gene promoters
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 908
Zuzana Romanova ◽  
Natasa Hlavacova ◽  
Daniela Jezova

There is no doubt that chronic stress accompanied by adrenocortical stress hormone release affects the development and treatment outcome of several mental disorders. Less attention has been paid to the effects of psychotropic drugs on adrenocortical steroids, particularly in clinical studies. This review focuses on the knowledge related to the possible modulation of cortisol and aldosterone secretion under non-stress and stress conditions by antipsychotic drugs, which are being used in the treatment of several psychotic and affective disorders. The molecular mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs may influence steroid stress hormones include the modulation of central and/or adrenocortical dopamine and serotonin receptors, modulation of inflammatory cytokines, influence on regulatory mechanisms in the central part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoters, influencing glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription, indirect effects via prolactin release, alteration of signaling pathways of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions. Clinical studies performed in healthy subjects, patients with psychosis, and patients with bipolar disorder suggest that single and repeated antipsychotic treatments either reduce cortisol concentrations or do not affect its secretion. A single and potentially long-term treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists, including antipsychotics, has a stimulatory action on aldosterone release.

Li-Yu Chen ◽  
Lee-Wen Chen ◽  
Chien-Hui Hung ◽  
Chun-Liang Lin ◽  
Shie-Shan Wang ◽  

The ORF50 protein of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the key viral protein that controls the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. It is a potent transactivator that can activate target gene promoters via interacting with other cellular DNA-binding transcription factors, such as Sp3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Inge Holm ◽  
Luisa Nardini ◽  
Adrien Pain ◽  
Emmanuel Bischoff ◽  
Cameron E. Anderson ◽  

Almost all regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic genomes is mediated by the action of distant non-coding transcriptional enhancers upon proximal gene promoters. Enhancer locations cannot be accurately predicted bioinformatically because of the absence of a defined sequence code, and thus functional assays are required for their direct detection. Here we used a massively parallel reporter assay, Self-Transcribing Active Regulatory Region sequencing (STARR-seq), to generate the first comprehensive genome-wide map of enhancers in Anopheles coluzzii, a major African malaria vector in the Gambiae species complex. The screen was carried out by transfecting reporter libraries created from the genomic DNA of 60 wild A. coluzzii from Burkina Faso into A. coluzzii 4a3A cells, in order to functionally query enhancer activity of the natural population within the homologous cellular context. We report a catalog of 3,288 active genomic enhancers that were significant across three biological replicates, 74% of them located in intergenic and intronic regions. The STARR-seq enhancer screen is chromatin-free and thus detects inherent activity of a comprehensive catalog of enhancers that may be restricted in vivo to specific cell types or developmental stages. Testing of a validation panel of enhancer candidates using manual luciferase assays confirmed enhancer function in 26 of 28 (93%) of the candidates over a wide dynamic range of activity from two to at least 16-fold activity above baseline. The enhancers occupy only 0.7% of the genome, and display distinct composition features. The enhancer compartment is significantly enriched for 15 transcription factor binding site signatures, and displays divergence for specific dinucleotide repeats, as compared to matched non-enhancer genomic controls. The genome-wide catalog of A. coluzzii enhancers is publicly available in a simple searchable graphic format. This enhancer catalogue will be valuable in linking genetic and phenotypic variation, in identifying regulatory elements that could be employed in vector manipulation, and in better targeting of chromosome editing to minimize extraneous regulation influences on the introduced sequences.Importance: Understanding the role of the non-coding regulatory genome in complex disease phenotypes is essential, but even in well-characterized model organisms, identification of regulatory regions within the vast non-coding genome remains a challenge. We used a large-scale assay to generate a genome wide map of transcriptional enhancers. Such a catalogue for the important malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, will be an important research tool as the role of non-coding regulatory variation in differential susceptibility to malaria infection is explored and as a public resource for research on this important insect vector of disease.

