Systematic Effect
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2021 ◽  
Ananya Passi ◽  
SP Arun ◽  

Humans robustly associate spiky shapes to words like “Kiki” and round shapes to words like “Bouba”. A popular explanation is that the mouth forms an angular shape while saying “Kiki” and a rounded shape while saying “Bouba”, leading to this association. Alternatively, there could be generic associations between the shapes of objects and the sounds they produce. These possibilities can be distinguished using unpronounceable sounds: the mouth-shape hypothesis predicts no effect, whereas the generic shape hypothesis predicts a systematic effect. Here, we show that the Bouba-Kiki effect is present for a variety of unpronounceable sounds ranging from reversed versions of Bouba-like and Kiki-like words and natural real object sounds to even pure tones. The effect was strongly correlated with the mean frequency of a sound independent of its pronounceability. Thus, the Bouba-Kiki effect reflects generic associations between sounds and object shape rather than mouth shape.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Philip DeCicca ◽  
Natalie Malak

Abstract Contingency fee laws are intended to reduce the amount of defensive medicine practiced by physicians, but their impact on such behavior is theoretically ambiguous. While nearly half of all states have adopted some type of contingency fee laws, very little empirical evidence exists with respect to related impacts, and no rigorous studies examine their potential impacts on health. We examine the impact of a particular contingency fee reform that occurred in Nevada in 2004 using synthetic control methods. Consistent with our expectations, we find a systematic increase in the C-section rate of less-educated mothers in Nevada after implementation of the reform. However, we find no systematic effect on infant mortality, suggesting that contingency reforms contribute to an increase in defensive medicine without a corresponding improvement in health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (3) ◽  
pp. 49
Rangan Gupta ◽  
Christian Pierdzioch

Using data for the group of G7 countries and China for the sample period 1996Q1 to 2020Q4, we study the role of uncertainty and spillovers for the out-of-sample forecasting of the realized variance of gold returns and its upside (good) and downside (bad) counterparts. We go beyond earlier research in that we do not focus exclusively on U.S.-based measures of uncertainty, and in that we account for international spillovers of uncertainty. Our results, based on the Lasso estimator, show that, across the various model configurations that we study, uncertainty has a more systematic effect on out-of-sample forecast accuracy than spillovers. Our results have important implications for investors in terms of, for example, pricing of related derivative securities and the development of portfolio-allocation strategies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135406882110024
Ulrich Sieberer ◽  
Daniel Höhmann

The article studies whether the party system characteristics fragmentation and ideological polarization increase the density of institutional regulation in parliaments. It introduces a comprehensive time-series-cross-sectional dataset of standing orders in 15 Western European parliaments that allows studying how densely various fields of legislative activity such as lawmaking, controlling the government, and creating publicity were regulated over a period of more than 60 years. Descriptively, the data show increased regulation in all areas but also some variation between countries. Dynamic panel regression analyses for non-stationary time series find no systematic effect of fragmentation or polarization on the density of regulation indicating that large parts of legislative organization change for reasons unrelated to party system dynamics. We identify changes in the environment of legislatures such as increasing complexity and professionalization of politics, technological change, and Europeanization as potential drivers of such Pareto-efficient reforms.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. e0246946
Christian A. Gregory ◽  
Jessica E. Todd

This paper makes several contributions to the literature regarding the measurement of food insecurity and implications for estimating factors that affect this outcome. First, we show that receipt of benefits from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has a systematic effect on responses to questions in the 12-month food security module (FSM). We find that the probability of affirming more severe food hardships items, and the probability of being classified as having very low food security (VLFS), is higher just before and just after households receive their benefits. This leads to an under-estimate of VLFS by 3.2 percentage points for the SNAP sample (about 17 percent of prevalence). We also provide informative bounds on the relationship between SNAP and VLFS and show that the treatment effect of SNAP on VLFS is also likely underestimated.

2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 33
M. L. Win ◽  
T. Sanponpute ◽  
B. Suktat

There are four major uncertainty components to be considered when performing mass comparisons. They are uncertainties of weighing process, reference weight used, air buoyancy, and mass comparator. The systematic effect of air buoyancy can be greatly reduced if the air density and the densities of the test and reference weights are known. This paper will emphasis on the uncertainty due to air buoyancy correction only. To calculate the uncertainty of air density correction, partial derivatives of temperature, barometric pressure and humidity must be performed. In this paper, two methods for partial differentiation of air density components are discussed.

Nicholas J. Lotito

This article explores the role of the military in perpetuating authoritarianism in the Muslim world. Using cross-national data, the article demonstrates that military repression of large-scale protests has been more likely in Muslim-majority states than elsewhere. It offers three explanations for violent military responses to protests: chronic insecurity and political violence, exceptionally high levels of foreign military assistance, and military organizational cultures that favor authoritarian responses to unrest. The article finds no support for claims that Islam as a culture or religion has any systematic effect on military behavior. Several cases of successful democratization in the region demonstrate that authoritarianism is not an immutable feature of Muslim-majority societies.

