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2021 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rebecca Leigh Rowe ◽  
Tolonda Henderson ◽  
Tianyu Wang

When fans rewrite characters, how do they engage that character's identity and the social constructions around it? Fan fiction writers resist, replicate, and create oppressive social systems by changing characters between published and fan texts. As such, fan studies scholars have long been interested in how fans construct characters, an interest that has often been paired with readings of race, gender, and sexuality. Digital humanities can help confirm and nuance extant fan studies scholarship around specific characters popular in fan fiction. We used Word2Vec software to mine the text of 450 pieces of fan fiction based on J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series. By focusing on the depiction of Hermione Granger in both Rowling's novels and Harry Potter fan fiction, we tested how text mining character names can reveal properties closely tied to a specific character through the relationships between the target name and other characters. Analysis via Word2Vec found that "Hermione" is used grammatically and contextually differently in the books (in which she is most like Harry and Ron) than in our fan fiction corpus (in which she is most like other girls/women). This difference suggests that these fans have a specific reading of Hermione that is communally understood even if Rowling's diction offers a different reading.


2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (4) ◽  
pp. 33-36
Author(s):  
V. Rubcov ◽  
A. Trebuhin ◽  
A. Nefedov ◽  
E. Klochkova ◽  
I. Olenina ◽  
...  

Purpose: The article covers issues related to the providing personal protection for the personnel of radiation hazardous facilities. Specific character of working conditions at the enterprises in the field of atomic energy use is caused by extremely high toxic level of radioactive substances and the fact that there is no human sense organ which can identify dangerous levels of radiation exposure. Establishment of mandatory requirements for manufacturing, identification and verification of personal protection equipment (PPE) in the field of atomic energy use is needed because using of low-quality PPE and PPE not complying with working conditions poses a risk for the health of workers. The article provides results of analysis of the regulatory frameworks, both current and under development, which set the requirements for PPE. Results: Since 2017 Rosatom is executing plans for development of series of industry standards specifying requirements for PPE in the field of atomic energy use and methods of their testing. More than 25 interstate and national standards on PPE were included in the Summary list of standardization documents in the field of atomic energy use. PPE was included in the list of products subject to mandatory certification and having requirements for safety assurance in the field of atomic energy use specified. Industry and national standards establishing requirements for PPE protecting from tritium, radioactive noble gases, radioactive iodine, high-toxic alpha-emitting radionuclides, as well as standards on methods of their testing are planned to be developed soon. Conclusion: The system of standardizing requirements for PPE in the field of atomic energy use created by, together with existing system of certification of PPE in the field of atomic energy use will help to increase effectiveness of personal protection of the personnel at radiation and chemical hazardous facilities in nuclear industry.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Davor Brčić ◽  
◽  
Božo Radulović ◽  

Public transport is of great importance for the development of urban and suburban areas, so high importance is attached to the analysis of the current situation in order to identify certain shortcomings and room for improvement. The area of Dubrovnik is of a specific character, apart from its location along the coast, it has the character of a very attractive tourist centre. This paper will present the results of the analysis of the organization of public transport in this area and present certain conclusions from it.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Regina Müller ◽  
Christoph Rach ◽  
Sabine Salloch

Abstract Background Patient advocacy organizations (PAOs) have an increasing influence on health policy and biomedical research, therefore, questions about the specific character of their responsibility arise: Can PAOs bear moral responsibility and, if so, to whom are they responsible, for what and on which normative basis? Although the concept of responsibility in healthcare is strongly discussed, PAOs particularly have rarely been systematically analyzed as morally responsible agents. The aim of the current paper is to analyze the character of PAOs’ responsibility to provide guidance to themselves and to other stakeholders in healthcare. Methods Responsibility is presented as a concept with four reference points: (1) The subject, (2) the object, (3) the addressee and (4) the underlying normative standard. This four-point relationship is applied to PAOs and the dimensions of collectivity and prospectivity are analyzed in each reference point. Results Understood as collectives, PAOs are, in principle, capable of intentionality and able to act and, thus, fulfill one prerequisite for the attribution of moral responsibility. Given their common mission to represent those affected, PAOs can be seen as responsible for patients’ representation and advocacy, primarily towards a certain group but secondarily in a broader social context. Various legal and political statements and the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence and empowerment can be used as a normative basis for attributing responsibility to PAOs. Conclusions The understanding of responsibility as a four-point relation incorporating collective and forward-looking dimensions helps one to understand the PAOs’ roles and responsibilities better. The analysis, thus, provides a basis for the debate about PAOs’ contribution and cooperation in the healthcare sector.


