cell immune response
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2022 ◽  
Paolo Corradini ◽  
Chiara Agrati ◽  
Giovanni Apolone ◽  
Alberto Mantovani ◽  
Diana Giannarelli ◽  

Background: Patients with solid or hematological tumors, neurological and immune-inflammatory disorders represent potentially fragile subjects with increased risk to experience severe COVID-19 and inadequate response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination. Methods: We designed a prospective Italian multicentric study to assess humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination in patients (n=378) with solid tumors (ST), hematological malignancies (HM), neurological (ND) and immuno-rheumatological diseases (ID). The immunogenicity of primary vaccination schedule and of the booster dose were analyzed. Results: Overall, patient seroconversion rate after two doses was 62.1%. A significant lower rate was observed in HM (52.4%) and ID (51.9%) patients compared to ST (95.6%) and ND (70.7%); a lower median level of antibodies was detected in HM and ID versus the others (p<0.0001). A similar rate of patients with a positive SARS-CoV2 T-cell response was observed in all disease groups, with a higher level observed in the ND group. The booster dose improved humoral responses in all disease groups, although with a lower response in HM patients, while the T-cell response increased similarly in all groups. In the multivariable logistic model, the independent predictors for seroconversion were disease subgroups, type of therapies and age. Notably, the ongoing treatment known to affect the immune system was associated with the worst humoral response to vaccination (p<0.0001), but had no effects on the T-cell responses. Conclusions: Immunosuppressive treatment more than disease type per se is a risk factor for low humoral response after vaccination. The booster dose can improve both humoral and T-cell response.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Husheem Michael ◽  
Ayako Miyazaki ◽  
Stephanie N. Langel ◽  
Joshua O. Amimo ◽  
Maryssa K. Kick ◽  

Human rotavirus (HRV) infection is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Current oral vaccines perform poorly in developing countries where efficacious vaccines are needed the most. Therefore, an alternative affordable strategy to enhance efficacy of the current RV vaccines is necessary. This study evaluated the effects of colonization of neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs with Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) 1917 and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) probiotics on immunogenicity and protective efficacy of oral attenuated (Att) HRV vaccine. EcN-colonized pigs had reduced virulent HRV (VirHRV) shedding and decreased diarrhea severity compared with the LGG-colonized group. They also had enhanced HRV-specific IgA antibody titers in serum and antibody secreting cell numbers in tissues pre/post VirHRV challenge, HRV-specific IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents, and B-cell subpopulations in tissues post VirHRV challenge. EcN colonization also enhanced T-cell immune response, promoted dendritic cells and NK cell function, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines/Toll like receptor (TLR), and increased production of immunoregulatory cytokines/TLR expression in various tissues pre/post VirHRV challenge. Thus, EcN probiotic adjuvant with AttHRV vaccine enhances the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of AttHRV to a greater extent than LGG and it can be used as a safe and economical oral vaccine adjuvant.

Julia M. Marchingo ◽  
Doreen A. Cantrell

AbstractT cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation into effector and memory states involve massive remodeling of T cell size and molecular content and create a massive increase in demand for energy and amino acids. Protein synthesis is an energy- and resource-demanding process; as such, changes in T cell energy production are intrinsically linked to proteome remodeling. In this review, we discuss how protein synthesis and degradation change over the course of a T cell immune response and the crosstalk between these processes and T cell energy metabolism. We highlight how the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze T cell proteomes can improve our understanding of how these processes are regulated.

Neerja Masih

Abstract: The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an important component of the cell's ability to defend itself against oxidative stress. Many immune signaling pathways are regulated through redox reactions. Biological systems utilize oxidationreduction reactions to modulate their responses to environmental cues. The role of redox molecules such as NO and ROS as key mediators of immunity has recently gathered a lot of interest and attention. Beyond the chemical interactions of NO and ROS that combine to eradicate pathogens, these redox small molecules are effective immune-modulators that regulate cellular metabolism as well as multiple pro-inflammatory and repair/tissue-restoration pathways. Redox molecules such as peroxide, superoxide, NO, and RNS, once thought to be only toxic, are essential in tissue repair. These species are generated, converted and metabolized during host microbe interaction involving the innate immune system. Cytochrome b558 is the flavin binding component of the NADPH oxidase. NADPH oxidases are key producers of ROS. A variety of RNS and ROS is produced in the acidic mileu of phagosomes, which provide an environment conducive to the redox chemistry, which is the first line in fighting infection. Bacterial cell immune response also involves NO. Thus understanding the plasma membrane redox activities can help unravel the mechanisms of immune response. Keywords: Plasma membrane, Redox activities, oxidative stress, NO, ROS, RNS. Nitrous Oxide, Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (6) ◽  
pp. 797-803
Anton Zozulia ◽  
Irina Baldueva ◽  
Anna Artemeva ◽  
Sergei Novikov ◽  
Anastasiia Muravtseva ◽  

