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Pedosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 131-139
Rui XUE ◽  
Chong WANG ◽  
Xuelian LIU ◽  
Mengli LIU

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Nicholas J. Barrett ◽  
Jakob Thyrring ◽  
Elizabeth M. Harper ◽  
Mikael K. Sejr ◽  
Jesper G. Sørensen ◽  

Increases in Arctic temperatures have accelerated melting of the Greenland icesheet, exposing intertidal organisms, such as the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, to high air temperatures and low salinities in summer. However, the interaction of these combined stressors is poorly described at the transcriptional level. Comparing expression profiles of M. edulis from experimentally warmed (30 °C and 33 °C) animals kept at control (23‰) and low salinities (15‰) revealed a significant lack of enrichment for Gene Ontology terms (GO), indicating that similar processes were active under all conditions. However, there was a progressive increase in the abundance of upregulated genes as each stressor was applied, with synergistic increases at 33 °C and 15‰, suggesting combined stressors push the animal towards their tolerance thresholds. Further analyses comparing the effects of salinity alone (23‰, 15‰ and 5‰) showed high expression of stress and osmoregulatory marker genes at the lowest salinity, implying that the cell is carrying out intracellular osmoregulation to maintain the cytosol as hyperosmotic. Identification of aquaporins and vacuolar-type ATPase transcripts suggested the cell may use fluid-filled cavities to excrete excess intracellular water, as previously identified in embryonic freshwater mussels. These results indicate that M. edulis has considerable resilience to heat stress and highly efficient mechanisms to acclimatise to lowered salinity in a changing world.

2022 ◽  
Micaela E Consens ◽  
Yuxiao Chen ◽  
Vilas Menon ◽  
Yanling Wang ◽  
Julie A Schneider ◽  

Background: Cortical neuron loss is a pathological hallmark of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear which neuronal subtypes are most vulnerable to degeneration and contribute most to cognitive decline. Methods: We analyzed postmortem bulk brain RNA-sequencing (RNAseq) data collected from three studies of aging and AD comprising six neocortical regions (704 individuals; 1037 samples). We estimated relative cell type proportions from each brain sample using neuronal subclass-specific marker genes derived from ultra-high depth single-nucleus RNAseq data (snRNAseq). We associated cell type proportions with AD across all samples using mixed-effects mega-analyses. Bulk tissue analyses were complemented by analyses of three AD snRNAseq datasets using the same cell type definitions and diagnostic criteria (51 individuals). Lastly, we identified cell subtype associations with specific neuropathologies, cognitive decline, and residual cognition. Results: In our mega-analyses, we identified the strongest associations of AD with fewer somatostatin (SST) inhibitory neurons (β=-0.48, pbonf=8.98x10-9) and intra-telencephalic (IT) excitatory neurons (β=-0.45, pbonf =4.32x10-7). snRNAseq-based cell type proportion analyses especially supported the association of SST neurons. Analyses of cell type proportions with specific AD-related phenotypes in ROS/MAP consistently implicated fewer SST neurons with greater brain-wide postmortem tau and beta amyloid (β=-0.155, pFDR=3.1x10-4) deposition, as well as more severe cognitive decline prior to death (β=0.309, pFDR=3.9x10-6). Greater IT neuron proportions were associated strongly with improved cognition (β=0.173, pFDR=8.3x10-5) and residual cognition (β=0.175, pFDR=1.2x10-5), but not canonical AD neuropathology. Conclusions: Proportionally fewer SST and IT neurons were significantly associated with AD diagnosis across multiple studies and cortical regions. These findings support seminal work implicating somatostatin and pyramidal neurons in the pathogenesis of AD and improves our current understanding of neuronal vulnerability in AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ilona A. Ruhl ◽  
Andriy Sheremet ◽  
Chantel C. Furgason ◽  
Susanne Krause ◽  
Robert M. Bowers ◽  