2022 ◽  
pp. gr.275655.121
Ni-Chen Chang ◽  
Quirze Rovira ◽  
Jonathan N Wells ◽  
Cedric Feschotte ◽  
Juan M Vaquerizas

There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of transposable elements (TEs) on embryonic development. Studies in humans and mice are limited by the difficulty of working with mammalian embryos, and by the relative scarcity of active TEs in these organisms. Zebrafish is an outstanding model for the study of vertebrate development and over half of its genome consists of diverse TEs. However, zebrafish TEs remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the demography and genomic distribution of zebrafish TEs and their expression throughout embryogenesis using bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing data. These results reveal a highly dynamic genomic ecosystem comprising nearly 2,000 distinct TE families, which vary in copy number by four orders of magnitude and span a wide range of ages. Longer retroelements tend to be retained in intergenic regions, whilst short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) and DNA transposons are more frequently found nearby or within genes. Locus-specific mapping of TE expression reveals extensive TE transcription during development. While two thirds of TE transcripts are likely driven by nearby gene promoters, we still observe stage and tissue-specific expression patterns in self-regulated TEs. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements are most transcriptionally active immediately following zygotic genome activation, whereas DNA transposons are enriched amongst transcripts expressed in later stages of development. Single-cell analysis reveals several endogenous retroviruses expressed in specific somatic cell lineages. Overall, our study provides a valuable resource for using zebrafish as a model to study the impact of TEs on vertebrate development.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Stephanie I. Nuñez-Olvera ◽  
Jonathan Puente-Rivera ◽  
Rosalio Ramos-Payán ◽  
Carlos Pérez-Plasencia ◽  
Yarely M. Salinas-Vera ◽  

A growing body of research on the transcriptome and cancer genome has demonstrated that many gynecological tumor-specific gene mutations are located in cis-regulatory elements. Through chromosomal looping, cis-regulatory elements interact which each other to control gene expression by bringing distant regulatory elements, such as enhancers and insulators, into close proximity with promoters. It is well known that chromatin connections may be disrupted in cancer cells, promoting transcriptional dysregulation and the expression of abnormal tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. In this review, we examine the roles of alterations in 3D chromatin interactions. This includes changes in CTCF protein function, cancer-risk single nucleotide polymorphisms, viral integration, and hormonal response as part of the mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of enhancers or super-enhancers. The translocation of existing enhancers, as well as enhancer loss or acquisition of insulator elements that interact with gene promoters, is also revised. Remarkably, similar processes that modify 3D chromatin contacts in gene promoters may also influence the expression of non-coding RNAs, such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in a variety of cancers, including gynecological malignancies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 311
Noor Mustafa ◽  
Jone Mitxelena ◽  
Arantza Infante ◽  
Olatz Zenarruzabeitia ◽  
Ainhoa Eriz ◽  

Targeted disruption of E2f2 in mice causes T-cell hyperactivation and a disproportionate cell cycle entry upon stimulation. However, E2f2−/− mice do not develop a lymphoproliferative condition. We report that E2f2 plays a Fas-dependent anti-apoptotic function in vitro and in vivo. TCR-stimulated murine E2f2−/− T cells overexpress the proapoptotic genes Fas and FasL and exhibit enhanced apoptosis, which is prevented by treatment with neutralizing anti-FasL antibodies. p53 pathway is activated in TCR-stimulated E2f2−/− lymphocytes, but targeted disruption of p53 in E2f2−/− mice does not abrogate Fas/FasL expression or apoptosis, implying a p53-independent apoptotic mechanism. We show that E2f2 is recruited to Fas and FasL gene promoters to repress their expression. in vivo, E2f2−/− mice are prone to develop immune-mediated liver injury owing to an aberrant lymphoid Fas/FasL activation. Taken together, our results suggest that E2f2-dependent inhibition of Fas/FasL pathway may play a direct role in limiting the development of immune-mediated pathologies.

2021 ◽  
Benjamin J Spears ◽  
Samuel A McInturf ◽  
Meghann Chlebowski ◽  
Jianbin Su ◽  
David G. Mendoza-Cozatl ◽  

