apparent density
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 95-103
Laysa Teles Vollbrecht ◽  
Adriano Reis Prazeres Mascarenhas ◽  
Rafael Rodolfo de Melo ◽  
Maúcha Fernanda de Mota Lima ◽  
Ricardo Pereira Soteil ◽  

Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the physical properties of wood from Buchenavia sp. The heat treatments were carried out at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C for 2 h. Apparent density (AD), basic density (BD), porosity (Ф), mass loss, longitudinal (LS), radial (RS), tangential (TS) and volumetric (VS) shrinkages and anisotropic factor (AF) were determined. The lowest values of basic density (0.67 g cm-3), apparent density (0.77 gcm-3), and porosity (43.3%) were observed for the wood treated at a temperature of 200 °C. Mass losses increased with increasing temperature and the highest values were observed under the condition of 200 °C (9.3%). The LS and AF was not affected by heat treatments. The mean values for RS (3.1%), TS (5.1%), and VS (9.1%) were reduced after the performance of heat treatments at temperatures of 180°C and 200°C, which did not differ from each other. The thermal treatments were able to reduce the dimensional instability of Buchenavia sp. Thermal treatments enhance the use of less prestigious Amazonian woods in the civil construction market.

Florence Collet ◽  
Sana Khaled ◽  
Sylvie Prétot ◽  
Marjorie Bart

This study investigates the feasibility of scaling-up to industrial scale the production of washing fines – hemp composite. In previous studies (Mazhoud, 2017), (Mazhoud et al., 2017), such composites were developed with a high control of formulation. The washing mud were fully dried, and then milled. The washing fine – hemp composites were prepared from stabilized washing fine and hemp. This study aims to reduce the mud conditioning process in order to save energy and time. In a first time, the methodology for the conditioning of washing mud is detailed. Composite are then prepared considering unstabilized matrix and stabilized matrix with three stabilizer to fine mass ratios (5, 10 and 20 %). The apparent density increases with stabilizer to fine mass ratios according a degree two polynomial law. The mechanical compressive strength increases linearly with apparent density and the performance allows the studied composites to be used as wall formulation regarding the French national rules for hemp concrete. The thermal conductivity values range from 0.107 to 0.123 W/(m.K) at (23°C; 50%RH) reached from production point, this corresponds to a mass water content about 6%. Like for mechanical compressive strength, the thermal conductivity is mainly induced by apparent density. These thermal conductivity values make studied composite suitable for use as distributed insulation or thermal corrector. On hygric point of view, the Moisture Buffer Values classify all formulations as excellent hygric regulators. Finally, this paper shows the feasibility of scaling-up and that multi-physical properties of produced composites make them suitable for use in building envelop. The HSC-10 formulation seems to be the most promising regarding MBV results and considering that it would be possible to reduce thermal conductivity by acting on implementation in order to reduce apparent density.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 257
Guoying Liu ◽  
Qiuyi Li ◽  
Jialin Song ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Haibao Liu ◽  

Due to the large amount of old hardened cement mortar attached to the surface of aggregate and the internal micro-cracks formed by the crushing process, the water absorption, apparent density, and crushing index of recycled coarse aggregate are still far behind those of natural coarse aggregate. Based on the performance requirements of different qualities of recycled coarse aggregate, the performance differences of recycled coarse aggregate before and after physical strengthening were observed. The results showed that the physical strengthening technique can remove old hardened mortar and micro powder attached to the surface of recycled coarse aggregate by mechanical action, which can effectively improve the quality of recycled coarse aggregate. The optimum calcination temperature of the recycled coarse aggregate was 400 °C and the grinding time was 20 min. The contents of the attached mortar in recycled coarse aggregates of Class I, II, and III were 7.9%, 22.8%, and 39.7%, respectively. The quality of recycled coarse aggregate was closely related to the amount of mortar attached to the surface. The higher the mortar content, the higher the water absorption, lower apparent density, and higher crushing index of the recycled coarse aggregate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Solomon Mekuria ◽  
Tesfu K. Mekonnen ◽  
Nigatu Kebede

