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Author(s):  
Antonia Apostolakou

This study investigates linguistic and scriptal variation in notary signatures found in late antique contracts from Egypt, seeking to identify and interpret the potential relationship between choices in language and script. To answer this, theoretical concepts and methods from sociolinguistics, social semiotics, and multilingual studies are used, with the objective of adding a new, more linguistically-oriented perspective to existing research on notarial signatures. On the one hand, this research demonstrates how the Latin script seems to restrict notaries, resulting in transliterated Greek signatures with very homogeneous content. The familiarity of notaries with the Greek language and writing is, on the other hand, reflected in signatures written in the Greek alphabet, which are much more diverse and at times adjusted to the circumstances under which specific documents were composed. Even if notaries seem to lack confidence in freely producing text in the Latin script, they choose to do so due to its functional values, which are conveyed and perceived visually. Latin letters create an association between signatories and Roman law, adding to the trustworthiness and prestige of the signatures. Differentiating between script and language allows us to understand how the Latin script maintained the connotations that formerly accompanied the Latin language, gradually replacing it in the form of transliterated passages, at a time when the language was disappearing from papyrological documentation. In this sense, sociolinguistics, and especially social semiotics, prove useful when dealing with visual aspects of language in papyri, as they prevent their functions and meanings from being overlooked.


Author(s):  
Н.А. Трубицина

В работе анализируется семантика мифонимов в стихотворении И.А. Бунина «Потоп». Только в двух стихотворениях Бунина имеется подстрочное пояснение «миф», среди которых и данное произведение. Такое пояснение говорит о важности непосредственно мифологической составляющей в сюжете «Потопа». Стихотворение изобилует мифонимам; основное место занимают теонимы - имена богов (Роману, Нэбо, Сарру, Нергал, Нинип, Анну, Истара) и мифоантропонимы - имена мифических людей (царь Ксисутрос, он же Касисадра, кормчий Бусуркургал). Расшифровку этих имен собственных мы можем частично найти в научных трудах Т.М. Двинятиной, И.А. Таировой, В.В. Емельянова. Не со всеми трактовками мифонимов этими учеными соглашается автор данной статьи. Опираясь на авторитетное мнение востоковеда и шумеролога В.В. Емельянова, за источник бунинского сюжета рассказа о потопе мы берем статью одного из первооткрывателей шумерского языка Пауля Хаупта «The Cuneiform Account of the Deluge» («Клинописный рассказ о Потопе»). К этой статье И.А. Бунин обратился либо непосредственно, либо уже в переводе ее с английского на другой европейский язык. В данной работе П. Хаупт представляет перевод с греческого языка мифа о потопе халдея Берроса и перевод XI песни «Эпоса о Гильгамеше», вероятно, «ниневийской» его версии, повествующей о потопе и спасшемся от него царе Зиусудре. При создании стихотворения «Потоп» И.А. Бунин опирается на оба эти источника, контаминируя их между собой согласно собственному художественному видению. Автор статьи приходит к выводу, что мифонимы в данном произведении играют роль художественных маркеров, обозначающих авторское подстрочное пояснение заглавия стихотворения - «халдейский миф». The paper analyzes the semantics of mythonyms in the poem «The Flood» by I. A. Bunin. Only two of Bunin’s poems have an interlinear explanation «myth», including this poem. This explanation is indicative of the importance of the mythological component in the plot of «The Flood». The poem is rich in mythonyms; the main place is occupied by theonyms - the names of the gods (Romana, Nebo, Sarru, Nergal, Ninip, Annu, Istara) and mythoanthroponyms - the names of mythical people (King Xisutros, alias Kasisadra, the helmsman of Busurkurgal). We can partially find the decoding of these proper names in the scientific papers written by T.M. Dvinyatina, I.A. Tairova, V.V. Emelyanov. The author of this article does not agree with all interpretations of mythonyms by these scientists. Based on the authoritative opinion of the orientalist and Sumerologist V.V. Emelyanov, we take the article by one of the discoverers of the Sumerian language Paul Haupt «The Cuneiform Account of the Deluge» as the source of Bunin’s story about the flood. Bunin turned to this article either directly or in its translation from English into another European language. In this work, Haupt presents a translation of the myth of the flood of the Chaldean Berros from the Greek language and the translation of the XI canto of the Epic of Gilgamesh, probably its «Nineveh» version, which tells about the flood and the king Ziusudra who was saved from it. Сreating the poem «The Flood», Bunin relies on these sources, contaminating them according to his own artistic vision. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the mythonyms in this poem play the role of artistic markers, denoting the author’s interlinear explanation of the title of the poem - «Chaldean myth».


