obese mice
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112491
Zhe Cheng ◽  
Xinyu Xiong ◽  
Yi Zhou ◽  
Fan Wu ◽  
Qingqing Shao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Bridget A Matikainen-Ankney ◽  
Alex A Legaria ◽  
Yvan M Vachez ◽  
Caitlin A Murphy ◽  
Yiyan A Pan ◽  

Obesity is a chronic relapsing disorder that is caused by an excess of caloric intake relative to energy expenditure. In addition to homeostatic feeding mechanisms, there is growing recognition of the involvement of food reward and motivation in the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear how brain circuits that control food reward and motivation are altered in obese animals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that signaling through pro-motivational circuits in the core of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is enhanced in the obese state, leading to invigoration of food seeking. Using a novel behavioral assay that quantifies physical work during food seeking, we confirmed that obese mice work harder than lean mice to obtain food, consistent with an increase in the relative reinforcing value of food in the obese state. To explain this behavioral finding, we recorded neural activity in the NAc core with both in vivo electrophysiology and cell-type specific calcium fiber photometry. Here we observed greater activation of D1-receptor expressing NAc spiny projection neurons (NAc D1SPNs) during food seeking in obese mice relative to lean mice. With ex vivo slice physiology we identified both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms that contribute to this enhancement in NAc D1SPN activity in obese mice. Finally, blocking synaptic transmission from D1SPNs decreased physical work during food seeking and attenuated high-fat diet-induced weight gain. These experiments demonstrate that obesity is associated with a selective increase in the activity of D1SPNs during food seeking, which enhances the vigor of food seeking. This work also establishes the necessity of D1SPNs in the development of diet-induced obesity, identifying a novel potential therapeutic target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yaqiong Chen ◽  
Jiang Wang ◽  
Yibing Wang ◽  
Pengfei Wang ◽  
Zan Zhou ◽  

AbstractThe molecular targets and mechanisms of propolis ameliorating metabolic syndrome are not fully understood. Here, we report that Brazilian green propolis reduces fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice by disrupting the formation of CREB/CRTC2 transcriptional complex, a key regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Using a mammalian two-hybrid system based on CREB-CRTC2, we identify artepillin C (APC) from propolis as an inhibitor of CREB-CRTC2 interaction. Without apparent toxicity, APC protects mice from high fat diet-induced obesity, decreases fasting glucose levels, enhances insulin sensitivity and reduces lipid levels in the serum and liver by suppressing CREB/CRTC2-mediated both gluconeogenic and SREBP transcriptions. To develop more potential drugs from APC, we designed and found a novel compound, A57 that exhibits higher inhibitory activity on CREB-CRTC2 association and better capability of improving insulin sensitivity in obese animals, as compared with APC. In this work, our results indicate that CREB/CRTC2 is a suitable target for developing anti-metabolic syndrome drugs.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 251
Zujie Xu ◽  
Ying Qin ◽  
Binbin Lv ◽  
Zhenjun Tian ◽  
Bing Zhang

Intermittent fasting (IF) plays an essential role in improving lipid metabolism disorders caused by metabolic cardiomyopathy. Growing evidence revealed that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is related to obesity and lipid metabolic. Our study aimed to assess the beneficial effects of IF on lipid deposition, apoptosis, and m6A methylation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity cardiomyopathy. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD ad libitum for 13 weeks, after which time a subgroup of HFD mice were subjected to IF for 24 h and fed HFD in the other day for 8 weeks. We found that IF intervention significantly improved cardiac functional and structural impairment and serum lipid metabolic disorder induced by HFD. Furthermore, IF intervention decreased the mRNA levels of the fatty acid uptake genes of FABP1, FATP1, and CD36 and the fatty acid synthesis genes of SREBF1, FAS, and ACCα and increased the mRNA levels of the fatty acid catabolism genes of ATGL, HSL, LAL, and LPL in cardiac tissueof HFD-induced obese mice. TUNEL-positive cells, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and Cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression in HFD-induced obese mice hearts was down-regulated by IF intervention. In addition, IF intervention decreased the m6A methylation levels and METTL3 expression and increased FTO expression in HFD-induced obesity cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IF attenuated cardiac lipid deposition and apoptosis, as well as improved cardiac functional and structural impairment in HFD-induced obesity cardiomyopathy, by a mechanism associated with decreased m6A RNA methylation levels.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Hèctor Sanz-Lamora ◽  
Pedro F. Marrero ◽  
Diego Haro ◽  
Joana Relat

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with severe metabolic consequences. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants and the most abundant dietary antioxidants, which possess a wide range of health effects. The most relevant food sources are fruit and vegetables, red wine, black and green tea, coffee, virgin olive oil, and chocolate, as well as nuts, seeds, herbs, and spices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a pure, isolated polyphenol supplementation to counteract the pernicious metabolic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD). Our results indicated that the administration of pure, isolated polyphenols under HFD conditions for 26 weeks worsened the glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. The data showed that the main target organ for these undesirable effects were the kidneys, where we observed fibrotic, oxidative, and kidney-disease markers. This work led us to conclude that the administration of pure polyphenols as a food supplement would not be advisable. Instead, the ingestion of complete “whole” foods would be the best way to get the health effects of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 217
Hwa-Young Lee ◽  
Geum-Hwa Lee ◽  
Young Yoon ◽  
The-Hiep Hoang ◽  
Han-Jung Chae

Obesity is a global health issue linked to the heightened risk of several chronic diseases. Rhus verniciflua (RV) is a traditional food supplement used for a range of pharmacological effects such as antitumor, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory effects, hepatitis, and arthritis. Despite the traditional medicinal values, scientific evidence for its application in obesity is inadequate and unclear. Thus, this investigation was designed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of IBF-R, an RV extract, using a high-fat diet (HFD) model. The study has six groups: chow diet group; chow diet with 80 mg/kg IBF-R; HFD group; IBF-R group with 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. IBF-R supplementation significantly regulated the weight gain than the HFD fed mice. Further, IBF-R supplementation lowered the expressions of adipogenic transcription factors such as SREBP-1c, C/EBPα, FAS, and PPAR-γ in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice. In addition, IBF-R supplementation reduced the lipogenic gene expression while enhancing genes was related to fatty acid oxidation. Obesity is linked to redox-based post-translational modifications (PTMs) of IRE1α such as S-nitrosylation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and chronic metabolic inflammation. The administration of IBF-R inhibits these PTMs. Notably, IBF-R administration significantly enhanced the expression of AMPK and sirtuin 1 in WAT of HFD-fed mice. Together, these findings reveal the IRE1α S-nitrosylation-inflammation axis as a novel mechanism behind the positive implications of IBF-R on obesity. In addition, it lays a firm foundation for the development of Rhus verniciflua extract as a functional ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

2022 ◽  
Wei-ping Zeng

Abstract Obesity and overweight pose serious risk for many diseases and clinical conditions.However currently available weight loss strategies and pharmacotherapies of obesity are notsatisfactory. This study shows that treatments with pH modifiers such as acids are not only welltolerated by obese mice but also very effective in reducing bodyweight and fat mass by depletingand suppressing the proliferation of proliferating epithelial cells of the intestinal villi. Thereforeother cell proliferation inhibitors that suppress intestinal epithelial renewal can also be used forpharmacotherapy of obesity and overweight.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101437
Vanessa Rodrigues Vilela ◽  
Nolwenn Samson ◽  
Renato Nachbar ◽  
Lia Rossi Perazza ◽  
Gabriel Lachance ◽  

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