Participatory investigation and trypanosomosis prevalence studied during April 2019 and March 2020 in two selected districts of South Omo, Ethiopia. The study site is located in the gridline of 04.90 to 5.60oN and 35.80 to 36.900 E. Twelve community groups are employed. A cross-sectional study design and 288 animals bled and examined a wet film prepared from the buffy coat. Sixty NGU traps baited with acetone and cow urine were deployed for 48 hrs to estimate the apparent density. Data generated from focus group discussion and trypanosomosis prevalence analyzed using an appropriate statistical package. Proportional piling showed that cattle, goats, and sheep were proportionally dominant with a high median score of 32(14–40), 26(12–33), and 21(5–23), respectively; trypanosomosis ranked first with a proportional median score of 24(13–26) followed by contagious bovine/caprine pleuropneumonia with a proportional median score of 23(19–26) among others. Community unanimously agreed that (W = 0.9) trypanosomosis affects their socioeconomic status and was able to describe clinical signs with significant (p < 0.05) agreement. Tsetse fly (Echut and Kusubo) is the main vector with the agreement of W = 0.9(p < 0.05). Perception on human trypanosomosis varies between Benna Tsemay and Gnagatom districts. Therefore, further study supported by laboratory like molecular test is very important to conclude the presence of human trypanosomosis in the suggested area. The overall prevalence of cattle trypanosomosis was 10.1%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was significantly higher in poor body condition (OR = 2.1, P < 0.05) and in black coat color (OR = 13.5, P < 0.05) animals. T. congolense and T. vivax were circulating in the area. A total of 455 Glossina (385 G. pallidipes, 17 G. tachinoides, and 53 G. fuscipes) were trapped. The overall apparent density of Glossina was 3.79 Flies/Trap/Day. Three species of Glossina, namely G. pallidipes, G. tachinoides, and G. fuscipes, were distributed in the study areas. Therefore, the finding suggests that the problem is significant and the human trypanosomosis is doubtful. Hence regular control measures and molecular diagnosis need to be conducted.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 1687
Jinling Yang ◽  
Shi Chen ◽  
Bei Zhang ◽  
Jiancang Zhuang ◽  
Linhai Wang ◽  

An Ms7.0 earthquake struck Jiuzhaigou (China) on 8 August 2017. The epicenter was in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, an area covered by a dense time-varying gravity observation network. Data from seven repeated high-precision hybrid gravity surveys (2014–2017) allowed the microGal-level time-varying gravity signal to be obtained at a resolution better than 75 km using the modified Bayesian gravity adjustment method. The “equivalent source” model inversion method in spherical coordinates was adopted to obtain the near-crust apparent density variations before the earthquake. A major gravity change occurred from the southwest to the northeast of the eastern Tibetan Plateau approximately 2 years before the earthquake, and a substantial gravity gradient zone was consistent with the tectonic trend that gradually appeared within the focal area of the Jiuzhaigou earthquake during 2015–2016. Factors that might cause such regional gravitational changes (e.g., vertical crustal deformation and variations in near-surface water distributions) were studied. The results suggest that gravity effects contributed by these known factors were insufficient to produce gravity changes as big as those observed, which might be related to the process of fluid material redistribution in the crust. Regional change of the gravity field has precursory significance for high-risk earthquake areas and it could be used as a candidate precursor for annual medium-term earthquake prediction.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4276
Katarzyna Uram ◽  
Aleksander Prociak ◽  
Laima Vevere ◽  
Ralfs Pomilovskis ◽  
Ugis Cabulis ◽  

This paper presents research into the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams with bio-polyols from rapeseed and tall oil. Rigid polyurethane foams were designed with a cryogenic insulation application for aerospace in mind. The polyurethane systems containing non-renewable diethylene glycol (DEG) were modified by replacing it with rapeseed oil-based low functional polyol (LF), obtained by a two-step reaction of epoxidation and oxirane ring opening with 1-hexanol. It was observed that as the proportion of the LF polyol in the polyurethane system increased, so too did the apparent density of the foam material. An increase in the value of the thermal conductivity coefficient was associated with an increase in the value of apparent density. Mechanical tests showed that the rigid polyurethane foam had higher compressive strength at cryogenic temperatures compared with the values obtained at room temperature. The adhesion test indicated that the foams subjected to cryo-shock obtained similar values of adhesion strength to the materials that were not subjected to this test. The results obtained were higher than 0.1 MPa, which is a favourable value for foam materials in low-temperature applications.

