sowing date
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2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 189-192
A.S. NAIN ◽  

The ideal sowing period is critical for maximizing the crop's yield potential under specific agroclimatic conditions (Nain, 2016; Patra et al., 2017). It influences the phenological stages of the crop's development and, as a result, the efficient conversion of biomass into economic yield. During rabi 2013-14, a field research was done at GBPUA&T's Borlaug Crop Research Centre to determine the best sowing dates for wheat crops employing Aquacrop model. Aquacrop model has been calibrated against vegetative and economic yield forthree sowing dates, viz., 3rd December, 18th December and 3rd January (Pareek et al., 2017). After calibrating the Aquacrop model, a set of conservative variables was obtained (Pareek et al., 2017). Afterward, the calibrated Aquacrop model was used to validate wheat yield and biomass for three years in a row, namely 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13. The model subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates. For all of the tested years, the simulation findings of the Aquacrop model reflected the observed crop yields and biomass of wheat. The model was used to simulate the optimum sowing week based on varying sowing dates and produced grain yield for a period of 10 years (Malik et al., 2013). The average and assured yield of wheat was worked out based on probability analysis (60, 75 and 90%). The optimum sowing time for Tarai region of Uttarakhand was suggested as first week of November followed by second week of November (Nain, 2016). In no case wheat should be sown during third week of November and beyond due to poor assured yield and average yield (Nain, 2016). The finding of the studies will help to increase productivity and production of wheat crop in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e428
A. Goharian ◽  
A.H. Shirani Rad ◽  
P. Moaveni ◽  
H. Mozafari ◽  
B. Sani

The sowing date is an important factor for expanding the cultivated area of rapeseed and affects seed yield, oil content, and fatty acid compounds. Micronutrient elements play an important role in improving the vegetative and reproductive growth of the plant, especially under conditions of biological and environmental stresses. A two-year experiment (2014-2016) was performed to study the response of rapeseed genotypes to foliar application of micronutrients on different sowing dates. The treatments were arranged as a factorial-split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Three sowing dates of 7 (well-timed sowing date), 17, and 27 (delayed sowing dates) October and two levels of foliar application with pure water (control), selenium (1.5%), zinc (1.5%), and selenium+zinc (1.5%) were factorial in the main plots and five genotypes of SW102, Ahmadi, GKH2624, GK-Gabriella, and Okapi were randomized in the subplots (a total of 30 treatments). Seed yield, oil yield and content, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were reduced when rapeseeds were cultivated on 17 and 27 October, while the contents in palmitic, linolenic, and erucic acids, and glucosinolate increased (p < 0.01). a selenium+zinc treatment improved seed yield, oil content and yield (p < 0.01). The oil quality increased due to increased contents of oleic and linoleic acids under the selenium+zinc treatment (p < 0.01). The GK-Gabriella and GKH2624 genotypes are recommended to be sown on well-timed (7 October) and delayed sowing dates (17 and 27 October) and treated with selenium+zinc due to the higher oil yield, linoleic and oleic acids.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
pp. 567-574
R. K. MALL ◽  
B. R. D. GUPTA ◽  

The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere- Water (SPA W) model has been calibrated and validated using field experiment data from 1991-92 to 1993-94 for wheat crop at Varanasi district. Long-term (1973-74 to 1995-96) daily weather data were combined with general observation of wheat growth and soils to provide daily water budgets for 23 years. The model was calibrated with one year detailed crop growth characteristics and soil water observations and validated with another year soil water observations. The daily-integrated water stress index (WSI) values at the end of crop season correlated quite well with observed grain yield in this region.   The water budget analysis shows a distinct optimum sowing period from 5th to 25th November and  an optimum sowing date on 15th November with minimal water stress index. These results demonstrate the potential of SPA W model for planning irrigation scheduling and water management for wheat crop in this region.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Brendan M. Kupke ◽  
Matthew R. Tucker ◽  
Jason A. Able ◽  
Kenton D. Porker

Matching flowering time to the optimal flowering period in Mediterranean cropping zones is pivotal to maximize yield. Aside from variety selection and sowing date, growers have limited options to alter development in season. Plant hormones and growth regulators are used in perennial horticultural systems to manipulate development and floral initiation. In this study, a range of plant hormonal products were tested to analyze their effects on barley (Hordeum vulgare L) development by exogenous spray applications. Plants were grown in controlled conditions under long and short photoperiods with different vernalization treatments. The gibberellin (GA) products demonstrated the greatest potential for altering development. The GA inhibitor trinexapac-ethyl was able to delay the time to flowering in genetically divergent barley cultivars by up to 200 degree days under controlled conditions. A similar delay in flowering could be achieved via application at both early (GS13) and late (GS33) stages, with higher rates delaying flowering further. Notably, trinexapac-ethyl was able to extend the duration of pre-anthesis phases of development. By contrast, GA3 was unable to accelerate development under extreme short (8 h) or long (16 h) day lengths. There was also little evidence that GA3 could reproducibly accelerate development under intermediate 10–12 h day lengths. In addition, sprays of the cytokinin 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) were unable to reduce the vernalization requirement of the winter genotype Urambie. The present study provides baseline data for plant growth regulator treatments that delay cereal development. These treatments might be extended in field studies to align flowering of early sown crops to the optimal flowering period.

