Recently Published Documents
Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Varying Impact on Immune Responses in Phorbol 12-Myristate-13-Acetate-Mediated THP-1 Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation
Macrophages are sentinels of the innate immune system, and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 is one of the widely used in vitro models to study inflammatory processes and immune responses. Several monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation protocols exist, with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) being the most commonly used and accepted method. However, the concentrations and duration of PMA treatment vary widely in the published literature and could affect the probed phenotype, however their effect on protein expression is not fully deciphered. In this study, we employed a dimethyl labeling-based quantitative proteomics approach to determine the changes in the protein repertoire of macrophage-like cells differentiated from THP-1 monocytes by three commonly used PMA-based differentiation protocols. Employing an integrated network analysis, we show that variations in PMA concentration and duration of rest post-stimulation result in downstream differences in the protein expression and cellular signaling processes. We demonstrate that these differences result in altered inflammatory responses, including variation in the expression of cytokines upon stimulation with various Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Together, these findings provide a valuable resource that significantly expands the knowledge of protein expression dynamics with one of the most common in vitro models for macrophages, which in turn has a profound impact on the immune as well as inflammatory responses being studied.
A Missense Mutation rs781536408 (c.2395G>A) of TYK2 Affects Splicing and Causes Skipping of Exon18 in vivo
TYK2 variants can impact disease onset or progression. In our previous study, we identified abnormal splicing that happened near rs781536408 in the TYK2 gene. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the mutation on alternative splicing in vivo and in vitro. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the mutations followed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Then the minigene analysis was carried out based on HeLa and HEK293T cell lines. The results showed that rs781536408 (c.2395G>A, p.G799R) was homozygous in the patient, but heterozygous in parents. PCR amplification confirmed the abnormal splicing in the somatic cells of the patients, but not in the parents. Sanger sequencing results showed that there was a skipping of exon18 near the mutation. For minigene analysis, there was no difference between the wild-type and the mutant type in the two minigene construction strategies, indicating that mutation c.2395G>A had no effect on splicing in vitro. Combining the results of in vivo, we speculated that the effect of the mutation on splicing was not absolute, but rather in degree.
Zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 facilitates the metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells via activating Src/FAK signaling pathway
Abstract Background Zinc transporters have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases including cancer. As the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, ovarian cancer is characterized by rapid progression and widespread metastases. However, the function and underlying mechanism of zinc transporters in ovarian cancer metastasis remain unclear. Methods The relationship between zinc transporter gene expressions and clinical outcomes of ovarian cancer was assessed with the online database Kaplan-Meier plotter (http://kmplot.com/analysis/). Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the prognostic importance of ZIP13. The expression of ZIP13 in ovarian cancer cell lines was depleted to explore its effect on proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion both in vitro and in vivo assays. RNA-Seq, quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to explore ZIP13-regulated downstream target genes. Results The expressions of several zinc transporters were highly associated the clinical outcomes of ovarian cancer patients. Among them, high ZIP13 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with ovarian cancer. ZIP13 knockout suppressed the malignant phenotypes of ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that ZIP13 regulated intracellular zinc distribution and then affected the expressions of genes involved in extracellular matrix organization and cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. This led to the activation of Src/FAK pathway with increased expressions of pro-metastatic genes but decreased expressions of tumor suppressor genes. Conclusions ZIP13 is shown to be a novel driver of metastatic progression by modulating the Src/FAK signaling pathway, which may serve as a promising biomarker for prognostic evaluation and targeted therapy in ovarian cancer.
