Communication Channels
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2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3A) ◽  
pp. 616-633
Tatiana N. Malofeeva ◽  
Elena J. Makushina ◽  
Vladimir Shestakov

In today's world, the disclosure of information by a firm affects its position in the financial markets. Enterprises contact investors utilizing reporting about certain events. For this purpose, both official financial reports and less regulated communication channels, such as the company's website on the Internet, personal meetings, or social networks, can be used. The relevance of this research result is primarily due to the increased attention of investors to voluntary disclosures rather than mandatory ones. By studying a sample of companies in the automotive industry from the United States and Europe, we found out that making positive and negative voluntary disclosures on the annual return on shares of these companies. The paper reports that this effect is significant: while it increases the shares' annual yield with positive disclosures and decreases with negative ones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 392-400
Ljerka Luić ◽  
Krešimir Labura

The priority of modern business systems of municipal waste management is recycling of waste materials while the imperative of their mission is determined by the degree of digital transformation which enables their reproduction, distribution, usage, and storage of information in digital form, as well as new ways of digital communication with the general public. In this paper the focus is on examining the information practices and digital perspectives of municipal waste recycling service providers in Europe. The goal of this paper was to detect information concepts relevant for establishing the degree of their digital maturity. Five data classes were created for the purpose of content analysis method to conduct research on practices on digital communication channels in seven countries to evaluate their availability and accuracy. The designed information model defines a unique conceptual framework of the digital communication information set of the municipal waste recycling service providers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 65-72
Krzysztof Sawicki ◽  
Grzegorz Bieszczad ◽  
Tomasz Sosnowski ◽  
Mariusz Mścichowski

The article presents a new concept of using thermography – steganography in thermography. Steganography is a technique of hiding information in a non-obvious way and belongs to the field of science related to information security. This article examines three examples of steganographic channels – covert communication channels that use thermal imaging devices in three different ways. The first proposed method uses the possibility of alternating the scene observed by the infrared camera in a way that additional information is included in the thermogram. The second method, called ThermoSteg, uses modification of one of the parameters of the thermal imaging camera (integration time) to embed the signal containing hidden information. The third method is based on digital thermograms and the methods of replacing dead pixels in them by creating the so-called zombie pixels carrying secretive information. Three methods have been implemented under real conditions and proven to work in practice.

Andrey Trofimov ◽  
Feliks Taubin

Introduction: Since the exact value of a decoding error probability cannot usually be calculated, an upper bounding technique is used. The standard approach for obtaining the upper bound on the maximum likelihood decoding error probability is based on the use of the union bound and the Chernoff bound, as well as its modifications. For many situations, this approach is not accurate enough. Purpose: Development of a method for exact calculation of the union bound for a decoding error probability, for a wide class of codes and memoryless channels. Methods: Use of characteristic functions of logarithm of the likelihood ratio for an arbitrary pair of codewords, trellis representation of codes and numerical integration. Results: The resulting exact union bound on the decoding error probability is based on a combination of the use of characteristic functions and the product of trellis diagrams for the code, which allows to obtain the final expression in an integral form convenient for numerical integration. An important feature of the proposed procedure is that it allows one to accurately calculate the union bound using an approach based on the use of transfer (generating) functions. With this approach, the edge labels in the product of trellis diagrams for the code are replaced by their corresponding characteristic functions. The final expression allows, using the standard methods of numerical integration, to calculate the values of the union bound on the decoding error probability with the required accuracy. Practical relevance: The results presented in this article make it possible to significantly improve the accuracy of the bound of the error decoding probability, and thereby increase the efficiency of technical solutions in the design of specific coding schemes for a wide class of communication channels.