OCL ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 4
Cécile Le Gall ◽  
Vincent Lecomte ◽  
Dominique Wagner

The development of organic agriculture in France was steady since 2010 but became stronger since 2014. Like other crops, the cultivated areas of organic soybean and sunflower doubled from 2014 to 2018. With a view to better characterize cultural practices in organic production, Terres Inovia and ITAB (in collaboration with Agence Bio) conducted in 2016 and 2017 a national farmers’ survey. These surveys reveal that sunflower was mainly cultivated over the same types of soil than in conventional production but were integrated in more diversified rotations. The main differences between organic and conventional systems concern sowing date and weed control. Organic sunflower was sown very lately compared to conventional one, which impacted the yield severely. Weed were controlled through ploughing, mechanical weeding and crop rotation and weed control was judged as satisfying by a major part of producers. Concerning soybean, a great difference is the use of irrigation which is almost systematic in conventional but concerned only 50% of cultivated area in organic production. Contrary to sunflower, soybean is integrated in short crop rotation, particularly when it was irrigated. This demonstrated the high profitability of soybean in organic systems. Like for sunflower, weed control done through ploughing, mechanical weeding, and crop rotation and weed control was also judged satisfying; nevertheless, criteria on harvest impurities are more severe and to respect them, organic farmers also use hand weeding in complement. These surveys will be reconducted over the years to be able to follow the changes of cultural practices over the years.

Madhuri Dubey ◽  
Ashok Mishra ◽  
Rajendra Singh

Abstract The changing climate affects natural resources that impart a negative impact on crop yield and food security. It is thus imperative to identify agro-climate wise, area-specific adaptation options to ensure food security. This study, therefore, evaluated some feasible adaptation options for two staple food grain crops, rice and wheat, in different agro-climatic regions (ACRs) of Eastern India. Alteration in transplanting date, seedling age, and fertilizer management (rate and split of fertilizer) for rice; and sowing date, fertilizer management, and deficit irrigation scheduling for wheat, are assessed as adaptation options. Crop environment and resource synthesis (DSSAT) model is used to simulate the crop yield using different plausible adaptation options to projected climate scenarios. Findings show that shifting transplanting/sowing date, and nitrogen fertilizer application at 120% of recommended nitrogen dose with four splits could be an effective adaptation for rice and wheat crops. Results also emphasize that transplanting of 18 days older seedlings may be beneficial in rice cultivation. In contrast, irrigation at a 30–40% deficit of maximum available water would sustain the wheat yield under climate change conditions. This study suggests the best combination of adaptation options under climate change conditions in diverse ACRs, which may assist agriculturists in coping with climate change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 3074-3089

The aim of intercropping flax on sugar beet is to increase the cultivated area with flax due to widely cultivated area of sugar beet. So, a field experiment was carried out to study the effect of various sowing dates and seed rates of flax intercropped with sugar beet on yield, quality and economic evaluation. The main-plots were assigned to three sowing dates of flax intercropped with sugar beet and the sub-plots were allocated to four seed rates of flax. The results show that sowing date of flax after 35 days from sowing (DFS) sugar beet resulted in the highest values of sugar beet yields and quality. Maximum values of flax straw and seed yields resulted from sowing flax after 21 DFS sugar beet. Intercropping sugar beet with flax at 12.5% from recommended seed rate on top sugar beet terraces attained the most elevated values of sugar beet yield and quality. Sowing flax at 50% from recommended rate resulted in the best values of flax technical and fruiting zone length, also straw and seed yield/hectare. The maximum yield and economic return of both crops were obtained from sowing flax at 12.5% from recommended rate after (21 or 35) DFS sugar beet.

K. V. Mustyatse ◽  
N. S. Chavdar ◽  
O. M. Zagorodnyaya

Carthamus tinctorius L. is a plant, that is used for oil production and dyeing, and also used for medical purposes and cosmetology. A distinctive biological feature of this plant is its high drought resistance. In the process of global warming the increase in air temperature in Transnistria over the past 70 years amounted to 1,2…1,3 °C, the increase in soil temperature over the past 20 years in the observed soil layer 0,2…3,2 m amounted 0,8…1,2 °C. In this regard the intercalation of drought resistant crops, such as Carthamus tinctorius L., into agricultural production is relevant. The dura- tion of the growing season of a Carthamus tinctorius L. collection specimen of unknown origin in the Republican Botanical Garden (in the town of Tiraspol) when sown in middle of April for the period from the year of 2008 to the year of 2017 ranged from 103 to 113 days. In the conditions of Transnistria in the year of 2020 for the first time the influence of sowing time of Carthamus tinctorius L. on the development of a complex of features was studied. Sowing of Carthamus tinctorius was carried out five times: the 20th and the 27th of March, the 3rd and the 14th of April, the 2nd of May. The study of the influence of the sowing time showed decreasing values of the complex of features with later sowing time of Carthamus tinctorius L. The mostly significant decreased with a later sowing time were such features as the number of branches of the first and the second level, the number of seeds in the inflorescence, the number of seeds per plant. The best sowing date in the conditions of an acute drought in the year of 2020 was the first sowing time on the 20th of March. The value of the features in this sowing period was: plants’ height — 55 cm, the number of branches of the first level — 8,7 pieces, the number of branches of the second level — 4,6 pieces, the number of inflorescences per plant — 14,1 pieces, the number of seeds in the inflorescence — 7,0 pieces, the number of seeds per plant — 64,8 pieces.

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