Purpose. To study the influence of PD-L1 expression on the dynamics of immunological changes before and at different intervals after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of metastatic lesions in patients with metastatic forms of solid tumors. Materials and methods. A quantitative assessment and analysis of blood immunological parameters was conducted before irradiation, via 3-4 weeks and via 6-8 weeks after SBRT in patients with malignant tumors with oligometastases in the liver or lungs, in groups with negative and positive expression of PD-L1. All peripheral blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Friedman and Nemenyi criteria. Results. 3-4 weeks after the end of SBRT in group CPS <1 we observed statistically significant increase of activated T-helpers (CD3+CD4+HLA-DR+), activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD3+СD8+HLA-DR+), T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19-) and T-helpers (CD3+CD4+). Wherein, activated T-helpers and activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes statistically significantly increased 6-8 weeks after SBRT compared with the study before irradiation. In group CPS> 1, we revealed statistically significant increase of activated T-helpers 6-8 weeks after and decrease of T-regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25brightCD127low) 3-4 weeks after completion of SBRT compared with the study before radiotherapy. When we analyzed the indicators by the TPS index, most of the statistically significant changes were recorded in the group with negative expression (TPS <1): increasing of activated T-helpers and activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes 3-4 weeks and 6-8 weeks after SBRT and  decreasing of T-regulatory lymphocytes 3-4 weeks after irradiation compared with the study before irradiation. Conclusion. Groups with negative PD-L1 expression (CPS <1 and TPS <1) are associated with a more activated antitumor T-cell immune response compared to patients with positive PD-L1 status (CPS≥1 and TPS≥1), however, further researches are needed.  

2021 ◽  
Damon H. May ◽  
Benjamin E. R. Rubin ◽  
Sudeb C. Dalai ◽  
Krishna Patel ◽  
Shahin Shafiani ◽  

The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant contains 34 mutations in the spike gene likely impacting protective efficacy from vaccines. We evaluated the potential impact of these mutations on the cellular immune response. Combining epitope mapping to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that we have determined from past experiments along with T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing from thousands of vaccinated or naturally infected individuals, we estimate the abrogation of the cellular immune response in Omicron. Although 20% of CD4+ T cell epitopes are potentially affected, the loss of immunity mediated by CD4+ T cells is estimated to be slightly above 30% as some of the affected epitopes are relatively more immunogenic. For CD8+ T cells, we estimate a loss of approximately 20%. These reductions in T cell immunity are substantially larger than observed in other widely distributed variants. Combined with the expected substantial loss of neutralization from antibodies, the overall protection provided by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines could be impacted adversely. From analysis of prior variants, the efficacy of vaccines against symptomatic infection has been largely maintained and is strongly correlated with the T cell response but not as strongly with the neutralizing antibody response. We expect the remaining 70% to 80% of on-target T cells induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to reduce morbidity and mortality from infection with Omicron.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Yifan Wang ◽  
Fugang Duan ◽  
Zhu Zhu ◽  
Meng Yu ◽  
Xiaodong Jia ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. T cells play an essential role in the body’s fighting against the virus invasion, and the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial in T cell-mediated virus recognition and clearance. However, little has been known about the features of T cell response in convalescent COVID-19 patients. In this study, using 5′RACE technology and PacBio sequencing, we analyzed the TCR repertoire of COVID-19 patients after recovery for 2 weeks and 6 months compared with the healthy donors. The TCR clustering and CDR3 annotation were exploited to discover groups of patient-specific TCR clonotypes with potential SARS-CoV-2 antigen specificities. We first identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones with certain clonal expansion after infection, and then observed the preferential recombination usage of V(D) J gene segments in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients with different convalescent stages. More important, the TRBV6-5-TRBD2-TRBJ2-7 combination with high frequency was shared between CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells of different COVID-19 patients. Finally, we found the dominant characteristic motifs of the CDR3 sequence between recovered COVID-19 and healthy control. Our study provides novel insights on TCR in COVID-19 with different convalescent phases, contributing to our understanding of the immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. e1009735
Melanie E. Moses ◽  
Steven Hofmeyr ◽  
Judy L. Cannon ◽  
Akil Andrews ◽  
Rebekah Gridley ◽  