GAL08 are bacteria belonging to an uncultivated phylogenetic cluster within the phylum Acidobacteria. We detected a natural population of the GAL08 clade in sediment from a pH-neutral hot spring located in British Columbia, Canada. To shed light on the abundance and genomic potential of this clade, we collected and analyzed hot spring sediment samples over a temperature range of 24.2–79.8°C. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and qPCR using a primer set developed specifically to detect the GAL08 16S rRNA gene revealed that absolute and relative abundances of GAL08 peaked at 65°C along three temperature gradients. Analysis of sediment collected over multiple years and locations revealed that the GAL08 group was consistently a dominant clade, comprising up to 29.2% of the microbial community based on relative read abundance and up to 4.7 × 105 16S rRNA gene copy numbers per gram of sediment based on qPCR. Using a medium quality threshold, 25 single amplified genomes (SAGs) representing these bacteria were generated from samples taken at 65 and 77°C, and seven metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from samples collected at 45–77°C. Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI), these SAGs and MAGs represented three separate species, with an estimated average genome size of 3.17 Mb and GC content of 62.8%. Phylogenetic trees constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences and a set of 56 concatenated phylogenetic marker genes both placed the three GAL08 bacteria as a distinct subgroup of the phylum Acidobacteria, representing a candidate order (Ca. Frugalibacteriales) within the class Blastocatellia. Metabolic reconstructions from genome data predicted a heterotrophic metabolism, with potential capability for aerobic respiration, as well as incomplete denitrification and fermentation. In laboratory cultivation efforts, GAL08 counts based on qPCR declined rapidly under atmospheric levels of oxygen but increased slightly at 1% (v/v) O2, suggesting a microaerophilic lifestyle.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 241
Florian J. Raabe ◽  
Marius Stephan ◽  
Jan Benedikt Waldeck ◽  
Verena Huber ◽  
Damianos Demetriou ◽  

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are critical for myelination and are implicated in several brain disorders. Directed differentiation of human-induced OLs (iOLs) from pluripotent stem cells can be achieved by forced expression of different combinations of the transcription factors SOX10 (S), OLIG2 (O), and NKX6.2 (N). Here, we applied quantitative image analysis and single-cell transcriptomics to compare different transcription factor (TF) combinations for their efficacy towards robust OL lineage conversion. Compared with S alone, the combination of SON increases the number of iOLs and generates iOLs with a more complex morphology and higher expression levels of myelin-marker genes. RNA velocity analysis of individual cells reveals that S generates a population of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs) that appear to be more immature than those generated by SON and to display distinct molecular properties. Our work highlights that TFs for generating iOPCs or iOLs should be chosen depending on the intended application or research question, and that SON might be beneficial to study more mature iOLs while S might be better suited to investigate iOPC biology.

2022 ◽  
Jin-Lin Chu ◽  
Shu-Hong Bi ◽  
Yao He ◽  
Rui-Yao Ma ◽  
Xing-Yu Wan ◽  

Abstract Background: Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) are the leading cause of DM-related disability and mortality. Notably, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the main complications of DM, has become a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. A clinically convenient, non-invasive approach for monitoring the development of DKD would benefit the overall life quality of patients with DM and contribute to lower medical burdens through promoting preventive interventions.Methods: We utilized 5hmC-Seal to profile genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosines in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Candidate genes were identified by intersecting the differentially modified 5hmC marker genes (DMGs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the GEO datasets GSE30528 and GSE30529. Cytoscape software was used to construct the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identify the hub genes.Results: The final gene panel of 9 hub genes, including (CTNNB1, PTEN, MYD88, ITGAM, CD28, ITGB2, VCAM1, CXCR4, CD44) were confirmed. Further analysis indicated that this 9-gene signature showed a good capacity to distinguish between DKD and DM. Conclusions: The 5hmC-Seal assay was successfully applied to the cfDNA samples from a cohort of DM patients with or without DKD. Altered 5hmC signatures in plasma cfDNA indicate that 5hmC-Seal has the potential to be a non-invasive epigenetic tool for monitoring the development of DKD and be a part of diabetic care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Paulami Koley ◽  
Subhadip Brahmachari ◽  
Amitava Saha ◽  
Camelia Deb ◽  
Monimala Mondal ◽  

In the field of phytohormone defense, the general perception is that salicylate (SA)-mediated defense is induced against biotrophic pathogens while jasmonate (JA)-mediated defense functions against necrotrophic pathogens. Our goals were to observe the behavior of the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in the vicinity, on the surface, and within the host tissue after priming the host with SA or JA, and to see if priming with these phytohormones would affect the host defense differently upon infection. It was observed for the first time, that R. solani could not only distinguish between JA versus SA-primed tomato plants from a distance, but surprisingly avoided SA-primed plants more than JA-primed plants. To corroborate these findings, early infection events were monitored and compared through microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy using transformed R. solani expressing green fluorescence protein gene (gfp). Different histochemical and physiological parameters were compared between the unprimed control, JA-primed, and SA-primed plants after infection. The expression of a total of fifteen genes, including the appressoria-related gene of the pathogen and twelve marker genes functioning in the SA and JA signaling pathways, were monitored over a time course during early infection stages. R. solani being traditionally designated as a necrotroph, the major unexpected observations were that Salicylate priming offered better tolerance than Jasmonate priming and that it was mediated through the activation of SA-mediated defense during the initial phase of infection, followed by JA-mediated defense in the later phase. Hence, the present scenario of biphasic SA-JA defense cascades during R. solani infection, with SA priming imparting maximum tolerance, indicate a possible hemibiotrophic pathosystem that needs to be investigated further.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Wenzhou Liu ◽  
Yanbo Chen ◽  
Gang Zeng ◽  
Shuting Yang ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  

Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic degenerative joint disease, which represents the leading cause of age-related disability. Here, this study aimed to depict the intercellular heterogeneity of OA synovial tissues.Methods: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data were preprocessed and quality controlled by the Seurat package. Cell cluster was presented and cell types were annotated based on the mRNA expression of corresponding marker genes by the SingleR package. Cell-cell communication was assessed among different cell types. After integrating the GSE55235 and GSE55457 datasets, differentially expressed genes were identified between OA and normal synovial tissues. Then, differentially expressed marker genes were overlapped and their biological functions were analyzed.Results: Totally, five immune cell subpopulations were annotated in OA synovial tissues including macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, monocytes and B cells. Pseudo-time analysis revealed the underlying evolution process in the inflammatory microenvironment of OA synovial tissue. There was close crosstalk between five cell types according to the ligand-receptor network. The genetic heterogeneity was investigated between OA and normal synovial tissues. Furthermore, functional annotation analysis showed the intercellular heterogeneity across immune cells in OA synovial tissues.Conclusion: This study offered insights into the heterogeneity of OA, which provided in-depth understanding of the transcriptomic diversities within synovial tissue. This transcriptional heterogeneity may improve our understanding on OA pathogenesis and provide potential molecular therapeutic targets for OA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Walter Baumgartner ◽  
Petra Wolint ◽  
Silvan Hofmann ◽  
Cléa Nüesch ◽  
Maurizio Calcagni ◽  

Specific microenvironments can trigger stem cell tenogenic differentiation, such as specific substrates or dynamic cell cultivation. Electrospun meshes composed by core–shell fibers (random or aligned; PDMS core; piezoelectric PVDFhfp shell) were fabricated by coaxial electrospinning. Elastic modulus and residual strain were assessed. Human ASCs were seeded on such scaffolds either under static conditions for 1 week or with subsequent 10% dynamic stretching for 10,800 cycles (1 Hz, 3 h), assessing load elongation curves in a Bose® bioreactor system. Gene expression for tenogenic expression, extracellular matrix, remodeling, pro-fibrotic and inflammatory marker genes were assessed (PCR). For cell-seeded meshes, the E modulus increased from 14 ± 3.8 MPa to 31 ± 17 MPa within 3 h, which was not observed for cell-free meshes. Random fibers resulted in higher tenogenic commitment than aligned fibers. Dynamic cultivation significantly enhanced pro-inflammatory markers. Compared to ASCs in culture flasks, ASCs on random meshes under static cultivation showed a significant upregulation of Mohawk, Tenascin-C and Tenomodulin. The tenogenic commitment expressed by human ASCs in contact with random PVDFhfp/PDMS paves the way for using this novel highly elastic material as an implant to be wrapped around a lacerated tendon, envisioned as a functional anti-adhesion membrane.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hui-Ju Chang ◽  
Ueng-Cheng Yang ◽  
Mei-Yu Lai ◽  
Chen-Hsin Chen ◽  
Yang-Cheng Fann

AbstractAlthough the function of the BRCA1 gene has been extensively studied, the relationship between BRCA1 gene expression and tumor aggressiveness remains controversial in sporadic breast cancers. Because the BRCA1 protein is known to regulate estrogen signaling, we selected microarray data of ER+ breast cancers from the GEO public repository to resolve previous conflicting findings. The BRCA1 gene expression level in highly proliferative luminal B tumors was shown to be higher than that in luminal A tumors. Survival analysis using a cure model indicated that patients of early ER+ breast cancers with high BRCA1 expression developed rapid distant metastasis. In addition, the proliferation marker genes MKI67 and PCNA, which are characteristic of aggressive tumors, were also highly expressed in patients with high BRCA1 expression. The associations among high BRCA1 expression, high proliferation marker expression, and high risk of distant metastasis emerged in independent datasets, regardless of tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen therapy could improve the metastasis-free fraction of high BRCA1 expression patients. Our findings link BRCA1 expression with proliferation and possibly distant metastasis via the ER signaling pathway. We propose a testable hypothesis based on these consistent results and offer an interpretation for our reported associations.

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