Social Development
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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Michael Trebilcock

Abstract A substantial consensus has emerged in development circles that the reason why some countries are rich and others poor is largely a reflection of the quality of their institutions – political, bureaucratic, and legal – and that countries with seriously dysfunctional institutions cannot expect to pursue a successful long-term trajectory of economic and social development. Many studies support this consensus, but institutional reform efforts for developed countries have resulted in mixed to weak results; many of these efforts have failed, for example, to establish a robust rule of law to protect the rights of citizens, publicly accountable political regimes, a meritocratic, noncorrupt, and efficient bureaucracy, and an independent media. Reportedly up to 60% of donor-assisted reforms have yielded no measurable increase in government effectiveness. It is inferred from this disappointing result that institutional transplants are often ineffective, and the path dependence, caused by accretions of the particularities of given countries’ histories, cultures, politics, ethnic and religious make-up, and geography leaves each country, for the most part, “to write its own history”.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Yuxin Yuan

A review of the research on the impact of DanceSport on the body-esteem of Chinese college students found that: there are demographic differences in the body-esteem of Chinese college students; DanceSport has a promoting effect on the level of body-esteem and its dimensions, and can promote their social development by improving their mental health; the physical and psychological benefits of DanceSport to college students and their mechanism are worthy of in-depth discussion by researchers in order to promote the healthy development of the body and mind of college students in China.

2021 ◽  
Tim Weiss ◽  
Markus Perkmann ◽  
Nelson Phillips

Research on new venture creation in Africa is growing rapidly. This increasing interest reflects both the potential for entrepreneurship to contribute to the economic and social development of Africa, as well as the potential for this research to provide new insights that challenge and extend theories developed primarily from studies of North American and European new ventures. In this editorial essay, we argue for an expansion of this important research stream to include a focus on how technology ventures scale in Africa. We identify seven topics that offer interesting opportunities for research on scaling in Africa: (1) the effect of venture location on scaling; (2) the effect of founding team diversity on scaling; (3) the effect of entrepreneurial strategies on scaling; (4) the effect of nascent ecosystems on scaling; (5) the effect of the institutional environment on scaling; (6) the effect of nascent financial markets on scaling; and (7) the societal effects of scaling. We discuss each of these topics, their potential to contribute to the existing literature, and provide examples of African technology firms that have scaled to illustrate each topic. We conclude with a discussion of how African social, political, and regulatory change, combined with rapidly developing entrepreneurial ecosystems, are creating a context where the successful scaling of technology ventures is becoming increasingly common, and research is therefore increasingly valuable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9886
Roberta Nossa ◽  
Matteo Porro ◽  
Odoardo Picciolini ◽  
Matteo Malosio ◽  
Simone Pittaccio ◽  

Game activity is fundamental for children’s cognitive and social development. During recent years, technology development has led to changes in several areas, including the ludic one. However, while in the literature, there are plenty of studies that report the importance of technology-based games in rehabilitation program, little attention has been paid to their role as pure entertainment. In contrast, the market does not provide videogames that are engaging, accessible, and inclusive. In this context, a survey was distributed to families who have a child with neuromotor limitations to investigate how these children deal with play, in particular with videogames, and what the requirements are for accessible and inclusive videogames. FightTheStroke distributed the questionnaire to families with a child with neuromotor impairments in April 2020. Fifty-six families responded to the survey. The answers revealed that children generally manifest positive feelings when playing with videogames, especially with cooperative ones, even if they are not fully accessible. The survey also collected user needs and suggestions from families about the design of videogames for neuromotor-impaired children. Guidelines derived from the survey are reported for the development of entertaining, inclusive, and accessible videogames, playable by children with neuromotor disabilities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 75-87
V. S. Shmakov

The socio-cultural orientation of modernization processes changes the emphasis in the social development of mankind, emphasizes the need to determine the place and role of man in the world. The transformation of the socio-cultural space under the pressure of globalization dictates the need to understand the structure and functions that determine the vectors of development of the world community, changing the accents of evolution. Structurally, the socio-cultural space integrates the social and cultural potential of activities, including !оса! communities. It functionally ensures the reproduction of culture and sociality, sets the permissiЬle limits of reform, guaranteeing the preservation of socio-cultural integrity, implementing the functions of socialization, regulation, information, feedback.

