sowing time
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 189-192
A.S. NAIN ◽  

The ideal sowing period is critical for maximizing the crop's yield potential under specific agroclimatic conditions (Nain, 2016; Patra et al., 2017). It influences the phenological stages of the crop's development and, as a result, the efficient conversion of biomass into economic yield. During rabi 2013-14, a field research was done at GBPUA&T's Borlaug Crop Research Centre to determine the best sowing dates for wheat crops employing Aquacrop model. Aquacrop model has been calibrated against vegetative and economic yield forthree sowing dates, viz., 3rd December, 18th December and 3rd January (Pareek et al., 2017). After calibrating the Aquacrop model, a set of conservative variables was obtained (Pareek et al., 2017). Afterward, the calibrated Aquacrop model was used to validate wheat yield and biomass for three years in a row, namely 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13. The model subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates. For all of the tested years, the simulation findings of the Aquacrop model reflected the observed crop yields and biomass of wheat. The model was used to simulate the optimum sowing week based on varying sowing dates and produced grain yield for a period of 10 years (Malik et al., 2013). The average and assured yield of wheat was worked out based on probability analysis (60, 75 and 90%). The optimum sowing time for Tarai region of Uttarakhand was suggested as first week of November followed by second week of November (Nain, 2016). In no case wheat should be sown during third week of November and beyond due to poor assured yield and average yield (Nain, 2016). The finding of the studies will help to increase productivity and production of wheat crop in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Mark F. Richards ◽  
Lancelot Maphosa ◽  
Aaron L. Preston

Chickpea growth, development and grain yield are affected by a range of climatic and environmental factors. Experiments were conducted across four sowing dates from mid-April to the end of May, over two years at Trangie in central western New South Wales (NSW), and Leeton, Wagga Wagga and Yanco (one year) in southern NSW, to examine the influence of sowing time on biomass accumulation, grain yield and plant yield components. Climatic and experimental location data were recorded during the growing seasons. Early sowing (mid-April) resulted in taller plants, higher bottom and top pod heights, fewer pods, more unfilled pods and greater biomass accumulation, but low harvest index due to reduced grain yield compared with late sowing (end of May). Grain number was positively correlated with grain yield and was the main yield component accounting for most of the variation in yield. There was largely a positive correlation between biomass and yield, especially with delayed sowing except for Leeton experiments. This study concludes that sowing around the end of April in central western NSW and mid-May in southern NSW is conducive to higher grain yield as it minimises exposure to abiotic stresses at critical growth periods and allows efficient conversion of biomass to grain yield.

Marcio Eckardt ◽  
Ila R. M. Cardoso ◽  
Núbia A. da Silva ◽  
Yolanda V. de Abreu ◽  
Flávio S. Afférri ◽  

ABSTRACT Crop yield depends on interaction between genetic and environmental factors, making it essential to study adaptability, stability and environmental stratification in order to mitigate the effects of this interaction. Four experiments were conducted to assess competition between corn cultivars in the 2018/19 growing season, two in Paraíso do Tocantins and two in Palmas, with sowing performed on November 5, 2018 and January 15, 2019. Cultivar-environment interaction was analyzed in genetically modified (GM) and non-GM commercial corn cultivars in the Vale do Araguaia region of Tocantins state (TO), Brazil, A randomized block design was used for all the experiments, in 3 × 12 factorial scheme, with three doses of nitrogen fertilizer as topdressing (50, 100 and 150 kg of N ha-1) and 12 commercial cultivars (six non-GM, 1CHD, 2CV, 3CV, 4CV, 5CTH, 6CDH and six GM, 7GTH, 8GTH, 9GSH, 10GSH, 11GSH, 12GSH. For statistical analysis, the N dose in each experiment represented a different environment. The characteristic studied was grain yield, using the adaptability and stability methods as well as environmental stratification. Different responses were observed between the GM and non-GM cultivars. Most of the GM and non-GM cultivars were better adapted to favorable and unfavorable environments, respectively. All the environments exhibited similar behavior regardless of location, sowing time and the N dose used, demonstrating that fewer environments can be used in future breeding research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (2) ◽  
Hakan KIR

