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Huiwen Xu ◽  
Lin Liu ◽  
Luming Zhao ◽  
En Takashi ◽  
Akio Kitayama ◽  

In December 2019, COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, China. Most of the studies related to the psychological impact and compliance with staying at home due to COVID-19 focused on ten days or one month after the initial “stay-at-home” phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The early psychological impact and behavior change to COVID-19 during the Chinese Spring Festival (the start time for recommendations to stay at home) is uncertain. In this study, people from 23 provinces in China were recruited to participate in an online survey, using Credamo. Psychological impact and compliance with staying at home were evaluated by a self-designed and validated questionnaire. The results indicated that anxiety was the most often reported feeling (mean: 3.69), followed by sadness (mean: 3.63). Participants employed in foreign-owned companies were most likely to express anxiety and sadness. Overall, 61.8% of participants reported hardly going out, whereas 2.4% said they frequently went out during the initial “stay-at-home” phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants with higher levels of anxiety and sadness were most likely to stay at home against the spread of COVID-19, as were female gender. This survey is an important study of the first reaction to staying at home during the initial “stay-at-home” phase coinciding with Chinese Spring Festival. Our findings identified factors associated with higher level of psychological impact and better compliance with staying at home recommendations during Chinese Spring Festival. The findings can be used to formulate precaution interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups and high uptake of policy during the COVID-19 epidemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
L. J. Reece ◽  
K. Owen ◽  
M. Graney ◽  
C. Jackson ◽  
M. Shields ◽  

AbstractInterventions that increase population physical activity are required to promote health and wellbeing. parkrun delivers community-based, 5 km events worldwide yet 43% who register never participate in a parkrun event. This research had two objectives; i) explore the demographics of people who register for parkrun in United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, and don’t initiate or maintain participation ii) understand the barriers to participating in parkrun amongst these people. Mandatory data at parkrun registration provided demographic characteristics of parkrun registrants. A bespoke online survey distributed across the three countries captured the reasons for not participating or only participating once. Of 680,255 parkrun registrants between 2017 and 19, 293,542 (43%) did not participate in any parkrun events and 147,148 (22%) only participated in one parkrun event. Females, 16–34 years and physically inactive were more likely to not participate or not return to parkrun. Inconvenient start time was the most frequently reported barrier to participating, with females more likely than males to report the psychological barrier of feeling too unfit to participate. Co-creating strategies with and for people living with a chronic disease, women, young adults, and physically inactive people, could increase physical activity participation within parkrun.

2022 ◽  
Mengmeng Li ◽  
Mengmeng Li ◽  
Filiberto Bilotti

<p>Space-time-modulated metasurfaces can manipulate electromagnetic waves in space and frequency domain simultaneously. In this paper, an analytical design of space-time- modulated metasurfaces with modulation elements composed of two paths, In-phase (I) and Quadrature (Q), is proposed. The model is derived analytically, the space/frequency domain manipulations are achieved by designing the dimension and time sequence of I and Q paths. In the specular reflection direction, an objective frequency shift of the reflected first order harmonic can be obtained. While, in other directions, the opposite first order harmonic can be easily controlled by changing the dimension of I/Q paths and the objective first order harmonic remains unchanged. Furthermore, with a small dimension of I/Q paths, the first order harmonic can be used for beam scanning by pre-designing the start time of the modulation element. To realize the space-time-modulated metasurface with the required periodically time-varying responses, 2-bit unit-cells loaded with dynamically switchable pin diodes are employed as I/Q modulation. Both analytical and numerical results demonstrate that space and frequency domain manipulations of the reflected fields by the first order harmonics can be simultaneously obtained. The proposed designs have potential applications in wireless communications, radar camouflaging, and cloaking.<br></p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Samuel Negash ◽  
Endale Anberber ◽  
Blen Ayele ◽  
Zeweter Ashebir ◽  
Ananya Abate ◽  

Abstract Background The operating room (OR) is one of the most expensive areas of a hospital, requiring large capital and recurring investments, and necessitating efficient throughput to reduce costs per patient encounter. On top of increasing costs, inefficient utilization of operating rooms results in prolonged waiting lists, high rate of cancellation, frustration of OR personnel as well as increased anxiety that negatively impacts the health of patients. This problem is magnified in developing countries, where there is a high unmet surgical need. However, no system currently exists to assess operating room utilization in Ethiopia. Methodology A prospective study was conducted over a period of 3 months (May 1 to July 31, 2019) in a tertiary hospital. Surgical case start time, end time, room turnover time, cancellations and reason for cancellation were observed to evaluate the efficiency of eight operating rooms. Results A total of 933 elective procedures were observed during the study period. Of these, 246 were cancelled, yielding a cancellation rate of 35.8%. The most common reasons for cancellation were related to lack of OR time and patient preparation (8.7% and 7.7% respectively). Shortage of facilities (instrument, blood, ICU bed) were causes of cancelation in 7.7%. Start time was delayed in 93.4% (mean 8:56 am ± 52 min) of cases. Last case completion time was early in 47.9% and delayed in 20.6% (mean 2:54 pm ± 156 min). Turnover time was prolonged in 34.5% (mean 25 min ± 49 min). Total operating room utilization ranged from 10.5% to 174%. Operating rooms were underutilized in 42.7% while overutilization was found in 14.6%. Conclusion We found a high cancellation rate, most attributable to late start times leading to delays for the remainder of cases, and lack of preoperative patient preparation. In a setting with a high unmet burden of surgical disease, OR efficiency must be maximized with improved patient evaluation workflows, adequate OR staffing and commitment to punctual start times. We recommend future quality improvement projects focusing on these areas to increase OR efficiency.

