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2022 ◽  
Xiaoyan Ma ◽  
Haoning Gong ◽  
Kenji Ogino ◽  
Xuehai Yan ◽  
Ruirui Xing

Oxidative stress can lead to permanent and irreversible damage for cellular components, and even cause cancer and many diseases. Therefore, the development of antioxidative reagents is a significant strategy for alleviating chronic diseases and maintaining the redox balance. Small-molecule bioactive compounds have exhibited huge therapeutic potential in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Myricetin (Myr) as well-defined natural flavonoid, has drawn wide attention on highly effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Especially at antioxidation, Myr is capable of not only chelating intracellular transition metal ions for removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but also activating antioxidant enzymes and related signal, achieving sustainable scavenging radical activity. However, Myr possesses poor water solubility, which limits its bioavailability for biomedical application, even clinical therapeutic potential. The endogenous antioxidant peptide glutathione (GSH) plays a direct role on antioxidant in cells and possesses good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, but is easily metabolized by enzyme. To take advantages of their antioxidation activity and overcome the above-mentioned limitations, the GSH, Zn2+ and Myr are selected to co-assemble into Myr-Zn2+-GSH (abbreviated as MZG nanoparticles or nanoarchitectonics). Thence, this study offers a new design to harness stable, sustainable antioxidant nanoparticles with high loading capacity and bioavailability, good biocompatibility for optimizing antioxidant to protect cells from oxygenated damage.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 455
Kevin Q. T. Luong ◽  
Yuanxun (Ethan) Wang

Mechanically driven magnetoelectric antennas are a promising new technology that enable a reduction in antenna size by many orders of magnitude, as compared to conventional antennas. The magnetoelastic coupling in these antennas, a phenomenon playing a direct role in determining performance, has been modeled using approaches that are severely lacking in both accuracy and tractability. In response to this problem, we take a physics-based approach to the analysis of magnetoelastic coupling. We find that certain directions of applied stress will maximize the coupling and we derive general expressions to quantify it. Our results are applied in comprehensive simulations that demonstrate the dynamic nature of the coupling as well as the impact of various operating conditions and material properties. Our work contributes analytical expressions and associated insight that can serve not only as guidelines for the design of mechanically driven magnetoelectric antennas, but also as stepping stones towards the development of more accurate models.

2022 ◽  
Avnika Bali ◽  
Samantha P Schaefer ◽  
Isabelle Trier ◽  
Alice L Zhang ◽  
Lilian Kabeche ◽  

The wasabi receptor, TRPA1, is a non-selective homotetrameric cation channel expressed in primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway, where it is activated by diverse chemical irritants. A direct role for TRPA1 in human health has been highlighted by the discovery of genetic variants associated with severe pain disorders. One such TRPA1 mutant was identified in a father-son pair with cramp fasciculation syndrome (CFS) and neuronal hyperexcitability-hypersensitivity symptoms that may be caused by aberrant channel activity, though the mechanism of action for this mutant is unknown. Here, we show the CFS-associated R919* TRPA1 mutant is functionally inactive when expressed alone in heterologous cells, which is not surprising since it lacks the 201 C-terminal amino acids that house critical channel gating machinery including the pore-lining transmembrane helix. Interestingly, the R919* mutant confers enhanced agonist sensitivity when co-expressed with wild type (WT) TRPA1. This channel hyperactivation mechanism is conserved in distant TRPA1 species orthologues and can be recapitulated in the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Using a combination of ratiometric calcium imaging, immunostaining, surface biotinylation, pulldown assays, fluorescence size exclusion chromatography, and proximity biotinylation assays, we show that the R919* mutant co-assembles with WT subunits into heteromeric channels. Within these heteromers, we postulate that R919* TRPA1 subunits contribute to hyperactivation by lowering energetic barriers to channel activation contributed by the missing regions. Additionally, we show heteromer activation can originate from the R919* TRPA1 subunits, which suggests an unexpected role for the ankyrin repeat and coiled coil domains in concerted channel gating. Our results demonstrate the R919* TRPA1 mutant confers gain-of-function thereby expanding the physiological impact of nonsense mutations, reveals a novel and genetically tractable mechanism for selective channel sensitization that may be broadly applicable to other receptors, and uncovers new gating insights that may explain the molecular mechanism of temperature sensing by some TRPA1 orthologues.