The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/ CYCLOIDEA/ PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR (TCP) transcription factor family is most closely associated with regulating plant developmental programs. Recently, TCPs were also shown to mediate host immune signaling, both as targets of pathogen virulence factors and regulators of plant defense genes. However, any comprehensive characterization of TCP gene targets is still lacking. Loss of the class I TCP AtTCP8 attenuates early immune signaling, and when combined with mutations in AtTCP14 and AtTCP15, additional layers of defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we focus on TCP8, the most poorly characterized of the three to date. We use chIP and RNA-sequencing to identify TCP8-bound gene promoters and differentially regulated genes in the tcp8 mutant, data sets that are heavily enriched in signaling components for multiple phytohormone pathways, including brassinosteroids (BRs), auxin, and jasmonic acid (JA). Using BR signaling as a representative example, we show that TCP8 directly binds and activates the promoters of the key BR transcriptional regulators BZR1 and BZR2/BES1. Furthermore, tcp8 mutant seedlings exhibit altered BR-responsive growth patterns and complementary reductions in BZR2 transcript levels, while the expressed protein demonstrates BR-responsive changes in subnuclear localization and transcriptional activity. We conclude that one explanation for the significant targeting of TCP8 alongside other TCP family members by pathogen effectors may lie in its role as a modulator of brassinosteroid and other plant hormone signaling pathways.

2021 ◽  
Linda Warfield ◽  
Rafal Donczew ◽  
Lakshmi Mahendrawada ◽  
Steven Hahn

Mediator (MED) is a conserved factor with important roles in both basal and activated transcription. It is believed that MED plays a direct role in transcriptional regulation at most genes by functionally bridging enhancers and promoters. Here, we investigate the genome-wide roles of yeast MED by rapid depletion of its activator-binding domain (Tail) and monitoring changes in nascent transcription. We find that MED Tail and activator-mediated MED recruitment regulate only a small subset of genes. At most genes, MED bypasses the UAS and is directly recruited to promoters to facilitate transcription initiation. Our results define three classes of genes that differ in PIC assembly pathways and the requirements for MED Tail, SAGA, TFIID and BET factors Bdf1/2. We also find that the depletion of the MED middle module subunit Med7 mimics inactivation of Tail, suggesting a functional link. Our combined results have broad implications for the roles of MED, other coactivators, and mechanisms of transcriptional regulation at different gene classes.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Victoria Tserpeli ◽  
Dimitra Stergiopoulou ◽  
Dora Londra ◽  
Lydia Giannopoulou ◽  
Paul Buderath ◽  

Background: Epigenetic alterations in ctDNA are highly promising as a source of novel potential liquid biopsy biomarkers and comprise a very promising liquid biopsy approach in ovarian cancer, for early diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. Methods: In the present study, we examined the methylation status of six gene promoters (BRCA1, CST6, MGMT, RASSF10, SLFN11 and USP44) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). We evaluated the prognostic significance of DNA methylation of these six gene promoters in primary tumors (FFPEs) and plasma cfDNA samples from patients with early, advanced and metastatic HGSOC. Results: We report for the first time that the DNA methylation of SLFN11 in plasma cfDNA was significantly correlated with worse PFS (p = 0.045) in advanced stage HGSOC. Conclusions: Our results strongly indicate that SLFN11 epigenetic inactivation could be a predictor of resistance to platinum drugs in ovarian cancer. Our results should be further validated in studies based on a larger cohort of patients, in order to further explore whether the DNA methylation of SLFN11 promoter could serve as a potential prognostic DNA methylation biomarker and a predictor of resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Arthur I. Dergilev ◽  
Nina G. Orlova ◽  
Oxana B. Dobrovolskaya ◽  
Yuriy L. Orlov

Abstract The development of high-throughput genomic sequencing coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation technologies allows studying the binding sites of the protein transcription factors (TF) in the genome scale. The growth of data volume on the experimentally determined binding sites raises qualitatively new problems for the analysis of gene expression regulation, prediction of transcription factors target genes, and regulatory gene networks reconstruction. Genome regulation remains an insufficiently studied though plants have complex molecular regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and response to environmental stresses. It is important to develop new software tools for the analysis of the TF binding sites location and their clustering in the plant genomes, visualization, and the following statistical estimates. This study presents application of the analysis of multiple TF binding profiles in three evolutionarily distant model plant organisms. The construction and analysis of non-random ChIP-seq binding clusters of the different TFs in mammalian embryonic stem cells were discussed earlier using similar bioinformatics approaches. Such clusters of TF binding sites may indicate the gene regulatory regions, enhancers and gene transcription regulatory hubs. It can be used for analysis of the gene promoters as well as a background for transcription networks reconstruction. We discuss the statistical estimates of the TF binding sites clusters in the model plant genomes. The distributions of the number of different TFs per binding cluster follow same power law distribution for all the genomes studied. The binding clusters in Arabidopsis thaliana genome were discussed here in detail.

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