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 388
Author(s):  
Mohd Akhtar Ali ◽  
Hamiduddin

Qarābādhīn can be termed as pharmacopoeia, contains compiled form of compound formulations or recipes. Importance of Qarābādhīn gradually increased and acquired an imperative status. The history of Qarābādhīn starts from Chiron, Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen in Greco-Roman era. Many of early and medieval Islamic and Arab physicians play vital role and immense original contribution in this discipline and authored important and essential Qarābādhīn with systemic and scientific approaches. Although some of them could not reach the present day, many of the manuscripts can be found in various libraries across the world. Since the Arab Caliphates appreciated and patronized the fields of medicine acquired from Greeks and worked for its development, this period also known as “Greco-Arabic era”. In this work the evaluation of Qarābādhīn (particularly written in Arabic or Greek language) was done in historical and regulatory perspective particularly in Greek era and later on in Medieval Islamic era. The findings of the review indicate the importance and regulatory status of Qarābādhīn and provide information about it. It can be helpful to explore Qarābādhīn and related publications of Greek and Medieval Islamic Arabic period, which gives foundations for the present-day pharmacopeias. Since these documents also take into account ethical considerations, its utility in the fields of medicine and medical ethics should be investigated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 388-404


Author(s):  
Martin Hinterberger

Byzantine Greek was a highly developed and artful language with close ties both to the living language of the time and to a centuries-old literary heritage. Like all humans, the Byzantines grew up with their mother tongue; for those of Greek-speaking background and in Greek-speaking contexts, this was the spoken medieval Greek. Those who had the privilege to obtain education adopted—to various degrees—linguistic elements of older stages of the Greek language in order to compose their texts. Many of these older linguistic elements were used in a seemingly “arbitrary” way when compared to the linguistic rules of ancient Greek. Viewed in their contemporary context, however, these elements were creatively incorporated into a linguistic system which was essentially based on the contemporary language and was consistent in itself. The creative blend of traditional and modern features—though not readily accessible to the modern reader—and the tension between them left ample space for personal choices. This is precisely what makes the language of Byzantine literature a particularly exciting topic.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 171-177
Author(s):  
I. V. Tresorukova

 The paper deals with the semantic category of temporal irreality, based on the phraseological units (PUs) of the Modern Greek language. The phraseology as an anthropocentric linguistics sphere uses the phenomena of the surrounding world, including temporality, which are perceived through the prism of the national linguistic picture of the world. The linguistic model of perception and reproduction of unreality is expressed in grammatical and semantic categories. Structural PUs’ components form specific images of the linguistic picture of the world of the native speaker of the Modern Greek language, associated with extra-linguistic and linguistic factors. The author uses the continuous sampling method and analyzes various components related to different cultural codes. As a result the systematic nature of syntactic models of PUs reveals a certain typology of the methods of their formation. The article is intended for specialists in the field of studying and teaching the Greek language and can be used in comparative and typological studies of the Balkan studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria Markaki ◽  
Nikoleta Chyta ◽  
Georgia Maggouritsa ◽  
Dimitrios Kokaridas

Co-education of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) during the lesson of Physical Education (PE) in the Greek School constitutes contemporary educational reality. However, its success depends on many factors, with the most important being the effective employment of cooperative physical education methods for students with disabilities or no disabilities. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the impact of a physical education intervention program on the reinforcement of the social interaction of a student with ASD, aged 10, in the ordinary school. The intervention exercise program included the following specific educational approaches and intervention strategies: a) game with the support of an adult (adult support game) b) integrated playgroups with guided involvement (Integrated Play Groups Model) and c) games between peers providing a model to imitate. The duration of the program was eight weeks, with a frequency of three times per week, each lesson of PE (Physical Education) lasting 45 minutes. The data collection tools that were used in the pre-intervention program were the semi-structured interview and the «Autism Social Skills Profile» scale (Bellini & Hopf, 2007), which was adapted in the Greek Language by Syriopoulou- Delli, Agaliotis and Papaefstathiou (2016). It was used before and after the intervention. The results of the research study showed that the student with ASD had positive experiences through his relationship with his classmates, increased his level of participation in the lesson of Physical Education (PE) throughout the implementation of the intervention program, and improved his social reciprocity through interaction and collaboration with his peers, without displaying improper or detrimental social behavior patterns. <p> </p><p><strong> Article visualizations:</strong></p><p><img src="/-counters-/edu_01/0884/a.php" alt="Hit counter" /></p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ioannis Vrettos ◽  
Panagiota Voukelatou ◽  
Stefani Panayiotou ◽  
Andreas Kyvetos ◽  
Andreas Kalliakmanis ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Among many screening tools that have been developed to detect frailty in older adults, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use tool that has been translated in several languages. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable version of the CFS to the Greek language. Methods A Greek version was obtained by translation (English to Greek) and back translation (Greek to English). The “known-group” construct validity of the CFS was determined by using test for trends. Criterion concurrent validity was assessed by evaluating the extent that CFS relates to Barthel Index, using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Both inter-rater and test–retest reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results Known groups comparison supports the construct validity of the CFS. The strong negative correlation between CFS and Barthel Index (rs = − 0,725, p ≤ 0.001), supports the criterion concurrent validity of the instrument. The intraclass correlation was good for both inter-rater (0.87, 95%CI: 0.82–0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.89: 95%CI: 0.85–0.92). Conclusion The Greek version of the CFS is a valid and reliable instrument for the identification of frailty in the Greek population.