Endocrines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-28
Vanessa Moisan ◽  
Catherine Brousseau ◽  
Jacques J. Tremblay

Members of the pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor (PBX) family of homeoproteins are mainly known for their involvement in hematopoietic cell differentiation and in the development of leukemia. The four PBX proteins, PBX1, PBX2, PBX3 and PBX4, belong to the three amino acid loop extension (TALE) superfamily of homeoproteins which are important transcriptional cofactors in several developmental processes involving homeobox (HOX) factors. Mutations in the human PBX1 gene are responsible for cases of gonadal dysgenesis with absence of male sex differentiation while Pbx1 inactivation in the mouse causes a failure in Leydig cell differentiation and function. However, no data is available regarding the expression profile of this transcription factor in the testis. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized PBX1 expression during mouse testicular development. Real time PCRs and Western blots confirmed the presence Pbx1 mRNA and PBX1 protein in different Leydig and Sertoli cell lines. The cellular localization of the PBX1 protein was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on mouse testis sections at different embryonic and postnatal developmental stages. PBX1 was detected in interstitial cells and in peritubular myoid cells from embryonic life until puberty. Most interstitial cells expressing PBX1 do not express the Leydig cell marker CYP17A1, indicating that they are not differentiated and steroidogenically active Leydig cells. In adults, PBX1 was mainly detected in Sertoli cells. The presence of PBX1 in different somatic cell populations during testicular development further supports a direct role for this transcription factor in testis cell differentiation and in male reproductive function.

2022 ◽  
pp. 288-321

Degeneration of a tissue is defined as a deterioration that results in impaired structure and function. These changes occur at the cellular level and are caused by biomolecular alterations induced by aging, as well as a wide variety of adverse external and internal influences. Traditionally, degenerations have been classified as involutional (age-related) or non-involutional, depending on type of deposition (hyaline, amyloid, lipid, calcific), and by anatomic location (anterior, posterior, central or peripheral). Degenerations may be unilateral or bilateral, often with asymmetric involvement. Heredity does not play a direct role in these processes. The noninflammatory ectatic diseases of the cornea discussed in this chapter include keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, keratoglobus, and posterior keratoconus. An exceptional degeneration unreported in literature (presumed alimentary cuprum keratopathy) is presented in this chapter. Pseudogerontoxon is one of the characteristic degenerations commonly seen in Middle Eastern populations.

2021 ◽  
Aishan Zhao ◽  
Steven Parker Bodine ◽  
Qian Xie ◽  
Boyuan Wang ◽  
Geeta Ram ◽  

In Staphylococcus aureus, virulence is under the control of a quorum sensing (QS) circuit encoded in the accessory gene regulator (agr) genomic locus. Key to this pathogenic behavior is the production and signaling activity of a secreted pheromone, the autoinducing peptide (AIP), generated following the ribosomal synthesis and post-translational modification of a precursor polypeptide, AgrD, through two discrete cleavage steps. The integral membrane protease AgrB is known to catalyze the first processing event, generating the AIP biosynthetic intermediate, AgrD (1-32) thiolactone. However, the identity of the second protease in this biosynthetic pathway, which removes an N-terminal leader sequence, has remained ambiguous. Here, we show that MroQ, an integral membrane protease recently implicated in the agr response, is directly involved in AIP production. Genetic complementation and biochemical experiments reveal that MroQ proteolytic activity is required for AIP biosynthesis in agr specifiy groups -I and -II, but not group-III. Notably, as part of this effort, the biosynthesis and AIP-sensing arms of the QS circuit were reconstituted together in vitro. Our experiments also reveal the molecular features guiding MroQ cleavage activity, a critical factor in defining agr specificity group identity. Collectively, our study adds to the molecular understanding of the agr response and Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 375
Antonio Tejera-Muñoz ◽  
Laura Marquez-Exposito ◽  
Lucía Tejedor-Santamaría ◽  
Sandra Rayego-Mateos ◽  
Macarena Orejudo ◽  

The cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2/CTGF) has been traditionally described as a mediator of the fibrotic responses induced by other factors including the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). However, several studies have defined a direct role of CCN2 acting as a growth factor inducing oxidative and proinflammatory responses. The presence of CCN2 and TGF-β together in the cellular context has been described as a requisite to induce a persistent fibrotic response, but the precise mechanisms implicated in this relation are not described yet. Considering the main role of TGF-β receptors (TβR) in the TGF-β pathway activation, our aim was to investigate the effects of CCN2 in the regulation of TβRI and TβRII levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). While no differences were observed in TβRI levels, an increase in TβRII expression at both gene and protein level were found 48 h after stimulation with the C-terminal fragment of CCN2 (CCN2(IV)). Cell pretreatment with a TβRI inhibitor did not modify TβRII increment induced by CCN2(VI), demonstrating a TGF-β-independent response. Secondly, CCN2(IV) rapidly activated the SMAD pathway in VSMCs, this being crucial in the upregulation of TβRII since the preincubation with an SMAD3 inhibitor prevented it. Similarly, pretreatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib abolished TβRII upregulation, indicating the participation of this receptor in the observed responses. Our findings suggest a direct role of CCN2 maintaining the TGF-β pathway activation by increasing TβRII expression in an EGFR-SMAD dependent manner activation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 311
Noor Mustafa ◽  
Jone Mitxelena ◽  
Arantza Infante ◽  
Olatz Zenarruzabeitia ◽  
Ainhoa Eriz ◽  

Targeted disruption of E2f2 in mice causes T-cell hyperactivation and a disproportionate cell cycle entry upon stimulation. However, E2f2−/− mice do not develop a lymphoproliferative condition. We report that E2f2 plays a Fas-dependent anti-apoptotic function in vitro and in vivo. TCR-stimulated murine E2f2−/− T cells overexpress the proapoptotic genes Fas and FasL and exhibit enhanced apoptosis, which is prevented by treatment with neutralizing anti-FasL antibodies. p53 pathway is activated in TCR-stimulated E2f2−/− lymphocytes, but targeted disruption of p53 in E2f2−/− mice does not abrogate Fas/FasL expression or apoptosis, implying a p53-independent apoptotic mechanism. We show that E2f2 is recruited to Fas and FasL gene promoters to repress their expression. in vivo, E2f2−/− mice are prone to develop immune-mediated liver injury owing to an aberrant lymphoid Fas/FasL activation. Taken together, our results suggest that E2f2-dependent inhibition of Fas/FasL pathway may play a direct role in limiting the development of immune-mediated pathologies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Dibesh Thapa ◽  
Brentton Barrett ◽  
Fulye Argunhan ◽  
Susan D. Brain

The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPA1 and TRPM8, are thermo-receptors that detect cold and cool temperatures and play pivotal roles in mediating the cold-induced vascular response. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPA1 and TRPM8 in the thermoregulatory behavioural responses to environmental cold exposure by measuring core body temperature and locomotor activity using a telemetry device that was surgically implanted in mice. The core body temperature of mice that were cooled at 4 °C over 3 h was increased and this was accompanied by an increase in UCP-1 and TRPM8 level as detected by Western blot. We then established an effective route, by which the TRP antagonists could be administered orally with palatable food. This avoids the physical restraint of mice, which is crucial as that could influence the behavioural results. Using selective pharmacological antagonists A967079 and AMTB for TRPA1 and TRPM8 receptors, respectively, we show that TRPM8, but not TRPA1, plays a direct role in thermoregulation response to whole body cold exposure in the mouse. Additionally, we provide evidence of increased TRPM8 levels after cold exposure which could be a protective response to increase core body temperature to counter cold.

2021 ◽  
Linda Warfield ◽  
Rafal Donczew ◽  
Lakshmi Mahendrawada ◽  
Steven Hahn

Mediator (MED) is a conserved factor with important roles in both basal and activated transcription. It is believed that MED plays a direct role in transcriptional regulation at most genes by functionally bridging enhancers and promoters. Here, we investigate the genome-wide roles of yeast MED by rapid depletion of its activator-binding domain (Tail) and monitoring changes in nascent transcription. We find that MED Tail and activator-mediated MED recruitment regulate only a small subset of genes. At most genes, MED bypasses the UAS and is directly recruited to promoters to facilitate transcription initiation. Our results define three classes of genes that differ in PIC assembly pathways and the requirements for MED Tail, SAGA, TFIID and BET factors Bdf1/2. We also find that the depletion of the MED middle module subunit Med7 mimics inactivation of Tail, suggesting a functional link. Our combined results have broad implications for the roles of MED, other coactivators, and mechanisms of transcriptional regulation at different gene classes.

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