areca nut
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Kiran Poudel

Abstract: This paper describes the techniques for design and development of areca-nut leaf plate making machine which uses manual power (foot operated) as the main power source. The primary purpose of this research is the utilization of generally wasted areca-nut leaf sheath for the production of bio-degradable areca-nut leaf plates by the development of machine, which can be operated easily at home. This machine mainly uses mild steel for the development of the parts such as lower and upper die, frame, pedal, connecting links and shafts. The force applied at the pedal is transferred to moving upper die, which then presses the areca-nut leaf sheath placed above the fixed lower die, resulting areca-nut leaf sheath plates within 15 seconds of pressing. Keywords: Areca-nut leaf, Bio degradable, Foot operated

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nabamita Boruah ◽  
Chongtham Sovachandra Singh ◽  
Pooja Swargiary ◽  
Hughbert Dkhar ◽  
Anupam Chatterjee

Abstract Background Raw areca nut (RAN) consumption induces oral, esophageal and gastric cancers, which are significantly associated with the overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1/securin and chromosomal instability (CIN). An association of Securin/PTTG1 upregulation and gastric cancer in human was also demonstrated earlier. Since the molecular mechanism underlying securin upregulation remains unclear, this study intended to investigate the association of securin upregulation with the Rb-E2F1 circuit and epigenetic histone (H3) modification patterns both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene. Methods Six groups of mice were used, and in the treated group, each mouse consumed 1 mg of RAN extract with lime per day ad libitum in the drinking water for 60 days, after which the dose was increased by 1 mg every 60 days. Histopathological evaluation of stomach tissues was performed and securin expression was analysed by immunoblotting as well as by immunohistochemistry. ChIP-qPCR assays were performed to evaluate the recruitment of different histone modifications in the core promoter region of securin gene as well as its upstream and downstream regions. Results All mice developed gastric cancer with securin overexpression after 300 days of feeding. Immunohistochemistry data revealed hyperphosphorylation of Rb and upregulation of E2F1 in the RAN-treated samples. Increased trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 and acetylation of H3 lysine 9 and 18 both globally and in the promoter region of the securin gene were observed by increasing the levels of lysine-N-methyltransferase 2A, lysine-acetyltransferase, EP-300 and PCAF after RAN treatment. ChIP-qPCR data revealed that the quantity of DNA fragments retrieved from the immunoprecipitated samples was maximum in the -83 to -192 region than further upstream and the downstream of the promoter for H3K4Me3, H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K9me3. Conclusions RAN-mediated pRb-inactivation induced securin upregulation, a putative E2F1 target, by inducing misregulation in chromatin remodeling in its promoter region, which led to transcriptional activation and subsequent development of chromosomal instability. Therefore, present results have led to the hypothesis that RAN-induced changes in the epigenetic landscape, securin overexpression and subsequent elevation of chromosomal instability is probably byproducts of inactivation of the pRb pathway.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 287 ◽  
pp. 132443
Nihal Gujre ◽  
Sudip Mitra ◽  
Richa Agnihotri ◽  
Mahaveer P. Sharma ◽  
Debaditya Gupta

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012057
N R Yanti ◽  
M Andika ◽  
S Maulida ◽  
Riani ◽  
I Sulaiman ◽  

Abstract Areca nut contains tannin which has a great potential to apply as natural colour agent in food industries. Tannin offers specific colour and alter its colour due to environmental sensitivity. This study aims to fabricate a tannin-based colour indicator from areca nut in smart packaging in the form of a strip type and to characterize the indicator at different storage conditions and at various pH solutions. The indicators were synthesized using filter paper (No.1 and No.42) soaked in a solution with 1, 3, and 5% areca nut ethanolic extract. Then the indicators were stored at room temperature and 4-7°C for 10 days, then their Red Green Blue (RGB) coefficient values were measured. Characterization of the indicators at pH 3-10 were also determined by RGB coefficient. The results showed that the indicator stored at 4-7°C had more stable RGB coefficient than the indicator stored at room temperature indicated the indicator was influenced by the temperature factor. The indicator offered a potential to be used as a sensor on packaging of temperature sensitive foods. The indicator using Whatman paper No.42 with 1% of extract steadily decreased in RGB coefficient and changed its colour to darker in basic pH solution while the indicator with other treatments had unstable alteration RGB coefficient and colour.

Rosalina Rosalina ◽  
Ferry Ikhsandy ◽  
Agung Kurnia Yahya ◽  
Hibrah Hibrah

Nagari Sikucua, Kampung Dalam Subdistrict, Padang Pariaman produces nearly 800 tons of fragrant areca nut every year which is sent to Jambi to meet export needs. Areca nut contains tannins, substances that have many benefits, some of which are anti-inflammatory, corrosion inhibitors, antioxidants. This study aims to obtain tannins in areca nut extract through a kinetic maceration process with pre-treatment with ultrasonic irradiation wave. The dried areca nut was ground and sieved with various sizes of 20, 40 and 70 mesh and then extracted with ethanol as solvent. The concentration of ethanol used consisted of 35%, 50%, 65% and 80%. Ultrasonic irradiation waves were given for the initial 15 minutes of maceration and then continued with kinetic maceration for up to 4 hours in a water bath at 45°C. The extraction results were concentrated in a rotary evaporator and then tested for tannin levels using Follin Denish reagent in the standard series of tannic acid as a comparison with spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The highest yield of tannin content 11.10% was obtained in the 4-hour maceration process with pre-treatment ultrasonic irradiation at concentration of 80% ethanol with a size of 40 mesh.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 59-63
Fathir Alqodri ◽  
Ruzita Sumiati ◽  
Rakiman Rakiman ◽  
Yuli Yetri ◽  
Desmarita Leni

Due to the weaknesses of some existing areca peelers, some modifications were made. Modifications were made to the gear stripper, the addition of the inlet funnel, the gear stripper cover, and the exit funnel. The purpose of this modification of the design of the areca nut peeling machine is to make it easier for areca-producing farmers to peel their skin. Engine design specifications, using a 1/2 HP motor with a speed of 1500 rpm, 2-inch, and 10-inch pulleys, and a capacity of 5.16 kg/hour. The result of this modification is stated to be able to perform stripping with a large capacity. This machine is expected to be able to meet the needs of manual areca nut peelers to increase productivity.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7422
Martina Machová ◽  
Tomáš Bajer ◽  
David Šilha ◽  
Karel Ventura ◽  
Petra Bajerová

The volatile components of areca nuts were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber extraction) and simultaneous hydrodistillation–extraction (SHDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Furthermore, all SHDE fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on nine Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans). In total, 98 compounds (mainly alcohols, carbonyl compounds, fatty acids, esters, terpenes, terpenoids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons) were identified in SHDE fractions and by using SPME extraction Fatty acids were the main group of volatile constituents detected in all types of extracts. The microorganism most sensitive to the extract of the areca nut was Streptococcus canis. The results can provide essential information for the application of different treatments of areca nuts in the canning industry or as natural antibiotics.

2021 ◽  
pp. 128116
Yuan-Jhe Chang ◽  
Rajendra Bose Muthukumaran ◽  
Jian-Lian Chen ◽  
Hsin-Yi Chang ◽  
Yu-Cheng Hung ◽  

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