chain lengths
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2022 ◽  
Abdelrahman Kotb ◽  
Tariq Almubarak ◽  
Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

Abstract Slickwater fracturing has been phenomenally successful in unconventional shale formations due to their unique geomechanical properties. Nevertheless, these treatments consume large volumes of water. On average, hydraulic fracturing treatments use up to 13,000,000 gallons of water in unconventional wells. In an effort to reduce the use of freshwater, research has focused on developing friction reducers (FR) that can be used in high salinity brines such as seawater and produced water. However, commonly used friction reducers precipitate in high salinity brine, lose their friction reduction properties, and cause severe formation damage to the proppant pack. Consequently, this work proposes the use of common surfactants to aid the FR system and achieve salt tolerance at water salinity up to 230,000 ppm. This paper will (a) evaluate five surfactants for use in high salinity FR systems, (b) evaluate the rheological properties of these systems, and (c) evaluate the damage generated from using these systems. Four types of tests were conducted to analyze the performance of the new FR at high salinity brine. These are (a) rheology, (b) static proppant settling, (c) breakability, and (d) coreflood tests. Surfactants with ethylene oxide chain lengths ranging from 6 to 12 were incorporated in the tests. Rheology tests were done at temperatures up to 150°F to evaluate the FR at shear rates between 40-1000 s-1. Proppant settling tests were performed to investigate the proppant carrying capacity of the new FR system. Breakability and coreflood tests were conducted to study the potential damage caused by the proposed systems. Rheology tests showed that using surfactants with high ethylene oxide chain length (>8) improved the performance of the FR at water salinity up to 230,000 ppm. Anionic surfactants performed better than cationic surfactants in improving FR performance. The ammonium persulfate was used as a breaker and showed effectiveness with the proposed formula. Finally, the retained permeability after 12 hours of injecting the FR was over 95%. This shows that after using this system, the productivity of the formation is minimally affected by the new FR system. This research provides the first guide on studying the impact of using different ethylene oxide chain lengths of surfactants in developing new FR systems that can perform well in a high salinity environment. Given the economic and environmental benefits of reusing produced water, this new system can save costs that were previously spent on water treatments.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Weiran Chu ◽  
Yi Shi ◽  
Liang Zhang

As non-renewable resource, the recovery and utilization of phosphorus from wastewater is an enduring topic. Stimulated by the advances in research on polyphosphates (polyP) as well as the development of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) technology to achieve the efficient accumulation of polyP via polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), a novel phosphorus removal strategy is considered with promising potential for application in real wastewater treatment processes. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of phosphorus aggregation in the form of polyP during the phosphate removal process. Further discussion about the reuse of polyP with different chain lengths is provided herein so as to suggest possible application pathways for this biosynthetic product.

Moritz Gerbaulet ◽  
Anton Möllerke ◽  
Katharina Weiss ◽  
Satya Chinta ◽  
Jutta M. Schneider ◽  

AbstractEmerging evidence shows that the cuticular and silk lipids of spiders are structurally more diverse than those of insects, although only a relatively low number of species have been investigated so far. As in insects, such lipids might play a role as signals in various contexts. The wasp spider Argiope bruennichi has probably the best investigated chemical communication system within spiders, including the known structure of the female sex pheromone. Recently we showed that kin-recognition in A. bruennichi could be mediated through the cuticular compounds consisting of hydrocarbons and, to a much larger proportion, of wax esters. By use of mass spectrometry and various derivatization methods, these were identified as esters of 2,4-dimethylalkanoic acids and 1-alkanols of varying chain lengths, such as tetradecyl 2,4-dimethylheptadecanoate. A representative enantioselective synthesis of this compound was performed which proved the identifications and allowed us to postulate that the natural enantiomer likely has the (2R,4R)-configuration. Chemical profiles of the silk and cuticular lipids of females were similar, while male cuticular profiles differed from those of females. Major components of the male cuticular lipids were tridecyl 2,4-dimethyl-C17-19 alkanoates, whereas those of females were slightly longer, comprising tridecyl 2,4-dimethyl-C19-21 alkanoates. In addition, minor female-specific 4-methylalkyl esters were detected.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Shixian Zhang ◽  
Quanling Yang ◽  
Chenjian Li ◽  
Yuheng Fu ◽  
Huaqing Zhang ◽  

AbstractAlthough the elastocaloric effect was found in natural rubber as early as 160 years ago, commercial elastocaloric refrigeration based on polymer elastomers has stagnated owing to their deficient elastocaloric effects and large extension ratios. Herein, we demonstrate that polymer elastomers with uniform molecular chain-lengths exhibit enormous elastocaloric effects through reversible conformational changes. An adiabatic temperature change of −15.3 K and an isothermal entropy change of 145 J kg−1 K−1, obtained from poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) near room temperature, exceed those of previously reported elastocaloric polymers. A rotary-motion cooling device is tailored to high-strains characteristics of rubbers, which effectively discharges the cooling energy of polymer elastomers. Our work provides a strategy for the enhancement of elastocaloric effects and could promote the commercialization of solid-state cooling devices based on polymer elastomers.