ABSTRACT: The research was conducted to determine forage yield and some quality characteristics of Hungarian vetch + triticale mixture, sowed in five different times under rainfed conditions of central Anatolia, Turkey. The mixture was sowed in the second, third and fourth week of October, and the first and the second week of November in 2017 and 2018. Depending on the sowing times, plant height (PH) of Hungarian vetch and triticale was between 46.7 and 59.4 cm, and 85.9 and 93.4 cm, respectively. Green forage yield (GFY) was between 1746.2 and 2059.4 kg da-1, dry matter yield (DMY) was between 541.0 and 707.6 kg da-1, crude protein yield (CPY) was between 80.4 and 110.3 kg da-1, digestible dry matter yield (DDMY) was between 340.8 and 453.9 kg da-1, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratio was between 31.8 and 33.7%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ratio was between 44.7 and 49.5%, total digestible nutrient (TDN) was between 57.9 and 60.4% and relative feed value (RFV) was between 118.6 and 133.8. Sowing time had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on PH of triticale, while it has a very significant effect (P < 0.01) on GFY, DMY, CPY, DDMY, NDF ratios and RFV. Delaying the sowing time caused a decrease in the GFY, DMY and quality of the mixture. Results revealed that the first week of October is the most appropriate sowing time to obtain high dry matter yield with high quality under continental climate conditions of the central Anatolia.

K. V. Mustyatse ◽  
N. S. Chavdar ◽  
O. M. Zagorodnyaya

Carthamus tinctorius L. is a plant, that is used for oil production and dyeing, and also used for medical purposes and cosmetology. A distinctive biological feature of this plant is its high drought resistance. In the process of global warming the increase in air temperature in Transnistria over the past 70 years amounted to 1,2…1,3 °C, the increase in soil temperature over the past 20 years in the observed soil layer 0,2…3,2 m amounted 0,8…1,2 °C. In this regard the intercalation of drought resistant crops, such as Carthamus tinctorius L., into agricultural production is relevant. The dura- tion of the growing season of a Carthamus tinctorius L. collection specimen of unknown origin in the Republican Botanical Garden (in the town of Tiraspol) when sown in middle of April for the period from the year of 2008 to the year of 2017 ranged from 103 to 113 days. In the conditions of Transnistria in the year of 2020 for the first time the influence of sowing time of Carthamus tinctorius L. on the development of a complex of features was studied. Sowing of Carthamus tinctorius was carried out five times: the 20th and the 27th of March, the 3rd and the 14th of April, the 2nd of May. The study of the influence of the sowing time showed decreasing values of the complex of features with later sowing time of Carthamus tinctorius L. The mostly significant decreased with a later sowing time were such features as the number of branches of the first and the second level, the number of seeds in the inflorescence, the number of seeds per plant. The best sowing date in the conditions of an acute drought in the year of 2020 was the first sowing time on the 20th of March. The value of the features in this sowing period was: plants’ height — 55 cm, the number of branches of the first level — 8,7 pieces, the number of branches of the second level — 4,6 pieces, the number of inflorescences per plant — 14,1 pieces, the number of seeds in the inflorescence — 7,0 pieces, the number of seeds per plant — 64,8 pieces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1754-1759
Elena Anatolyevna Yegushova

