Migration Distance
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yufei Wu ◽  
Yaqun Zhou ◽  
Jian Huang ◽  
Ke Ma ◽  
Tianyou Yuan ◽  

Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17), a member of sorting nexin (SNX) family, acts as a modulator for endocytic recycling of membrane proteins. Results from our previous study demonstrated the embryonic lethality of homozygous defect of SNX17. In this study, we investigated the role of SNX17 in rat fetal development. Specifically, we analyzed patterns of SNX17 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in multiple rat tissues and found high expression in the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). This expression was gradually elevated during the cardiac OFT morphogenesis. Homozygous deletion of the SNX17 gene in rats resulted in mid-gestational embryonic lethality, which was accompanied by congenital heart defects, including the double-outlet right ventricle and atrioventricular and ventricular septal defects, whereas heterozygotes exhibited normal fetal development. Moreover, we found normal migration distance and the number of cardiac neural crest cells during the OFT morphogenesis. Although cellular proliferation in the cardiac OFT endocardial cushion was not affected, cellular apoptosis was significantly suppressed. Transcriptomic profiles and quantitative real-time PCR data in the cardiac OFT showed that SNX17 deletion resulted in abnormal expression of genes associated with cardiac development. Overall, these findings suggest that SNX17 plays a crucial role in cardiac development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Mariëlle L. van Toor ◽  
Sergey Kharitonov ◽  
Saulius Švažas ◽  
Mindaugas Dagys ◽  
Erik Kleyheeg ◽  

Abstract Background The timing of migration for herbivorous migratory birds is thought to coincide with spring phenology as emerging vegetation supplies them with the resources to fuel migration, and, in species with a capital breeding strategy also provides individuals with energy for use on the breeding grounds. Individuals with very long migration distances might however have to trade off between utilising optimal conditions en route and reaching the breeding grounds early, potentially leading to them overtaking spring on the way. Here, we investigate whether migration distance affects how closely individually tracked Eurasian wigeons follow spring phenology during spring migration. Methods We captured wigeons in the Netherlands and Lithuania and tracked them throughout spring migration to identify staging sites and timing of arrival. Using temperature-derived indicators of spring phenology, we investigated how maximum longitude reached and migration distance affected how closely wigeons followed spring. We further estimated the impact of tagging on wigeon migration by comparing spring migratory timing between tracked individuals and ring recovery data sets. Results Wigeons migrated to locations between 300 and 4000 km from the capture site, and migrated up to 1000 km in a single day. We found that wigeons migrating to more north-easterly locations followed spring phenology more closely, and increasingly so the greater distance they had covered during migration. Yet we also found that despite tags equalling only around 2% of individual’s body mass, individuals were on average 11–12 days slower than ring-marked individuals from the same general population. Discussion Overall, our results suggest that migratory strategy can vary dependent on migration distance within species, and even within the same migratory corridor. Individual decisions thus depend not only on environmental cues, but potentially also trade-offs made during later life-history stages.

2021 ◽  
Quentin Rougemont ◽  
Amanda Xuereb ◽  
Xavier Dallaire ◽  
Jean-Sebastien Moore ◽  
Eric Normandeau ◽  

Inferring the genomic basis of local adaptation is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology. Beyond its fundamental evolutionary implications, such knowledge can guide conservation decisions for populations of conservation and management concern. Here, we investigated the genomic basis of local adaptation in the Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) across its entire North American range. We hypothesized that extensive spatial variation in environmental conditions and the species homing behavior may promote the establishment of local adaptation. We genotyped 7,829 individuals representing 217 sampling locations at more than 100,000 high-quality RADseq loci to investigate how recombination might affect the detection of loci putatively under selection and took advantage of the precise description of the demographic history of the species from our previous work to draw accurate population genomic inferences about local adaptation. Results indicated that genetic differentiation scans and genetic-environment association analyses were both significantly affected by variation in recombination rate as low recombination regions displayed an increased number of outliers. By taking these confounding factors into consideration, we revealed that migration distance was the primary selective factor driving local adaptation and partial parallel divergence among distant populations. Moreover, we identified several candidates SNP associated with long distance migration and altitude including a gene known to be involved in adaptation to altitude in other species. The evolutionary implications of our findings are discussed along with conservation applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Zhijun Huang ◽  
Xiaoping Zhou ◽  
Wenzhen Fang ◽  
Hailong Zhang ◽  
Xiaolin Chen

