signaling system
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 641
Junsung Choi ◽  
Dongryul Park ◽  
Suil Kim ◽  
Seungyoung Ahn

Along with the development of electromagnetic weapons, Electronic Warfare (EW) has been rising as the future form of war. Especially in the area of wireless communications, high security defense systems such as Low Probability of Detection (LPD), Low Probability of Interception (LPI), and Low Probability of Exploitation (LPE) communication algorithms are being studied to prevent military force loss. One LPD, LPI, and LPE communication algorithm, physical-layer security, has been discussed and studied. We propose a noise signaling system, a type of physical-layer security, which modifies conventionally modulated I/Q data into a noise-like shape. To suggest the possibility of realistic implementation, we use Software-Defined Radio (SDR). Since there are certain hardware limitations, we present the limitations, requirements, and preferences of practical implementation of the noise signaling system. The proposed system uses ring-shaped signaling, and we present a ring-shaped signaling system algorithm, SDR implementation methodology, and performance evaluations of the system using the metrics of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Probability of Modulation Identification (PMI), which we obtain by using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithm. We conclude that the ring-shaped signaling system can perform high LPI/LPE communication functioning because an eavesdropper cannot obtain the correct modulation scheme information. However, the performance can vary with the configurations of the I/Q data-modifying factors.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Adrien Knoops ◽  
Florence Vande Capelle ◽  
Laetitia Fontaine ◽  
Marie Verhaegen ◽  
Johann Mignolet ◽  

Combining production of antibacterial compounds and uptake of DNA material released by dead cells, competence is one of the most efficient survival strategies in streptococci. Yet, this powerful tactic is energy consuming and reprograms the metabolism to such an extent that cell proliferation is transiently impaired.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Victor P. Bulgakov ◽  
Olga G. Koren

It is generally accepted that plants use the complex signaling system regulated by light and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling components to optimize growth and development in different situations. The role of ABA–light interactions is evident in the coupling of stress defense reactions with seed germination and root development, maintaining of stem cell identity and stem cell specification, stem elongation and leaf development, flowering and fruit formation, senescence, and shade avoidance. All these processes are regulated jointly by the ABA–light signaling system. Although a lot of work has been devoted to ABA–light signal interactions, there is still no systematic description of central signaling components and protein modules, which jointly regulate plant development. New data have emerged to promote understanding of how ABA and light signals are integrated at the molecular level, representing an extensively growing area of research. This work is intended to fill existing gaps by using literature data combined with bioinformatics analysis.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 161
Tomoaki Anabuki ◽  
Keisuke Ohashi ◽  
Taichi E. Takasuka ◽  
Hideyuki Matsuura ◽  
Kosaku Takahashi

Abscisic acid (ABA, 1) is a plant hormone that regulates various plant physiological processes such as seed developing and stress responses. The ABA signaling system has been elucidated; binding of ABA with PYL proteins triggers ABA signaling. We have previously reported a new method to isolate a protein targeted with a bioactive small molecule using a biotin linker with alkyne and amino groups, a protein cross-linker, and a bioactive small molecule with an azido group (azido probe). This method was used to identify the unknown ABA binding protein of Arabidopsis thaliana. As a result, AtTrxh3, a thioredoxin, was isolated as an ABA binding protein. Our developed method can be applied to the identification of binding proteins of bioactive compounds.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8145
Ana Corrales-Paredes ◽  
María Malfaz ◽  
Verónica Egido-García ◽  
Miguel A. Salichs

Travellers use the term waymarking to define the action of posting signs, or waymarks, along a route. These marks are intended to be points of reference during navigation for the environment. In this research, we will define waymarking as the skill of a robot to signal the environment or generate information to facilitate localization and navigation, both for its own use and for other robots as well. We present an automated environment signaling system using human–robot interaction and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The goal is for the robot, through human–robot interaction, to obtain information from the environment and use this information to carry out the signaling or waymarking process. HRI will play a key role in the signaling process since this type of communication makes it possible to exchange more specific and enriching information. The robot uses common phrases such as “Where am I?” and “Where can I go?”, just as we humans do when we ask other people for information about the environment. It is also possible to guide the robot and “show” it the environment to carry out the task of writing the signs. The robot will use the information received to create, update, or improve the navigation data in the RFID signals. In this paper, the signaling process will be described, how the robot acquires the information for signals, writing and updating process and finally, the implementation and integration in a real social robot in a real indoor environment.