Vehicles ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-41
Bruce W. Jo

High-speed capsular vehicles are firstly suggested as an idea by Elon Musk of Tesla Company. Unlike conventional high-speed trains, capsular vehicles are individual vessels carrying passengers and freight with the expected maximum speed of near 1200 [km/h] in a near-vacuum tunnel. More individual vehicle speed, dispatch, and position control in the operational aspect are expected over connected trains. This numerical study and investigation evaluate and analyze inter-distance control and their characteristics for high-speed capsular vehicles and their operational aspects. Among many aspects of operation, the inter-distance of multiple vehicles is critical toward passenger/freight flow rate and infrastructural investment. In this paper, the system’s equation, equation of the motion, and various characteristics of the system are introduced, and in particular control design parameters for inter-distance control and actuation are numerically shown. As a conclusion, (1) Inter-distance between vehicles is a function of error rate and second car start time, the magnitude range is determined by second car start time, (2) Inter-distance fluctuation rate is a function of error rate and second car start time, however; it can be minimized by choosing the correct second car start time, and (3) If the second car start time is chosen an integer number of push-down cycle time at specific velocity error rate, the inter-distance fluctuation can be zero.

2021 ◽  
pp. 54-62
Volodymyr Volianiuk ◽  
Ievgenii Gorbatyuk ◽  
Dmitry Mishchuk

Problem. The analysis of existing research and publications in which the main problem is highlighted, namely, that many factors are not taken into account when calculating the inertial loads of the car crane arrows. Accounting for these factors will allow you to more accurately determine the inertial loads of the boom of the car crane, to carry out strength-hunches of the elements of the boom and the selection of components of its drive mechanisms. Goal. The purpose of the work is to determine the inertial navan-loads acting on the load and arrow of the automobile-side crane during the unstable movement of its. Methodology. To calculate the inertial loads, the technique of determining the total inertial loads of the car crane boom during joint operations in accordance with the Safety Regulations has been developed. Total inertial loads were determined for the following cases: joint lifting (lowering) of cargo and arrows; lifting the load and turning the boom; lifting and turning the arrow. Results. The resulting dependencies for determining the inertial loads of the rotary boom of the car crane will allow more accurately taking into account multiple factors to calculate the values of these loads in order to conduct strong calculations of the boom, the selection of its components mechanisms. Originality. When calculating inertial loads, the weight and length of the boom are taken into account; weight and height of lifting of cargo; the radius of the arrow crane; rotation speed of the rotary part of the crane; speed of movement of cargo and arrows; start time and braking of cargo lifting mechanisms, change of departure and turn of the boom. The advantage of this technique is its originality. Practical value. The use of this technique allows more accurately taking into account multiple factors to determine the values of the inertial loads of the automobile crane during the unstable movement of the cargo lifting mechanisms, changes in the discharge of the boom and its rotation in order to conduct strong-standing calculations of the boom elements, the selection of its components.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Naqin Zhou ◽  
Xiaowen Liao ◽  
Fufang Li ◽  
Yuanyong Feng ◽  
Liangchen Liu

Edge computing needs the close cooperation of cloud computing to better meet various needs. Therefore, ensuring the efficient implementation of applications in cloud computing is not only related to the development of cloud computing itself but also affects the promotion of edge computing. However, resource management and task scheduling strategy are important factors affecting the efficient implementation of applications. Therefore, aiming at the task scheduling problem in cloud computing environment, this paper proposes a new list scheduling algorithm, namely, based on a virtual scheduling length (BVSL) table algorithm. The algorithm first constructs the predicted remaining length table based on the prescheduling results, then constructs a virtual scheduling length table based on the predicted remaining length table, the current task execution cost, and the actual start time of the task, and calculates the task priority based on the virtual scheduling length table to make the overall path the longest task is scheduled first, thus effectively shorten the scheduling length. Finally, the processor is selected for the task based on the predicted remaining length table. The selected processor may not be the earliest for the current task, but it can shorten the finish time of the task in the next phase and reduce the scheduling length. To verify the effectiveness of the scheduling method, experiments were carried out from two aspects: randomly generated graphs and real-world application graphs. Experimental results show that the BVSL algorithm outperforms the latest Improved Predict Priority Task Scheduling (IPPTS) and RE-18 scheduling methods in terms of makespan, scheduling length ratio, speedup, and the number of occurrences of better quality of schedules while maintaining the same time complexity.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1151
Ha Van Hung ◽  
Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc ◽  
Dinh-Toi Chu