Nina N. Golodnova

The Library Bibliographic Classification (LBC) is the national classification sistem of the Russian Federation. Its support is one of the priority areas of activity of the Russian State Library. The LBC is used in most libraries of the country, fully covering the most numerous groups — public and school libraries, all central libraries of the entities of the Russian Federation, libraries for children and youth, special libraries for the blind and visually impaired persons, libraries of higher educational institutions, libraries of the armed forces of the Russian Federation as well as part of the libraries of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), other systems and authorities.The work with the LBC involves its development as a system of versions and publications (maintaining the standard of the LBC schedules in machine-readable form; timely updating the content and structure of the LBC; preparation, publishing, and distribution of the Abridged, Medium and Complete LBC schedules in printed and machine-readable forms, immediate changes and corrections to the schedules). There is a need for methods to systematise documents on the basis of the LBC, provision of consulting work to the library network of the country (conducting training seminars, publishing recommendations and practical guide-books, conducting operational consulting, using available communication channels); maintaining the system of training and professional development of personnel, etc.Since the 2000s, all areas of scientific and practical activity on the management of the LBC have focused on the task of modernising the national classification system. The paper analyses the system of versions of the LBC which was implemented in the form of various versions of the classification schedules. The identifying features are the title and the year of publication. The main schedules are Complete, Medium, and Abridged schedules which are supplemented with Special ones. The article presents the historical evolution of the system of BC versions depending on the conditions of its functioning. The theoretical justification is given and the problems of practical implementation of the modernisation of the schedules are considered.

JMIR Diabetes ◽  
10.2196/21356 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. e21356
Kari Jalkanen ◽  
Riia Järvenpää ◽  
Tanja Tilles-Tirkkonen ◽  
Janne Martikainen ◽  
Emma Aarnio ◽  

Background Clinical trials have shown that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is preventable through lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk people. Nevertheless, large-scale implementation of risk identification followed by preventive interventions has proven to be challenging. Specifically, recruitment of participants into preventive interventions is an important but often overlooked part of the intervention. Objective This study aims to compare the reach and yield of different communication channels to engage people at increased risk of T2D to fill in a digital screening questionnaire, with emphasis on reaching those at most risk. The participants expressing their willingness to participate is the final step in the risk screening test, and we aim to determine which channels had the most participants reach this step. Methods We established a stepwise web-based T2D risk screening tool with automated feedback according to the T2D risk level and, for those who were eligible, an invitation to participate in the StopDia prevention intervention study conducted in a primary health care setting. The risk estimate was based on the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score; history of repeatedly measured high blood glucose concentration; or, among women, previous gestational diabetes. We used several channels to invite people to the StopDia web-based screening tool, and respondents were classified into 11 categories based on the channel through which they reported having learned about StopDia. The demographics of respondents reached via different communication channels were compared using variance analysis. Logistic regression was used to study the respondents’ likelihood of progressing through risk screening steps. Results A total of 33,399 persons started filling the StopDia screening tool. Of these, 86.13% (28,768/33,399) completed the test and named at least one communication channel as the source of information about StopDia. Altogether, 26,167 persons filled in sufficient information to obtain risk estimates. Of them, 53.22% (13,925/26,167) were at increased risk, 30.06% (7866/26,167) were men, and 39.77% (10,136/25,485) had low or middle education levels. Most frequently mentioned channels were workplace (n=6817), social media or the internet (n=6712), and newspapers (n=4784). The proportion of individuals at increased risk was highest among those reached via community pharmacies (415/608, 68.3%) and health care (1631/2535, 64.33%). The communication channel reaching the largest percentage of interested and eligible men (1353/3979, 34%) was relatives or friends. Health care (578/1069, 54.07%) and radio or television (225/487, 46.2%) accounted for the largest proportion of people with lower education. Conclusions Communication channels reaching a large number of people, such as social media and newspapers, were the most effective channels for identifying at-risk people. Personalized approaches increased the engagement of men and less-educated people. Community pharmacies and health care services reached people with a particularly high T2D risk. Thus, communication and recruitment channels should be selected and modified based on the intended target group. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR2-10.1186/s12889-019-6574-y

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1098
Tai-Cheng Yu ◽  
Wei-Ta Huang ◽  
Wei-Bin Lee ◽  
Chi-Wai Chow ◽  
Shu-Wei Chang ◽  

Visible light communication (VLC) is an advanced, highly developed optical wireless communication (OWC) technology that can simultaneously provide lighting and high-speed wireless data transmission. A VLC system has several key advantages: ultra-high data rate, secure communication channels, and a lack of interference from electromagnetic (EM) waves, which enable a wide range of applications. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been considered the optimal choice for VLC systems since they can provide excellent illumination performance. However, the quantum confinement Stark effect (QCSE), crystal orientation, carrier lifetime, and recombination factor will influence the modulation bandwidth, and the transmission performance is severely limited. To solve the insufficient modulation bandwidth, micro-LEDs (μ-LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) are considered as new ideal light sources. Additionally, the development of modulation technology has dramatically increased the transmission capacity of the system. The performance of the VLC system is briefly discussed in this review article, as well as some of its prospective applications in the realms of the industrial Internet of Things (IoT), vehicle communications, and underwater wireless network applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 135-141
Caroline Choo Phaik Ong ◽  
Candy Suet Cheng Choo ◽  
Nigel Choon Kiat Tan ◽  
Lin Yin Ong