Hanqi Xu ◽  
Jinbo Wu ◽  
Yaying Hong ◽  
Weijia Wen

Abstract We demonstrate the impact of diester structure, in particular the alkyl chain length and branching structure, on the giant electrorheological (GER) effect and suspension stability. The existence of oil-particles interaction is of critical importance to induce the GER effect. To quantify GER performance and colloidal stability, we examine the yield stress, current density, field-off viscosity and sedimentation ratio with respect to the variation of chain length and branching structure. The oil-particles interaction is quantitatively analyzed by investigating the cluster size of particles in different diesters by a multiple light scattering analyzer, along with the wettability of different chain lengths of diesters and solid particles by the Washburn method. Our results indicate that long chain lengths favor the formation of particle agglomerates, thereby enhancing the GER effect (such as high yield stress). The attachment of branches on diester causes the formation of electronic correlation between branches and main chain, depending on the position of branches located, and hence results in superior GER performance and favorable suspension stability. An optimal GER fluid constituted by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate is acquired with the achieved yield stress of 113 kPa at electric field strength of 4 kV/ mm and the prominent integrated GER properties.

2022 ◽  
Süleyman Özen ◽  
Muhammet Gökhan Altun ◽  
Ali Mardani-Aghabaglou ◽  
Kambiz Ramyar

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Danuta Kruk ◽  
Mariusz Jancelewicz ◽  
Adam Klimaszyk ◽  
Roksana Markiewicz ◽  
Zbigniew Fojud ◽  

1H and 19F spin-lattice relaxation experiments have been performed for a series of ionic liquids sharing the same anion: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide but including cations of different alkyl chain lengths: butyltriethylammonium, triethyloctylammonium, dodecyltriethylammo-nium and hexadecyltriethylammonium. The studies have been carried out in the temperature range from 383 to 108 K at the resonance frequency of 200 MHz (for 1H). A quantitative analysis of the relaxation data has revealed two dynamical processes for both kinds of ions. The dynamics have been successfully modeled in terms of the Arrhenius law. The timescales of the dynamical processes and their temperature evolution have been discussed in detail, depending on the structure of the cation.

2021 ◽  
Nayan Roy ◽  
Syed Husne Mobarak

Abstract Behavioral responses of a generalist pest, Spilosoma obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), towards the leaf surface wax chemicals of three types of jute crops (white jute, Corchorus capsularis, tossa jute, C. olitorious,, and mesta jute or kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus [Malvaceae]) and their implications in pest management was studied under laboratory conditions. The GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of the jute leaf epicuticular waxes indicated the presence of 27 n-alkanes, having chain lengths from n-C14 to n-C36 and 14 free fatty acids (FFAs) having chain lengths from C12:0 to C22:0. Among the identified n-alkanes and FFAs of selected jute cultivars n-C34 (144.397±6.971 µg leaf−1) and C16:1 (37.034±0.848 µg leaf−1) of tossa jute leaves were most abundant. The host preference (white jute> tossa jute > mesta jute) of S. obliqua was evaluated simultaneously by olfactory, visual, and tactile recognition, as valid for other lepidopteran species. For olfaction [females], oviposition [gravid females], and feeding [larvae]) in S. obliqua, the most stimulating combined-synthetic-mixture of epicuticular wax components was represented by 4 n-alkanes (n-C16, n-C18, n-C20, n-C22) and 5 FFAs (C16:1, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0) in mixture at leaf equivalent (µg leaf−1) amounts (195.209±2.950 µg, 119.777±1.857 µg, and 50.567±3.508 µg, respectively) in white jute, tossa jute, and mesta jute, respectively. Thus, the present study suggests that the synthetic blends of 4 n-alkanes and 5 FFAs of respective jute crops can be used as lures to develop baited trap as a part of integrated pest management (IPM) of S. obliqua for sustainable jute cultivation.

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