Abstract Background The vulnerable Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes) is a long-distance migratory waterbird whose migration and wintering information is poorly understood. This study aims to identify the autumn migration routes and wintering areas of juvenile Chinese Egrets and determine the migration movement traits of this species. Methods Thirty-nine juvenile Chinese Egrets from the Fantuozi Island, an uninhabited offshore island with a large breeding colony of Chinese Egrets in Dalian, China, were tracked using GPS/GSM transmitters. Some feathers from each tracked juvenile were collected for molecular identification of sex in the laboratory. The GPS locations, recorded at 2-h intervals from August 2018 to May 2020, were used for the analyses. Results Of the 39 tracked juveniles, 30 individuals began their migration between September and November, and 13 successfully completed their autumn migration between October and November. The juveniles migrated southward via three migration routes, coastal, oceanic and inland, mainly during the night. The migration duration, migration distance, flight speed, and stopover duration of the 13 juvenile egrets that completed migration averaged 5.08 ± 1.04 days, 3928.18 ± 414.27 km, 57.27 ± 5.73 km/h, and 23.08 ± 19.28 h, respectively. These juveniles wintered in the coastal wetlands of Southeast Asia including those in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Malaysia, and only one successfully began its spring migration in June 2020. Conclusions This study newly finds that the oceanic route taken by juvenile Chinese Egrets, suggesting that the juveniles are able to fly over the Pacific Ocean without a stopover. Moreover, our novel data indicate that coastal wetlands along the East Asian–Australasian Flyway are important areas for both autumn migration stopover and the wintering of these juveniles, suggesting that international cooperation is important to conserve the vulnerable Chinese Egret and the wetland habitats on which it depends.

2021 ◽  
Kang Zhong ◽  
Xingwang Zhu ◽  
Jinman Yang ◽  
Zhao Mo ◽  
Junchao Qian ◽  

Abstract Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into fuels and valuable chemicals is a promising method for carbon neutralization and solving environmental problems. Through a simple thermal-oxidative exfoliated method, the O element was doped while exfoliated bulk g-C3N4 into ultrathin structure g-C3N4. Benefitting from the ultrathin structure of g-C3N4, the larger surface area and shorter electrons migration distance effectively improve the CO2 reduction efficiency. In addition, density functional theory computation proves that O element doping introduces new impurity energy levels, which making electrons easier to be excited. The prepared photocatalyst reduction of CO2 to CO (116 μmol g−1 h−1) and CH4 (47 μmol g−1 h−1).

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Chikahiro Imashiro ◽  
Byungjun Kang ◽  
Yunam Lee ◽  
Youn-Hoo Hwang ◽  
Seonghun Im ◽  

AbstractCollective cell migration plays a critical role in physiological and pathological processes such as development, wound healing, and metastasis. Numerous studies have demonstrated how various types of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues dictate the collective migratory behaviors of cells. Although an acoustic cue can be advantageous because of its noninvasiveness and biocompatibility, cell migration in response to acoustic stimulation remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed a device that is able to apply surface acoustic waves to a cell culture substrate and investigated the effect of propagating acoustic waves on collective cell migration. The migration distance estimated at various wave intensities revealed that unidirectional cell migration was enhanced at a critical wave intensity and that it was suppressed as the intensity was further increased. The increased migration might be attributable to cell orientation alignment along the direction of the propagating wave, as characterized by nucleus shape. Thicker actin bundles indicative of a high traction force were observed in cells subjected to propagating acoustic waves at the critical intensity. Our device and technique can be useful for regulating cellular functions associated with cell migration.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-56
Chong Feng ◽  
Guoxiang Wang ◽  
Jingyuan Zhang ◽  
Junwei Wang ◽  
Mingze Ma ◽  