Author(s):  
Elina Novikova ◽  
◽  
Anna Naumova ◽  

The article considers the specific character of modern translation discourse, trends and opportunities of realization in the era of changes and global challenges. The relevance of the article is determined by the need to establish common and distinctive forms of expression and formats of translation discourse. The representative sources of three communicatively active discursive practices constitute the empirical base of the paper: scientific / translation studies translation discourse; professional / industry translation discourse; didactic translation discourse. The textual material of the discourse under consideration is analyzed in order to identify thematic dominants of three subtypes under consideration. The similarities and differences of the topics discussed by the translation community within the framework of the selected discursive practices are determined. Sources of translation discourse in Russian and German linguistic cultures were also involved in the analysis to identify common and distinctive features. The analysis revealed the tendency of the Russian-language translation discourse to be a more profound scientific search and substantiation of translation problems, and, on the contrary, the tendency of the German- and English-language discourses to discuss applied issues. The analyzed subtypes of translation discourse reveal certain unifying features: current challenges reaction rapidity, new phenomena and trends in society. However, these subtypes have translation tools of their own, traditions and formats that shape thematic dominants of each direction of the discourse. Thus, the paper revealed the dynamic nature of the discourse, on the one hand, and its sustainable development, on the other.


Author(s):  
Jingye Chen ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Xiangyang Xue

Chinese character recognition has attracted much research interest due to its wide applications. Although it has been studied for many years, some issues in this field have not been completely resolved yet, \textit{e.g.} the zero-shot problem. Previous character-based and radical-based methods have not fundamentally addressed the zero-shot problem since some characters or radicals in test sets may not appear in training sets under a data-hungry condition. Inspired by the fact that humans can generalize to know how to write characters unseen before if they have learned stroke orders of some characters, we propose a stroke-based method by decomposing each character into a sequence of strokes, which are the most basic units of Chinese characters. However, we observe that there is a one-to-many relationship between stroke sequences and Chinese characters. To tackle this challenge, we employ a matching-based strategy to transform the predicted stroke sequence to a specific character. We evaluate the proposed method on handwritten characters, printed artistic characters, and scene characters. The experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms existing methods on both character zero-shot and radical zero-shot tasks. Moreover, the proposed method can be easily generalized to other languages whose characters can be decomposed into strokes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. e631
Author(s):  
Francesca Del Bonifro ◽  
Maurizio Gabbrielli ◽  
Antonio Lategano ◽  
Stefano Zacchiroli

Programming language identification (PLI) is a common need in automatic program comprehension as well as a prerequisite for deeper forms of code understanding. Image-based approaches to PLI have recently emerged and are appealing due to their applicability to code screenshots and programming video tutorials. However, they remain limited to the recognition of a small amount of programming languages (up to 10 languages in the literature). We show that it is possible to perform image-based PLI on a large number of programming languages (up to 149 in our experiments) with high (92%) precision and recall, using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and transfer learning, starting from readily-available pretrained CNNs. Results were obtained on a large real-world dataset of 300,000 code snippets extracted from popular GitHub repositories. By scrambling specific character classes and comparing identification performances we also show that the characters that contribute the most to the visual recognizability of programming languages are symbols (e.g., punctuation, mathematical operators and parentheses), followed by alphabetic characters, with digits and indentation having a negligible impact.


Author(s):  
Monika ◽  
Monika Ingole ◽  
Khemutai Tighare

In this paper, an endeavor is made to perceive handwritten characters for English letters in order. The principle point of this task is to plan a master framework for, "HCR(English) utilizing Neural Network". that can viably perceive a specific character of type design utilizing the Artificial Neural Network approach. The handwritten character acknowledgment issue has become the most well-known issue in AI. Handwritten character acknowledgment has been a difficult space of examination, with the execution of Machine Learning we propose a Neural Network based methodology. Acknowledgment, precision rate, execution and execution time are a significant model that will be met by the technique being utilized.


2021 ◽  
pp. 93-117
Author(s):  
Marek Smulczyk

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of resilience in the educational area, which is defined as an increased probability of success in school, despite experiencing adversities caused by the characteristics of the individual, his living conditions and experiences. The academic resilience construct was used, referring to the convention of the authors of the PISA/OECD study, and placed in the current context of the pandemic threat experience. In order to characterise the students belonging to the academic resilience group, two research questions were formulated: What is the scope of the phenomenon of academic resilience? and What individual and contextual factors are specific to this group of students? The analyses were performed on panel data from a nationwide project “Paths of educational development of young people – post-secondary schools”, in which a number of psychological tools and questionnaires examining the socio-educational functioning of students were used. Comparative analyses of the means for the distinguished group against the three reference groups show similarities and differences of intellectual and social functioning as well as attitudes, relationships, anti-social and anti-school behaviour, and leisure activities. The obtained picture of academic resilient students is not unequivocal, but thanks to the study it acquires a more specific character. Knowledge about these students can allow for the preparation of effective compensation measures in education, support the functioning of children from low-status families, and increase the efficiency of functioning during difficult experiences, such as the recently experienced school closures and the introduction of distance learning.


Author(s):  
Adela Muchova

This paper examines pastoral practice of the Academic Parish of Prague in compliance with its specific character – service to people from academia. Data analysis from qualitative interviews and document-based research identified two major areas of ministry – pastoral care (ad intra) and public engagement (ad extra) – and positioned the community somewhat between a parish ministry and chaplaincy. Specifically, empirical research suggested that people opt for this parish because it acknowledges their social, spiritual and intellectual needs seriously and relevantly, and addresses its members with respect. Theologically, it maintains there is a compatibility between the parish offer and expectations of people, and argues that the parish interpreted and handled its specific mission – addressing urban and educated people – relevantly and authentically.


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