2021 ◽  
Genevieve S. Dobihal ◽  
Josué Flores-Kim ◽  
Ian J. Roney ◽  
Xindan Wang ◽  
David Z. Rudner

The WalR-WalK two component signaling system in Bacillus subtilis functions in the homeostatic control of the peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases LytE and CwlO that are required for cell growth. When the activities of these enzymes are low, WalR activates transcription of lytE and cwlO and represses transcription of iseA , a secreted inhibitor of LytE. Conversely, when PG hydrolases activity is too high, WalR-dependent expression of lytE and cwlO is reduced and iseA is de-repressed. In a screen for additional factors that regulate this signaling pathway, we discovered that over-expression of the membrane-anchored PG deacetylase PdaC increases WalR-dependent gene expression. We show that increased expression of PdaC, but not catalytic mutants, prevents cell wall cleavage by both LytE and CwlO, explaining the WalR activation. Importantly, the pdaC gene, like iseA , is repressed by active WalR. We propose that de-repression of pdaC when PG hydrolase activity is too high results in modification of the membrane-proximal layers of the PG, protecting the wall from excessive cleavage by the membrane-tethered CwlO. Thus, the WalR-WalK system homeostatically controls the levels and activities of both elongation-specific cell wall hydrolases. Importance: Bacterial growth and division requires a delicate balance between the synthesis and remodeling of the cell wall exoskeleton. How bacteria regulate the potentially autolytic enzymes that remodel the cell wall peptidoglycan remains incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that the broadly conserved WalR-WalK two-component signaling system homeostatically controls both the levels and activities of two cell wall hydrolases that are critical for cell growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 435-441
A. I. Prisyazhnenko

The development of humanity is impossible without means of signaling. Signaling in any sphere of human activity has always been a means of ensuring the safety of his life. One of these areas was railway transport, the development of which and, accordingly, signalling facilities began in the early 19th century.With the progress of technological progress in Russia, signaling tools have also evolved, which have gone from the simplest sound and optical signals to modern ones using satellite technologies. Naturally, this path in the technical evolution of mankind is of interest to scientists and just curious people, since knowledge of the stages of the origin and development of signaling allows contemporaries to improve it and at the same time not forget the basics of this area.As a result of this process, the signaling system on railway transport, its means have undergone serious changes. Primitive ways of giving commands - optical (disk, flag) and sound (whistle) to the participants of the movement were pushed by more modern means of signaling, which already involve microprocessor technology and satellite technologies.An example of modern signaling means is the automatic locomotive signaling of a single row of continuous type (ALS-EN). The signal of this type of signaling is more informative: it contains information about the number of free block sections ahead of the train, as well as about the permissible speed of its movement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10806
Md Afjalus Siraj ◽  
Md. Arman Islam ◽  
Md. Abdullah Al Fahad ◽  
Habiba Rahman Kheya ◽  
Jianbo Xiao ◽  

ROS, RNS, and carcinogenic metabolites generate excessive oxidative stress, which changes the basal cellular status and leads to epigenetic modification, genomic instability, and initiation of cancer. Epigenetic modification may inhibit tumor-suppressor genes and activate oncogenes, enabling cells to have cancer promoting properties. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene, and is activated in response to cellular stress. It can regulate redox homoeostasis by expressing several cytoprotective enzymes, including NADPH quinine oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase-1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, etc. There is accumulating evidence supporting the idea that dietary nutraceuticals derived from commonly used fruits, vegetables, and spices have the ability to produce cancer chemopreventive activity by inducing Nrf2-mediated detoxifying enzymes. In this review, we discuss the importance of these nutraceuticals in cancer chemoprevention and summarize the role of dietary terpenoids in this respect. This approach was taken to accumulate the mechanistic function of these terpenoids to develop a comprehensive understanding of their direct and indirect roles in modulating the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling system.

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