There is a starting pressure gradient (SPG) for oil migration in tight reservoirs (TRs), and the SPG and the migration force jointly control the migration distance of oil. The key factor of oil accumulation in the tight glutenite reservoir (TGR) of the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation (T1 b) in the Mahu Sag is whether the oil can be laterally charged into the TRs. To analyze the lateral migration distances of oil in TRs and predict the favorable accumulation areas for oil, we have carried out a physical simulation experiment of oil charging on glutenite reservoirs of T1 b for obtaining the SPG of oil migration and knowing the relationship between SPGs and the reservoirs’ physical property. According to the basin simulation, we have obtained the pressure evolution of the source rock formation as well as reservoir formation and the physical property evolution of the reservoir. Finally, we have predicated the favorable oil accumulation areas through calculating the distribution characteristics of SPGs as well as the theoretical distances of lateral migration of oil during the key oil accumulation period and considering the theoretical distance of the lateral migration of oil as the main controlling factor. Our results suggest that there is a SPG in the TGR of the T1 b and that there is a power function relationship between the SPG and the permeability. The theoretical lateral migration distance of oil in T1 b during the key oil accumulation period was the farthest in the northern sag, which was gradually shortened to the east, west, and south. In class I favorable areas, the reservoirs have good physical properties where overpressure has developed; in addition, the lateral migration distance of oil is far. Therefore, these are the most favorable areas for oil accumulation.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1134
Ann-Christine Link ◽  
Yuanzao Zhu ◽  
Raphael Karutz

Urbanization proceeds globally and is often driven by migration. Simultaneously, cities face severe exposure to environmental hazards such as floods and heatwaves posing threats to millions of urban households. Consequently, fostering urban households’ resilience is imperative, yet often impeded by the lack of its accurate assessment. We developed a structural equation model to quantify households’ resilience, considering their assets, housing, and health properties. Based on a household survey (n = 1872), we calculate the resilience of households in Pune, India with and without migration biography and compare different sub-groups. We further analyze how households are exposed to and affected by floods and heatwaves. Our results show that not migration as such but the type of migration, particularly, the residence zone at the migration destination (formal urban or slum) and migration origin (urban or rural) provide insights into households’ resilience and affectedness by extreme weather events. While on average, migrants in our study have higher resilience than non-migrants, the sub-group of rural migrants living in slums score significantly lower than the respective non-migrant cohort. Further characteristics of the migration biography such as migration distance, time since arrival at the destination, and the reasons for migration contribute to households’ resilience. Consequently, the opposing generalized notions in literature of migrants either as the least resilient group or as high performers, need to be overcome as our study shows that within one city, migrants are found both at the top and the bottom of the resilience range. Thus, we recommend that policymakers include migrants’ biographies when assessing their resilience and when designing resilience improvement interventions to help the least resilient migrant groups more effectively.

Jinxiang Piao ◽  
Chaeyoung Yoo ◽  
SunYoung Kim ◽  
Youn-Wha Whang ◽  
Cheol Ung Choi ◽  

BACKGROUND: Assessment of platelet function is important in the management of patients who are subject to operation as well as at potential risk of hemorrhagic complications. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate a new platelet assays (Anysis-Epinephrine, Anysis-ADP) and to compare them with PFA-200 in cardiology visiting patients and inpatients. METHODS: Citrated blood samples were collected from 184 patients for ADP test and 163 patients for EPI test, who visited Korea University Guro Hospital with written consent. The PFA-200 assay gives a test result the closure time (CT) until the blood flow rate decreases to 10%of the initial value, whereas Anysis-200 assay does a blood flow migration distance (MD) until blood flow completely stops. According to the results of PFA closure time (CT), the tested samples were classified as either negative control or positive group. The measurements were simultaneously conducted with two devices and compared. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of Anysis-200 C/EPI kit in comparison to PFA-200 C/EPI kit was 87.5%and 85.7%, respectively. Regarding C/ADP kit, the sensitivity and specificity of Anysis-200 was 96.9%and 87.5%, respectively. In addition, the sums of sensitivity and specificity are greater than 150%for both of EPI and ADP. Also, it was found that likelihood ratio and odd ratio for each assay provide useful additional information. Since the Cohen’s kappa coefficients value between the two devices was relatively high, the equivalence between the two devices was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Anysis-200, a novel platelet function analyzer has showed excellent agreements with PFA-200 with high agreement rates and precision. Anysis-200 assay would be useful in assessing bleeding risk management as well as abnormal platelet reactivity at point of care.

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