The research was carried out with the aim to establish the formation regularity of both yield and its elements, as well as to formulate technological and quality indicators of bare-grained oats under the influence of different sowing periods. The studies were carried out in the conditions of the northern forest-steppe zone of the Kemerovo region (Russia) on the territory belonging to the Kemerovo Research Institute of Agriculture, a branch of the SFNCA RAS in 2018-2019. The soil of the site is leached chernozem, heavy loamy in granulometric composition, of medium thickness. The object of research was the mid-season variety of bare-grained oats Bare-grained. The predecessor is pure steam. Sowing was carried out in three periods: early – on May 4 (when the soil was physically ripe, subsequent ones with an interval of 8-10 days, depending on the prevailing weather conditions), medium - on May 12 and 14, late - on May 20 and 24. Against the background of each sowing period, the seeding rates of 4.0 were studied; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5; 6.0 million crops/ha. It has been established that the optimal sowing time for obtaining high quantitative indicators (yield, number of grains, grain size) of bare-grained oats in the northern forest-steppe of the Kemerovo region is an early period (first decade of May); while a later period (third decade of May) is more promising for such high-quality indicators as protein content, fat in grain, essential and nonessential amino acids, etc. The optimal seeding rate for bare-grained oats at early sowing period is 4.0-4.5 million/ha. At a later period, it is advisable to increase the seeding rate to 5.0-5.5 million/ha.

2021 ◽  
Vol 145 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 557-566
Zafer Yücesan ◽  
Derya Bayram

In this study, the effects of different sowing environment (greenhouse and nursery), pretreatment (cold moist stratification), different sowing time (autumn, spring and summer) and some climate factors (air temperature, relative air humidity, soil temperature and soil moisture) on the germination of Acer pseudoplatanus L. seeds were studied. Seeds were harvested from the tree located in the Karadeniz Technical University campus. Three different germination trials were carried out; (1) direct sowing in autumn after seed collection (Control), (2) sowing stratified seeds in spring (Stratification-1) and (3) sowing stratified seeds in summer (Stratification-2). During the germination trial processes, air temperature, relative air humidity, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured periodicaly. Thus, the germination percentage changes in different sowing environments have been established on the basis of some climate factors. Higher germination percentages were obtained in the autumn (Control) compared to the spring (Stratification-1) and summer (Stratification-2) sowings. The highest percentages of germination were ­determined in the control trials (70% in greenhouse and 58% in nursery). Obtained germination results based on different sowing times revealed secondary dormancy in Acer pseudoplatanus L. seeds. It has been determined that the mean germination time in the greenhouse (12 days) was shorter than the mean germination time in the nursery (18 days). In addition, the obtained results showed that stratification and sowing time have a positive effect on the mean germination time in the greenhouse. Because of getting the best germination rates, keeping some climate ­factors constant (21.0-24.9 °C air temperature; 17.0-19.9 °C soil temperature; 63.0-68.9% relative air humidity; 60.0-67.9% soil moisture) during the vegetative propagation practices in the greenhouse, should affect mass ­seedling production in Acer pseudoplatanus L.

Paulraj Suryakala ◽  
A. Veeramani ◽  
Durai Singh ◽  
T. Sivakumar ◽  
M. Rajeswari ◽  

Aim: Blackgram is one of the most important pulse crops raised in several types of soil under well drained conditions. Currently, it is cultivated as monocrop , intercrop as well as rice fallow crop in southern India. When the rice fallow pulse systems are described as, the pulse crop is seeded before or after rice harvest without ploughing, the remaining soil moisture may be better used through conservation agriculture measures. It's also known as a relay crop, a no-till crop, or a residual crop.In general, the production and productivity of black gram is declining because of poor management practices . Thus, this study was undertaken rice establishment methods as a strategy to determine the availability of residual moisture on the establishment of rice fallow black gram system during the early growth stages. Place and Duration of Study: A field investigation was carried out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University9o54’ N Latitude, 78o54’ E Longitude with an  altitude of 147 m above MSL), Tamil Nadu, India from September 2019 to April 2020 Methodology: To see how different seeding methods and time influence the rice fallow black gram, the factors include rice planting methods as the main plot, methods of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram as  sub plot, and time of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram given out in sub-sub plot treatment. Results: The treatments had the best growth qualities, growth analysis, and yield. It could be because the above-mentioned combinations had higher residual moisture content, which resulted in a higher germination percentage, better crop stand, and higher growth and yield of rice fallow black gram. Conclusion: The best management strategy is to sowing black gram in rice fallow situations with a rice fallow pulse planter at 10 days before rice harvest, under the direct seeded of rice establishment technique with drum seeder.