Evaluation of anticancer effects of Juniperus communis extract on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and accounts for the fourth leading cause of all cancer deaths. Scientific evidence has found that plant extracts seem to be a reliable choice due to their multitarget effects against HCC. Juniperus communis has been used for centuries in traditional medicine and has reported its anticancer properties. As a result, the purpose of the study was to investigate the anticancer effect and mechanism of JCo extract on HCC in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that J. communis extract (JCo extract) inhibited the growth of human HCC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, extensive apoptosis and suppressing metastatic protein expressions in HCC cells. Moreover, the combinational treatment of JCo and VP-16 was found to enhance the anti-cancer effect, revealing that JCo extract might have the potential to be utilized as an adjuvant to promote HCC treatment. Furthermore, in vivo study, JCo extract significantly suppressed HCC tumor growth and extended the lifespan with no or low systemic and pathological toxicity. JCo extract significantly upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and tumor suppressor p53, suppressed VEGF/VEGFR autocrine signaling, downregulated cell cycle regulatory proteins and MMP2/MMP9 proteins. Overall, our results provide a basis for exploiting JCo extract as a potential anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
RNA-binding protein IMP3 is a novel regulator of MEK1/ERK signaling pathway in the progression of colorectal Cancer through the stabilization of MEKK1 mRNA
Abstract Background MEK1/ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in most tumor progression, including colorectal cancer (CRC), however, MEK1-targeting therapy has little effective in treating CRC patients, indicating there may be a complex mechanism to activate MEK1/ERK signaling pathway except RAS activated mechanism. Methods To investigate the clinical significance of IMP3, we analyzed its expression levels in publicly available dataset and samples from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The effects of IMP3 on proliferation, migration, and invasion were determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. To investigate the role of IMP3 in colon carcinogenesis, conditional IMP3 knockout C57BL/6 mice was generated. The IMP3/MEKK1/MEK/ERK signaling axis in CRC was screened and validated by RNA-sequencing, RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter and western blot assays. Results We find RNA binding protein IMP3 directly bind to MEKK1 mRNA 3′-UTR, which regulates its stability, promote MEKK1 expression and sequentially activates MEK1/ERK signaling. Functionally, IMP3 promote the malignant biological process of CRC cells via MEKK1/MEK1/ERK signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo, Moreover, IMP3−/− mice show decreased the expression of MEKK1 as well as colorectal tumors compared with wild-type mice after treatment with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate. Clinically, the expression of IMP3 and MEKK1 are positive correlated, and concomitant IMP3 and MEKK1 protein levels negatively correlate with metastasis in CRC patients. In addition, MEK1 inhibitor in combination with shRNA-IMP3 have a synergistic effect both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that IMP3 regulates MEKK1 in CRC, thus activating the MEK1/ERK signaling in the progression of colorectal cancer, Furthermore, these results provide new insights into potential applications for combining MEK1 inhibitors with other target therapy such as IMP3 in preclinical trials for CRC patients.
Image-Guided Peri-Tumoral Radiofrequency Hyperthermia-Enhanced Direct Chemo-Destruction of Hepatic Tumor Margins
PurposeTo validate the feasibility of using peri-tumoral radiofrequency hyperthermia (RFH)-enhanced chemotherapy to obliterate hepatic tumor margins.Method and MaterialsThis study included in vitro experiments with VX2 tumor cells and in vivo validation experiments using rabbit models of liver VX2 tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments received different treatments in four groups (n=6/group): (i) RFH-enhanced chemotherapy consisting of peri-tumoral injection of doxorubicin plus RFH at 42°C; (ii) RFH alone; (iii) doxorubicin alone; and (iv) saline. Therapeutic effect on cells was evaluated using different laboratory examinations. For in vivo experiments, orthotopic hepatic VX2 tumors in 24 rabbits were treated by using a multipolar radiofrequency ablation electrode, enabling simultaneous delivery of both doxorubicin and RFH within the tumor margins. Ultrasound imaging was used to follow tumor growth overtime, correlated with subsequent histopathological analysis.ResultsIn in vitro experiments, MTS assay demonstrated the lowest cell proliferation, and apoptosis analysis showed the highest apoptotic index with RFH-enhanced chemotherapy, compared with the other three groups (p<0.01). In in vivo experiments, ultrasound imaging detected the smallest relative tumor volume with RFH-enhanced chemotherapy (p<0.01). The TUNEL assay further confirmed the significantly increased apoptotic index and decreased cell proliferation in the RFH-enhanced therapy group (p<0.01).ConclusionThis study demonstrates that peri-tumoral RFH can specifically enhance the destruction of tumor margins in combination with peri-tumoral injection of a chemotherapeutic agent. This new interventional oncology technique may address the critical clinical problem of frequent marginal tumor recurrence/persistence following thermal ablation of large (>3 cm) hepatic cancers.
Altered Differentiation of Endometrial Mesenchymal Stromal Fibroblasts Is Associated With Endometriosis Susceptibility
Abstract Cellular development is tightly regulated as mature cells with aberrant functions may initiate pathogenic processes. The endometrium is a highly regenerative tissue, shedding and regenerating each month. Endometrial stromal fibroblasts are regenerated each cycle from mesenchymal stem cells and play a pivotal role in endometriosis, a disease characterised by endometrial cells that grow outside the uterus. Why the cells of some women are more capable of developing into endometriosis lesions is not clear. Using isolated, purified and cultured endometrial cells of mesenchymal origin from 19 women with (n = 10) and without (n = 9) endometriosis we analysed the transcriptome of 33,758 individual cells and compared these to clinical characteristics and in vitro growth profiles. We show purified mesenchymal cell cultures include a mix of mesenchymal stem cells and two endometrial stromal fibroblast subtypes with distinct transcriptomic signatures indicative of varied progression through the differentiation processes. The fibroblast subgroup characterised by incomplete differentiation was predominantly (81%) derived from women with endometriosis and exhibited an altered in vitro growth profile. These results uncover an inherent difference in endometrial cells of women with endometriosis and highlight the relevance of cellular differentiation and its potential to contribute to disease susceptibility.