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated use of technology like videoconferencing (VC) in healthcare settings to maintain clinical teaching and continuous professional development (CPD) activities. Sociomaterial theory highlights the relationship of humans with sociomaterial forces, including technology. We used sociomaterial framing to review effect on CPD learning outcomes of morbidity and mortality meetings (M&M) when changed from face-to-face (FTF) to VC. Methods: All surgical department staff were invited to participate in a survey about their experience of VC M&M compared to FTF M&M. Survey questions focused on technological impact of the learning environment and CPD outcomes. Respondents used 5-point Likert scale and free text for qualitative responses. De-identified data was analysed using Chi-squared comparative analysis with p<0.05 significance, and qualitative responses categorised. Results: Of 42 invited, 30 (71.4%) responded. There was no significant difference in self-reported perception of CPD learning outcomes between FTF and VC M&M. Participants reported that VC offered more convenient meeting access, improved ease of presentation and viewing but reduced engagement. VC technology allowed alternative communication channels that improved understanding and increased junior participation. Participants requested more technological support, better connectivity and guidance on VC etiquette. Conclusion: VC technology had predictable effects of improved access, learning curve problems and reduced interpersonal connection. Sociomaterial perspective revealed additional unexpected VC behaviours of chat box use that augmented CPD learning. Recognising the sociocultural and emotional impact of technology improves planning and learner support when converting FTF to VC M&M.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10064
Karmen Erjavec ◽  
Marjan Janžekovič ◽  
Milena Kovač ◽  
Mojca Simčič ◽  
Andrej Mergeduš ◽  

The study aims to identify any changes in the communication channels used by Slovenian livestock farmers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the main (dis)advantages of relying on them. An online survey was completed by 502 Slovenian farmers of various farm enterprises in winter 2020/2021. Most respondents generally used telephone, e-mail, and the internet to obtain agricultural information before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, farmers increasingly relied on online conferences and social networking sites. At the same time, younger farmers and farmers with a higher education level used digital channels the most frequently, with men doing so more often than women. Digital channels were primarily used by cattle and horse farmers, while cattle farmers showed the greatest online conference participation. Respondents reported having more time to spend with their families and animals as an advantage and the lack of face-to-face interaction with other farmers and advisers as a disadvantage of such communication patterns. As the study reveals differences in the use of communication channels during the COVID-19 pandemic by various farmers, a new communication strategy is needed that involves the use of appropriate communication channels to provide farmers with agricultural information both during the COVID-19 situation and later.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Kamoru A. Lawal ◽  
Eniola Olaniyan ◽  
Ibrahim Ishiyaku ◽  
Linda C. Hirons ◽  
Elisabeth Thompson ◽  

This paper identifies fundamental issues which prevent the effective uptake of climate information services in Nigeria. We propose solutions which involve the extension of short-range (1 to 5 days) forecasts beyond that of medium-range (7 to 15 days) timescales through the operational use of current forecast data as well as improve collaboration and communication with forecast users. Using newly available data to provide seamless operational forecasts from short-term to sub-seasonal timescales, we examine evidence to determine if effective demand-led sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts can be co-produced. This evidence involves: itemization of forecast products delivered to stakeholders, with their development methodology; enumeration of inferences of forecast products and their influences on decisions taken by stakeholders; user-focused discussions of improvements on co-produced products; and the methods of evaluating the performance of the forecast products.We find that extending the production pipeline of short-range forecast timescales beyond the medium-range, such that the medium-range forecast timescales can be fed into existing tools for applying short-range forecasts, assisted in mitigating the risks of sub-seasonal climate variability on socio-economic activities in Nigeria. We also find that enhancing of collaboration and communication channels between the producers and the forecast product users helps to: enhance the development of user-tailored impact-based forecasts; increases users' trusts in the forecasts; and, seamlessly improves forecast evaluations. In general, these measures lead to more smooth delivery and increase in uptake of climate information services in Nigeria.

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