify and characterise faults that pose a risk to Bishkek. We then estimate the hazard (ground shaking), damage to residential buildings and losses (economical cost and fatalities) using the Global Earthquake Model OpenQuake engine. We model historical events and hypothetical events on a variety of faults that could plausibly host significant earthquakes. This includes proximal, recognised, faults as well as a fault under folding in the north of the city that we identify using satellite DEMs. We find that potential earthquakes on faults nearest to Bishkek - Issyk Ata, Shamsi Tunduk, Chonkurchak and the northern fault - would cause the most damage to the city. An Mw 7.5 earthquake on the Issyk Ata fault could potentially cause 7,900 ± 2600 completely damaged buildings, a further 16,400 ± 2000 damaged buildings and 2400 ± 1500 fatalities. It is vital to properly identify, characterise and model active faults near cities as modelling the northern fault as a Mw 6.5 instead of Mw 6.0 would result in 37% more completely damaged buildings and 48% more fatalities.


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