A key question in SARS-CoV-2 infection is why viral loads and patient outcomes vary dramatically across individuals. Because spatial-temporal dynamics of viral spread and immune response are challenging to study in vivo, we developed Spatial Immune Model of Coronavirus (SIMCoV), a scalable computational model that simulates hundreds of millions of lung cells, including respiratory epithelial cells and T cells. SIMCoV replicates viral growth dynamics observed in patients and shows how spatially dispersed infections can lead to increased viral loads. The model also shows how the timing and strength of the T cell response can affect viral persistence, oscillations, and control. By incorporating spatial interactions, SIMCoV provides a parsimonious explanation for the dramatically different viral load trajectories among patients by varying only the number of initial sites of infection and the magnitude and timing of the T cell immune response. When the branching airway structure of the lung is explicitly represented, we find that virus spreads faster than in a 2D layer of epithelial cells, but much more slowly than in an undifferentiated 3D grid or in a well-mixed differential equation model. These results illustrate how realistic, spatially explicit computational models can improve understanding of within-host dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (6) ◽  
pp. 1229-1238
I. A. Ivanova ◽  
N. D. Omelchenko ◽  
A. V. Filippenko ◽  
A. A. Trufanova ◽  
A. K. Noskov

The data obtained during previous epidemics caused by coronaviruses, and current pandemic indicate that assessing the role of certain immune interactions between these viruses and the microorganism is the main pre-requisite for development of diagnostic test systems as well as effective medical drugs and preventive measures. The review summarizes the results of studying patho– and immunogenesis of SARSCoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infections. These coronaviruses were proven to suppress development of adaptive immune response at the stage of its induction, affecting the number and functional activity of lymphocytes, effectors of cellular immunity, causing impairment of lymphopoiesis, apoptosis and «depletion» of these cells, thus leading to longer duration of the disease and increased viral load. Information about the role of cellular immunity in development of immune response to coronaviruses is presented. It was proven that the causative agents of SARS, MERS and COVID-19 trigger adaptive immune response in the microorganism according to both humoral and cellular types. Moreover, the synthesis of specific immunoglobulins does not yet point to presence of protective immune response. Activation of the cellular link of immunity is also important. A high degree of antigenic epitope homology in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 is described, thus suggesting an opportunity for cross-immunity to coronaviruses. The review addresses issues related to the terms of specific memory immune cells to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and their role in providing long-term protection against these infections. Given that specific antibodies to SARS and MERS pathogens persisted for a year, were often not detected or briefly registered in patients with mild and asymptomatic infections, we can talk about important role of the cellular immune response in providing immunity to these coronaviruses. It was shown that, in contrast to antibodies, the antigen-specific memory T cells were registered in patients with SARS virus for 4 to 11 years, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – up to two years. Further research is needed to determine presence and number of memory T cells in COVID-19. A comparative analysis of data obtained during previous epidemics with respect to formation of adaptive immunity to coronaviruses. Description of proteins and epitopes recognized by human T lymphocytes will be useful in monitoring immune responses in COVID-19 patients, as well as in developing informative tests to study T cell immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and new preventive drugs.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6272
Thomas Albrecht ◽  
Benjamin Goeppert ◽  
Fritz Brinkmann ◽  
Alphonse Charbel ◽  
Qiangnu Zhang ◽  

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Therapeutic options are largely limited to surgery and conventional chemotherapy offers limited benefit. As immunotherapy has proven highly effective in various cancer types, we have undertaken a quantitative immunohistopathological assessment of immune cells expressing the immunoinhibitory T cell immune response cDNA 7 receptor (TIRC7), an emerging immunoinhibitory receptor, in a cohort of 135 CCA patients. TIRC7+ immune cells were present in both the tumor epithelia and stroma in the majority of CCA cases with the highest levels found in intrahepatic CCA. While intraepithelial density of TIRC7+ immune cells was decreased compared to matched non-neoplastic bile ducts, stromal quantity was higher in the tumor samples. Tumors exhibiting signet ring cell or adenosquamous morphology were exclusively associated with an intraepithelial TIRC7+ phenotype. Survival analysis showed intraepithelial TIRC7+ immune cell density to be a highly significant favorable prognosticator in intrahepatic but not proximal or distal CCA. Furthermore, intraepithelial TIRC7+ immune cell density correlated with the number of intraepithelial CD8+ immune cells and with the total number of CD4+ immune cells. Our results suggest the presence and prognostic relevance of TIRC7+ immune cells in CCA and warrant further functional studies on its pharmacological modulation.

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