Е.Б. Дрёпа ◽  
Е.Л. Голосная ◽  
А.С. Голубь

Исследование выполнено в 2019 и 2020 годах в зоне неустойчивого увлажнения Ставропольского края. Цель работы — изучить влияние сроков посева на рост, развитие, формирование урожайности и качества зерна озимой пшеницы (сорт Безостая 100). Схема опыта включала следующие варианты: 1) посев в III декаде сентября; 2) посев в I декаде октября; 3) посев во II декаде октября; 4) посев в III декаде октября. Изменение климата достаточно сильно сказывается на сроках посева. В условиях зоны неустойчивого увлажнения оптимальным сроком является III декада сентября. Высокий температурный режим при посеве в III декаде сентября способствовал быстрому прохождению фазы кущения, и к моменту ухода в зиму у 70% посевов наблюдалось перерастание, отдельные экземпляры растений озимой пшеницы перешли в фазу выхода в трубку, что повлияло на процесс протекания стадии закалки растений и зимостойкость в целом. В варианте с поздним сроком сева (в III декаде октября) растения не успели раскуститься и в зиму ушли в фазе двух-трёх листьев, что также повлияло на устойчивость растений к неблагоприятным факторам в период перезимовки. Растения озимой пшеницы, посеянные в I и II декадах октября, раскустились и ушли в зиму в фазе одного-трёх побегов, что обеспечило хороший процент перезимовавших растений. Проведённые исследования показали, что в среднем за 2 года наибольшая урожайность получена в вариантах с посевом в I и II декадах октября, при этом прибавка относительно оптимального срока посева составила 1,3–1,91 т/га. Разница между оптимальным сроком и посевом в III декаде октября составила 0,37 т/га. При этом наблюдалось снижение количества белка на 2,1%. При ранних сроках посева получено зерно III класса, тогда как при поздних сроках качество соответствовало IV классу. The investigation was conducted in the dry zone of the Stavropol region in 2019 and 2020. The aim was to analyze the effect of sowing time on winter wheat growth, development, productivity and grain quality (variety “Bezostaya 100“). The experiment included the following variants: 1) sowing in late September; 2) in early October; 3) in II decade of October; 4) in late October. Climate change significantly affects sowing time. Late September is considered to be an optimal sowing time under dry weather. High temperature in late September ensured active tillering stage. By winter 70% of plants grew too much, some of them were at shooting stage which influenced winter hardiness in general. Sown in late October plants did not reach their tillering stage which also affected their resistance to unfavorable conditions. Plants seeded in I and II decades of October were able to reach the tillering stage and effectively overwintered at the phase of 1–3 shoots. The highest productivity occured when seeding in I and II decades of October, yield increase amounted to 1.3–1.91 t ha-1. The difference in yield amounted to 0.37 t ha-1 between the optimal time and seeding in late October. Protein content dropped by 2.1%. Early sowing resulted in grain of III grade, while late seeding — IV grade.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-84

An experiment was cunducted to study the wheal microclimate for higher grain yield production at research farm of Hisar 'Agriculture’ University (HAU). Profiles of temperature relative humidity, leaf temperature leaf wetness wind speed were measured in the crop canopies of different sowing treatments. Higher air temperatures and lower soil moisture were observed during reproductive phase under delayed sowings. Albedo varied between 0.19 and 0.23. Test weight decreased with delay in sowing time. Sowing of wheat between 31 October and 14 November produced statistically higher yield under favourable microclimate conditions at dirrerent phenophases.

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