2021 ◽  
S M Nazmuz Sakib

A child's learning and socialization are most influenced by their family since the family is the child's primary social group. Ultimately, the family will be responsible for shaping a child and developing their values, skills, socialization, and security. This research paper sheds light on the problem in the society that socialization among adults become difficult based on their social background. The research was conducted on two types of families nuclear and single-parent and the impact of these families on the social development of children. The families were selected from three local communities in the parish of Clarendon and Manchester (Rocky Point, Chantilly, and Palmers Cross). The people taken in consideration for this research are of age group 18-35 years old. The basic aim of this research was a statistical analysis on how the economic conditions and home environment contributes to the participant’s socialization behaviors. The research shows how socialization and challenges varies among the families, and how a stable family where both parents are present and resources are readily available, plays a vital in a child’s social development.

2021 ◽  
pp. 6-18
N. N. Pokrovskaia ◽  
T. V. Smetanina ◽  
S. I. Shelonaev

Sociological analysis of up-to-date social practices, communication and interaction forms among community members, local and virtual groups is based on a number of methodological approaches that need to be reconceived today in connection with the digital transformations of social processes and structures. Socio-managerial approaches used in the era of traditional and modern society (modernity) do not cover the total social reality and do not reply to the tasks and social practices of the post-modern information society (“meta-modernity”). In these conditions, the rethinking is required for the implementation of the basic concepts such as democratic instruments of state regulation, once rejected by Plato and Aristotle and then again proposed at a new round of social development by K. Popper. The concept of participation, which returned to sociological, socio-anthropological and socio-economic discourse in the middle of the twentieth century, needs to be developed in the era of total digitalization, additionally accelerated by measures of social isolation in connection with the pandemic (the transition to remote work, the expansion of online services, etc.). The article attempts to present new aspects of the concept of participation in relation to understanding the models of distributed networks of economic relations (sharing) and, in general, to digital forms of social communications in society.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
Julian C. Muller

This article investigates two questions: (1) What is the significance of a typical western philosophical concept like postfoundationalism for the African context? (2) Can Ubuntu be the key or the bridge between two seemingly distant philosophical worlds? I have been involved in two major research projects: firstly, the exploration of the postfoundationalist paradigm and the significance of it for practical theology; secondly, a study of Ubuntu and its value for human and social development in Africa.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article is an ethnographic journey in which I revisit and reflect on those two projects and the link between them. The reflection focuses on four concepts: interdisciplinary practice, colonialism and whiteness, fiction and research, and holism.

Academia Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Iqvina Hima ◽  
Agus Salim

Developing the cooperative ability of preschoolers is an important milestone for a child's social development process. Experiences at school become a place for students to discuss agreements with groups of children or their peers. Based on the research there are 70% of the students are still not capable in terms of social skills so that this research aims to increase the ability of cooperation in students. The approach used in this research is Classroom Action Research which is carried out in three stages, namely Pre-cycle, Cycle I and Cycle II in order to obtain results in accordance with the assessment. At the Pre-cycle stage, the average score obtained by students was 42%, while at the Cycle I stage an average score was increased by 63%, which means that the average value is still not in accordance with the achievement target of the assessment, so the research is continued in the Cycle stage. II, after the Cycle II stage, the average value increased significantly, which was 87%. This can be seen from the comparison at each stage of the cycle during the research carried out. From the results obtained there is an increase which proves that through the Whirlwind Game can improve the ability of cooperation in children.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
Rohit Kanda ◽  
G. S. Bhalla ◽  
Harish Handa ◽  
Vinay Kumar ◽  
Puneet Mahajan ◽  

This article assesses the ways in which the shifting ethical perspectives of money-orientated learned individuals influence their approach towards family, career and societal bounds. For the purpose of this study, a descriptive study of 100 college students was undertaken at a leading university in north-western India by using self-administered questionnaires with stratified random sampling procedures. A principal component (factor) analysis using varimax rotation and K-means clustering were conducted. The findings indicated that consumption communicative senior poor students and lifestyle communicative young poor students have no materialistic career goals. A high prospect for integrated career and social development is a common expectation, providing the need to assess other variables affecting integrated career and social development. Ethnicity, academic discipline and gender are factors of perspective, incitement and prospects towards ethics, materialism and career and social goals. Social interaction in consumption or lifestyle also has a significant impact on materialistic career goals and integrated career and social development. By increasing communicativeness, the probability of having low materialistic career goals also increases. Materialistic career goals of students substantially influence their integrated career and social development. Social groupings and institutional gatherings may devise new ways to inculcate social and academic ethics among their affiliates. Institutional change in instilling values in staff behaviour can result in positive outcomes and a social lifestyle.

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