Objective: We conducted this work to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) using MI Varnish Fluor in obese children aged from 36 to 71 months. Methods: This study was conducted on 300 carious teeth of obese children and normal-weight children in Hanoi, Vietnam, over the period 2019–2020. Diagnodent KaVo 2190 laser equipment was used to diagnose ECC. The children in each group were selected on the basis of similarities in age, gender, and study location, and the teeth in the two groups were selected on the basis of similarities in damage level and jaw position. ECC treatment was performed once a week for four consecutive weeks with MI Varnish Fluor. The child, the child’s family, and the child’s teacher were consulted on diet and oral hygiene during the treatment. Children were examined and monitored throughout the treatment period. Children were re-examined after 3 and 6 months from the start time of treatment. The Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used, with statistical significance indicated at p < 0.05. Results: After six months of treatment with MI Varnish Fluor, the number of cases of code 0 damage recovery (D0) increased in both groups. The result showed that MI Varnish fluor was effective in ECC treatment. D0 damage recovery rates of 79.3% in obese children and 62.7% in normal-weight children were observed after six months of treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups according to age, tooth position, or tooth surface position in D0 damage recovery. Conclusions: MI Varnish Fluor was effective in ECC treatment, with D0 damage recovery rates of 79.3% in obese children and 62.7% in normal-weight children after six months of treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_9) ◽  
Martin Michel ◽  
Helen Fifer ◽  
Emily Moran ◽  
Clare Bonner ◽  
Felix Hammett ◽  

Abstract Background The Covid-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of healthcare globally. Theatre utilisation assumes a substantial proportion of hospital resources, creating a streamlined pathway increases efficiency and productivity. With concerns regarding aerosol generating procedures, viral transmission to health care workers in theatre and patient pathways through the hospitals the covid-19 pandemic has added another dimension to the theatre pathway. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of Covid-19 on the “knife to skin” (KTS) time and compare it to previous historical data (HD).   Methods Retrospective analysis of real time theatre data was analysed for the first 12 months of the pandemic from 11th March 2020 to 11th March 2021. To try and minimise variability between different specialities and operations we picked one operation to study: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Historical data was also gathered from the same time frame over the last 5 years (2015-2020) for comparison. Data collected included emergency or elective, time sent for patient, anaesthetic start time, knife to skin time and duration of operation. Comparison of means were analysed by One-way ANOVA tests and Student’s T-Test. Results 399 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed during the first year of the pandemic. KTS time was calculated as operation start time minus time sent for patient.  Average time during the pandemic for emergency LC KTS was 56 minutes and 35 minutes for elective LC. Comparison of these times to HD revealed no statistical difference (Emergency LC 56 mins vs 58 mins p &gt; 0.05, Elective LC 35 mins vs 35 mins p &gt; 0.05). The anaesthetic time for emergency LC during the pandemic vs HD was 10 mins vs 14 mins (p &lt; 0.05), no statistical difference was found in the elective group, 16mins vs 14mins (p &gt; 0.05) Conclusions The Covid-19 pandemic has had no detectable effect on Knife to skin time as compared to our previous historical data. It seems the extra Covid 19 precautions involving PPE, pathways etc. have not affected theatre efficiency or utilisation. In fact, there was very little variance in KTS time over the six years studied (2015-2021) with very consistent levels for both elective and emergency procedures. The shorter anaesthetic time for emergency LC during the pandemic needs to be further investigated but one hypothesis is the unconscious or conscious decision to decrease the amount of preoxygenation to minimise aerosolisation.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 922 (2) ◽  
pp. 218
Larisza D. Krista ◽  
Matthew Chih

Abstract Solar flares have been linked to some of the most significant space weather hazards at Earth. These hazards, including radio blackouts and energetic particle events, can start just minutes after the flare onset. Therefore, it is of great importance to identify and predict flare events. In this paper we introduce the Detection and EUV Flare Tracking (DEFT) tool, which allows us to identify flare signatures and their precursors using high spatial and temporal resolution extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) solar observations. The unique advantage of DEFT is its ability to identify small but significant EUV intensity changes that may lead to solar eruptions. Furthermore, the tool can identify the location of the disturbances and distinguish events occurring at the same time in multiple locations. The algorithm analyzes high temporal cadence observations obtained from the Solar Ultraviolet Imager instrument aboard the GOES-R satellite. In a study of 61 flares of various magnitudes observed in 2017, the “main” EUV flare signatures (those closest in time to the X-ray start time) were identified on average 6 minutes early. The “precursor” EUV signatures (second-closest EUV signatures to the X-ray start time) appeared on average 14 minutes early. Our next goal is to develop an operational version of DEFT and to simulate and test its real-time use. A fully operational DEFT has the potential to significantly improve space weather forecast times.

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