Author(s):  
Maria Drossinou-Korea ◽  
Athina Avramidi

This paper investigates the dynamics of non-formal learning in the field of teacher preparation, for the acceptance and integration of people with autism in the General School. The main goal of the research is to identify appropriate practices for the formation of a fair attitude towards people with disabilities, with a focus on autism. The research questions posed were: (1) How can understanding autism be achieved i. by the group of teachers and students involved, and ii. by individuals in the environment in which they interact, and (2) How will understanding autism lead to the acceptance and integration of students with autism into the community? The research was carried out within the framework of the Erasmus KA3 / e-twinning program and was connected to the Curriculum through modules of the courses of Modern Greek Literature and Modern Greek Language. The pedagogical tool Targeted, Individual, Structured, Integrated Program for Special Educational Needs (TISIPfSEN) (Drosinou-Korea, 2017) played a primary role in the implementation of the program. The results reflected the reliability of the educational tool TISIPfSEN in enhancing the empathy of students of typical development and highlighted the potential which derives from the participation in non-formal education to form attitudes and behaviors with the ultimate goal of integrating students with autism in the General School.


2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110268
Author(s):  
Vaitsa Giannouli ◽  
Juliana Yordanova ◽  
Vasil Kolev

Research on aesthetic descriptors of art in different languages is scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the conceptual structure of aesthetic experiences of three forms of art (music, visual arts and literature) in the Greek language, which has not been explored so far. It was further aimed to study if biological and cognitive factors such as age and gender might produce differences in art appreciation. A total of 467 younger and older individuals from Greece were asked to generate verbal descriptors (adjectives) in free word-listing conditions in order to collect terms reflecting the aesthetics-related semantic field of art. The capacity of verbal memory was controlled by using a battery of neuropsychological tests. Analysis of generated adjectives’ frequency and salience revealed that ‘beautiful’ was the most prominent descriptor that was selected with a distinctive primacy for all three forms of arts. The primacy of ‘beautiful’ was significantly more pronounced for visual arts relative to music and literature. Although the aging-related decline of verbal capacity was similar for males and females, the primacy of ‘beautiful’ depended on age and gender by being more emphasized for young females than males, and for old males than females. Analysis of secondary descriptors and pairs of adjectives revealed that affective and hedonic experiences are essentially fixed in the semantic field of art reflection. It is concluded that although the concept of the aesthetics seems to be diversified and rich, a clear primacy of beauty is found for the Greek cultural environment and across different forms of art. The results also highlight the presence of complex influences of biological and cognitive factors on aesthetic art experiences.


2021 ◽  
pp. 82-93
Author(s):  
Yurii Osinchuk

In the article religious vocabulary is studied in the diachronic aspect based on the material of different genres and different styles of Ukrainian written monuments of the 16th – 18th centuries (act books of city governments, city and provincial courts, village councils, privileges, land lustration, books of income and expenditure, wills, deeds, descriptions of castles, universals of hetman offices, documents of church and school brotherhoods, chronicles, works of religious, polemical and fiction literature, monuments of scientific and educational literature, liturgical literature, epistolary heritage, etc.), included in the sources «Dictionary of the Ukrainian language of the 16th – first half of the 17th century», “Mapping of the Historical Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language”, edited by Ye. Tymchenko and their lexical card indexes, which are stored in the Department of the Ukrainian language of the Ivan Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Lviv). In particular, names related to religious teachings, religions, and names of persons according to their attitude to a particular faith or religion are reviewed. The article focuses on the etymological analysis of religious names, which was primarily focused on the clarification of their semantic etymon. It has been established that the words of the studied lexico-semantic group are not genetically homogeneous, as it includes tokens of different origins, including borrowings from the Greek language, Church Slavonic, Latin, Polonism, etc. Some Church Slavonic names originated as a semantic calque from Greek words. It is observed that the semantic history of some studied words in the Ukrainian language dates back to the early monuments of the Kyivan Rus period. The historical fate of names associated with religious teachings and religions is not the same. Mostly, these names have survived in the modern Ukrainian literary language and liturgical practice. Others were archaized or preserved in Ukrainian dialects. In some religious names, there are vivid features of the Ukrainian language of the 16th – 18th centuries. It has been found that some of the studied tokens act as core components of various two-membered or three-membered stable and lexicalized phrases.


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