As a wide bandgap semiconductor, Gallium Nitride (GaN) device proves itself as a suitable candidate to implement high temperature (HT) integrated circuits. GaN500 is a technology available from the National Research Council of Canada to serve RF applications. However, this technology has the potential to boost HT electronics to higher ranges of operating temperatures and to higher levels of integration. This paper summarizes the outcome of five years of research investigating the implementation of GaN500-based circuits to support HT applications such as aerospace missions and deep earth drilling. More than 15 integrated circuits were implemented and tested. We performed the HT characterization of passive elements integrated in GaN500 including resistors, capacitors, and inductors up to 600 °C. Moreover, we developed for the first time several digital circuits based on GaN500 technology, including logic gates (NOT, NAND, NOR), ring oscillators, D Flip-Flop, Delay circuits, and voltage reference circuits. The tested circuits are fabricated on a 4 mm × 4 mm chip to validate their functionality over a wide range of temperatures. The logic gates show functionality at HT over 400 °C, while the voltage reference circuits remain stable up to 550 °C.
In this paper, an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference capable of operating at sub-1[Formula: see text]V input supply is proposed. Four transistors biased in weak inversion are used to generate the required complementary-to-absolute-temperature (CTAT) and proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltages of the proposed circuit. Self-biasing of nature of the proposed configuration in the form of operational amplifier (opamp)-free ensure nano-power operation and eliminate the need for lateral bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and offset cancelation techniques. A prototype of the circuit is designed and simulated in a standard 0.18-[Formula: see text]m CMOS process. Post-layout simulation results show that the circuit generates a reference voltage of 494[Formula: see text]mV with temperature coefficient (TC) of 58.4[Formula: see text]ppm/∘C across [Formula: see text]C to 85∘C; while the consuming power is lowered to 3.48[Formula: see text]nW at the minimum supply of 0.8[Formula: see text]V. The line sensitivity is 0.7%/V for the supply voltages from 0.8[Formula: see text]V to 1.8[Formula: see text]V, whereas the power supply ripple rejection (PSRR) is [Formula: see text]49.06[Formula: see text]dB at 1[Formula: see text]Hz. Monte Carlo simulation results of the voltage reference show a mean value of 497.2[Formula: see text]mV with [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] of 1.7%, demonstrating the robustness of the generated reference voltage against the process variations and mismatch.
The developments and advances achieved in organic semiconductors have promised lower costs for integrated circuit productions and also the fabrication of electronic circuits using printed technology on unconventional substrates such as plastic, clothing, and even skin. An important building block essential to most electronic circuits is a voltage, process, and temperature independent potential generator which can be used to bias amplifiers and produce a fixed reference for sensor devices. The generation of a voltage reference is also important for voltage regulators. Currently, most reported organic integrated circuits use only p-type OFETs in their circuits due to simpler fabrication procedures. Furthermore, air stable p-type organic semiconductors such as Pentacene and CuPc are well characterized. In this paper, a low power two stage all PMOS voltage reference generator is proposed. As properties such as threshold voltage value and device aging are dependent on the OFET structure, the type of device chosen for this purpose will have a direct impact on the circuit performance. Three different types of OFETs with silver, copper, and gold drain/source electrodes are studied in this work. Performance factors such as Line Sensitivity (LS), Temperature Coefficient (TC), power consumption, time constant, and output drifts of the fabricated integrated circuits are measured and reported to verify the characteristics of the proposed circuit. It is shown that the drain/source metal choice affects the threshold voltage dependent output potential of the reference generators.
A new power supply rejection (PSR) based enhancer with small and stable dropout voltage is presented in this work. It is implemented using TSMC-40 nm process technology and powered by 1.2 V supply voltage. A number of circuit techniques are proposed in this work. These include the temperature compensation for Level-Shifted Flipped Voltage Follower (LSFVF) and the Complementary-To-Absolute Temperature (CTAT) current reference. The typical output voltage and dropout voltage of the enhancer is 1.1127 V and 87.3 mV, respectively. The Monte-Carlo simulation of this output voltage yields a mean T.C. of 29.4 ppm/°C from −20 °C and 80 °C. Besides, the dropout voltage has been verified with good immunity against Process, Temperature and Process (PVT) variation through the worst-case simulation. Consuming only 4.75 μA, the circuit can drive load up to 500 μA to yield additional PSR improvement of 36 dB and 20 dB of PSR at 1 Hz and 1 MHz, respectively for the sensor circuit of interest. This is demonstrated through the application of an enhancer on the instrumentation Differential Difference Amplifier (DDA) for sensing floating bridge sensor signal. The comparative Monte-Carlo simulation results on a respective DDA circuit have revealed that the process sensitivity of output voltage of this work has achieved 14 times reduction in transient metrics with respect to that of the conventional counterpart over the operation temperature range in typical operation condition. Due to simplicity without voltage reference and operational amplifier(s), low power and small consumption of supply voltage headroom, the proposed work is very useful for supply noise sensitive analog or sensor circuit applications.