2021 ◽  
Jason M Cox ◽  
Joshua D Smith ◽  
Marjolein C H van der Meulen ◽  
Jacqueline H Cole

The structural integrity of cancellous bone, which is essential to skeletal load-bearing capacity, is governed chiefly by apparent density, trabecular architecture, and tissue material properties. Metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis can affect each of these factors separately, resulting in compromised load-bearing function. While the impact of apparent density and architecture on bone mechanical behavior has been well-documented, much less is known about the influence of tissue material properties, particularly in osteoporotic bone. The goal of the present study is to isolate the influence of tissue material properties on the pre-yield mechanical response of normal and osteoporotic cancellous bone to uniaxial compression using finite element (FE) models derived from 3D micro-computed tomography images. Both average tissue material properties and the degree of tissue material heterogeneity vary between individuals. Therefore, three sets of FE models were created to study the relative importance of these two factors: 1) models with material homogeneity within and between subjects, 2) models with material homogeneity within subjects only, and 3) models with material heterogeneity within and between subjects. The results of finite element analyses were compared to data gathered from physical testing with matched conditions. For normal bone, incorporating material heterogeneity within and between subjects had no significant effect on model performance. For osteoporotic bone, incorporating material heterogeneity within subjects did not affect model performance, but models that incorporated subject-specific average material properties were significantly more accurate in replicating the results of physical testing. We conclude that, while the influence of bone apparent density and trabecular architecture on apparent stiffness are dominant in healthy bone, average material properties also play a role in osteoporotic bone. Osteoporosis is diagnosed based on apparent density alone, so our findings suggest a need to consider other patient-specific differences that may affect average tissue material properties, such a bone remodeling rate, in clinical assessments of osteoporotic bone structural integrity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Robert Opiro ◽  
Robert Opoke ◽  
Harriet Angwech ◽  
Esther Nakafu ◽  
Francis A. Oloya ◽  

Abstract Background African trypanosomiasis, caused by protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly, is a serious parasitic disease of humans and animals. Reliable data on the vector distribution, feeding preference and the trypanosome species they carry is pertinent to planning sustainable control strategies. Methodology We deployed 109 biconical traps in 10 villages in two districts of northwestern Uganda to obtain information on the apparent density, trypanosome infection status and blood meal sources of tsetse flies. A subset (272) of the collected samples was analyzed for detection of trypanosomes species and sub-species using a nested PCR protocol based on primers amplifying the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. 34 blood-engorged adult tsetse midguts were analyzed for blood meal sources by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. Results We captured a total of 622 Glossina fuscipes fuscipes tsetse flies (269 males and 353 females) in the two districts with apparent density (AD) ranging from 0.6 to 3.7 flies/trap/day (FTD). 10.7% (29/272) of the flies were infected with one or more trypanosome species. Infection rate was not significantly associated with district of origin (Generalized linear model (GLM), χ2 = 0.018, P = 0.895, df = 1, n = 272) and sex of the fly (χ2 = 1.723, P = 0.189, df = 1, n = 272). However, trypanosome infection was highly significantly associated with the fly’s age based on wing fray category (χ2 = 22.374, P < 0.001, df = 1, n = 272), being higher among the very old than the young tsetse. Nested PCR revealed several species of trypanosomes: T. vivax (6.62%), T. congolense (2.57%), T. brucei and T. simiae each at 0.73%. Blood meal analyses revealed five principal vertebrate hosts, namely, cattle (Bos taurus), humans (Homo sapiens), Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus), African mud turtle (Pelusios chapini) and the African Savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana). Conclusion We found an infection rate of 10.8% in the tsetse sampled, with all infections attributed to trypanosome species that are causative agents for AAT. However, more verification of this finding using large-scale passive and active screening of human and tsetse samples should be done. Cattle and humans appear to be the most important tsetse hosts in the region and should be considered in the design of control interventions.

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