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-71
Hajnal Király

AbstractThe paper departs from the assumption that while the analysis of the systematic effect that popular cinema (genres like melodrama, horror or action movies) has on its spectators has been largely discussed by film theorists, little has been written on the affective dimensions of arthouse cinema. The lasting effect of visually compelling films on the individual spectator’s emotions has been addressed only sporadically by cognitive film theory, film phenomenology and aesthetics. Therefore, the author proposes to bring together terms and concepts from different discourses (film and literary theory, intermediality studies and empirical psychological research of the literary effect) in order to elucidate how intermedial, painterly references in midcult and arthouse films mobilize the associative dimensions of film viewing and may have an impact on spectatorial self-reflexion and emotional growth. Moreover, films that rely on the associative power of still(ed) images, painterly references bring into play the personal and cultural experiences of the viewer. As such, they can be effectively used in professional and cultural sensitivization.

Heinz Lohrer

Abstract Background Achilles tendon partial tears are not easy to diagnose and to manage. Most frequently, they are located in the midportion and insertional area. These entities result from different pathologic pathways, and different treatment strategies are applied. The outcome is rarely investigated. Methods This study includes patients who underwent surgery for partial tears in the midportion or retrocalcaneal Achilles tendon area between the years 2009 and 2015 by a single surgeon. Patients were prospectively assessed preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the VISA-A-G questionnaire. The final retrospective follow-up was performed after a minimum of 3.5 years postoperatively. Forty-eight Achilles tendon partial tears at the level of the retrocalcaneal bursa (impingement lesions) and 27 midportion Achilles tendon partial tears were identified. After applying rigorous exclusion criteria, 21 and 16 cases, respectively, remained for the final follow-up. Results were analysed by inferential and descriptive statistics. Results The VISA-A-G outcome scores improved significantly from preoperative to 6 months, 12 months, and final postoperative assessment. Preoperatively, the average VISA-A-G score was 42.1 (range, 18–73) for patients operated for Achilles tendon partial tears at the level of the retrocalcaneal bursa and 44.6 (range, 10–73) for the midportion Achilles tendon partial tear group, respectively. At final follow-up 88.8 (range, 15 to 100) and 96.9 (range, 71 to 100) were scored in the respective treatment groups. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that mean performance levels showed a statistically significant difference between measurements (p < 0.001). There was no systematic effect found between groups (p = 0.836). Conclusions In Achilles tendon partial tears recalcitrant to conservative treatment, operative intervention is highly successful in most cases, irrespective of the level of the injury. Results were statistically equal when comparing the midportion and retrocalcaneal Achilles tendon partial tear groups. Trial registration DRKS, DRKS00014266. Registered 06 April 2018. ‘Retrospectively registered’,

2020 ◽  
Vol 641 ◽  
pp. A3 ◽  
N. Aghanim ◽  
Y. Akrami ◽  
M. Ashdown ◽  
J. Aumont ◽  

This paper presents the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data processing procedures for thePlanck2018 release. Major improvements in mapmaking have been achieved since the previousPlanck2015 release, many of which were used and described already in an intermediate paper dedicated to thePlanckpolarized data at low multipoles. These improvements enabled the first significant measurement of the reionization optical depth parameter usingPlanck-HFI data. This paper presents an extensive analysis of systematic effects, including the use of end-to-end simulations to facilitate their removal and characterize the residuals. The polarized data, which presented a number of known problems in the 2015Planckrelease, are very significantly improved, especially the leakage from intensity to polarization. Calibration, based on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole, is now extremely accurate and in the frequency range 100–353 GHz reduces intensity-to-polarization leakage caused by calibration mismatch. The Solar dipole direction has been determined in the three lowest HFI frequency channels to within one arc minute, and its amplitude has an absolute uncertainty smaller than 0.35μK, an accuracy of order 10−4. This is a major legacy from thePlanckHFI for future CMB experiments. The removal of bandpass leakage has been improved for the main high-frequency foregrounds by extracting the bandpass-mismatch coefficients for each detector as part of the mapmaking process; these values in turn improve the intensity maps. This is a major change in the philosophy of “frequency maps”, which are now computed from single detector data, all adjusted to the same average bandpass response for the main foregrounds. End-to-end simulations have been shown to reproduce very well the relative gain calibration of detectors, as well as drifts within a frequency induced by the residuals of the main systematic effect (analogue-to-digital convertor non-linearity residuals). Using these simulations, we have been able to measure and correct the small frequency calibration bias induced by this systematic effect at the 10−4level. There is no detectable sign of a residual calibration bias between the first and second acoustic peaks in the CMB channels, at the 10−3level.

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