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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 835
Bang M. Tran ◽  
Samantha L. Grimley ◽  
Julie L. McAuley ◽  
Abderrahman Hachani ◽  
Linda Earnest ◽  

The global urgency to uncover medical countermeasures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed an unmet need for robust tissue culture models that faithfully recapitulate key features of human tissues and disease. Infection of the nose is considered the dominant initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and models that replicate this entry portal offer the greatest potential for examining and demonstrating the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to prevent or manage this highly communicable disease. Here, we test an air–liquid-interface (ALI) differentiated human nasal epithelium (HNE) culture system as a model of authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Progenitor cells (basal cells) were isolated from nasal turbinate brushings, expanded under conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) culture conditions and differentiated at ALI. Differentiated cells were inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates. Infectious virus release into apical washes was determined by TCID50, while infected cells were visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate robust, reproducible SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI-HNE established from different donors. Viral entry and release occurred from the apical surface, and infection was primarily observed in ciliated cells. In contrast to the ancestral clinical isolate, the Delta variant caused considerable cell damage. Successful establishment of ALI-HNE is donor dependent. ALI-HNE recapitulate key features of human SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nose and can serve as a pre-clinical model without the need for invasive collection of human respiratory tissue samples.

Daniel W. Montgomery ◽  
Garfield T. Kwan ◽  
William G. Davison ◽  
Jennifer Finlay ◽  
Alex Berry ◽  

Fish in coastal ecosystems can be exposed to acute variations in CO2 of between 0.2-1 kPa CO2 (2,000 - 10,000 µatm). Coping with this environmental challenge will depend on the ability to rapidly compensate the internal acid-base disturbance caused by sudden exposure to high environmental CO2 (blood and tissue acidosis); however, studies about the speed of acid-base regulatory responses in marine fish are scarce. We observed that upon sudden exposure to ∼1 kPa CO2, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) completely regulate erythrocyte intracellular pH within ∼40 minutes, thus restoring haemoglobin-O2 affinity to pre-exposure levels. Moreover, blood pH returned to normal levels within ∼2 hours, which is one of the fastest acid-base recoveries documented in any fish. This was achieved via a large upregulation of net acid excretion and accumulation of HCO3− in blood, which increased from ∼4 to ∼22 mM. While the abundance and intracellular localisation of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) remained unchanged, the apical surface area of acid-excreting gill ionocytes doubled. This constitutes a novel mechanism for rapidly increasing acid excretion during sudden blood acidosis. Rapid acid-base regulation was completely prevented when the same high CO2 exposure occurred in seawater with experimentally reduced HCO3− and pH, likely because reduced environmental pH inhibited gill H+ excretion via NHE3. The rapid and robust acid-base regulatory responses identified will enable European sea bass to maintain physiological performance during large and sudden CO2 fluctuations that naturally occur in coastal environments.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 219
Raffaella Petruzzelli ◽  
Marta Mariniello ◽  
Rossella De Cegli ◽  
Federico Catalano ◽  
Floriana Guida ◽  

ATP7B is a hepato-specific Golgi-located ATPase, which plays a key role in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis and signaling. In response to elevated Cu levels, ATP7B traffics from the Golgi to endo-lysosomal structures, where it sequesters excess copper and further promotes its excretion to the bile at the apical surface of hepatocytes. In addition to liver, high ATP7B expression has been reported in tumors with elevated resistance to platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapy. Chemoresistance to Pt drugs represents the current major obstacle for the treatment of large cohorts of cancer patients. Although the mechanisms underlying Pt-tolerance are still ambiguous, accumulating evidence suggests that lysosomal sequestration of Pt drugs by ion transporters (including ATP7B) might significantly contribute to drug resistance development. In this context, signaling mechanisms regulating the expression of transporters such as ATP7B are of great importance. Considering this notion, we investigated whether ATP7B expression in Pt-resistant cells might be driven by transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal gene transcription. Using resistant ovarian cancer IGROV-CP20 cells, we found that TFEB directly binds to the predicted coordinated lysosomal expression and regulation (CLEAR) sites in the proximal promoter and first intron region of ATP7B upon Pt exposure. This binding accelerates transcription of luciferase reporters containing ATP7B CLEAR regions, while suppression of TFEB inhibits ATP7B expression and stimulates cisplatin toxicity in resistant cells. Thus, these data have uncovered a Pt-dependent transcriptional mechanism that contributes to cancer chemoresistance and might be further explored for therapeutic purposes.

Bart Leemans ◽  
Elizabeth G Bromfield ◽  
Tom A E Stout ◽  
Mabel Vos ◽  
Hanna Van Der Ham ◽  

Abstract We describe the development of two methods for obtaining confluent monolayers of polarized, differentiated equine oviduct epithelial cells (EOEC) in Transwell inserts and microfluidic chips. EOECs from the ampulla were isolated post-mortem and seeded either (1) directly onto a microporous membrane as differentiated EOECs (direct seeding protocol) or (2) first cultured to a confluent de-differentiated monolayer in conventional wells, then trypsinized and seeded onto a microporous membrane (re-differentiation protocol). Maintenance or induction of EOEC differentiation in these systems was achieved by air-liquid interface introduction. Monolayers cultured via both protocols were characterized by columnar, cytokeratin 19-positive EOECs in Transwell inserts. However, only the re-differentiation protocol could be transferred successfully to the microfluidic chips. Integrity of the monolayers was confirmed by transepithelial resistance measurements, tracer flux and the demonstration of an intimate network of tight junctions. Using the direct protocol, 28% of EOECs showed secondary cilia at the apical surface in a diffuse pattern. In contrast, re-differentiated polarized EOECs rarely showed secondary cilia in either culture system (>90% of the monolayers showed <1% ciliated EOECs). Occasionally (5–10%), re-differentiated monolayers with 11–27% EOECs with secondary cilia in a diffuse pattern were obtained. Additionally, nuclear progesterone receptor expression was found to be inhibited by simulated luteal phase hormone concentrations, and sperm binding to cilia was higher for re-differentiated EOEC monolayers exposed to estrogen-progesterone concentrations mimicking the follicular rather than luteal phase. Overall, a functional equine oviduct model was established with close morphological resemblance to in vivo oviduct epithelium.

2021 ◽  
Jeffrey B Rosa ◽  
Khaled Y Nassman ◽  
Alvaro Sagasti

Epithelial cell properties are determined by the polarized distribution of membrane lipids, the cytoskeleton, and adhesive junctions. Epithelia are often profusely innervated, but little work has addressed how contact with neurites affects the polarized organization of epithelial components. In previous work, we found that basal keratinocytes in the larval zebrafish epidermis wrap around axons to enclose them in ensheathment channels sealed by autotypic cell junctions. In this study, we used live imaging to characterize how sensory axons remodel cell membranes, the actin cytoskeleton, and adhesive junctions in basal keratinocytes. At the apical surface of basal keratinocytes, axons promoted the formation of lipid microdomains quantitatively enriched in reporters for PI(4,5)P2 and liquid-ordered (Lo) membranes. Lipid microdomains supported the formation of cadherin-enriched F-actin protrusions, which wrapped around axons, likely initiating the formation of ensheathment channels. Lo reporters, but not reporters of liquid-disordered (Ld) membranes, became progressively enriched at axon-associated membrane domains as autotypic junctions matured at ensheathment channels. In the absence of axons, cadherin-enriched lipid microdomains still formed on basal cell membranes, but were not organized into the contiguous domains normally associated with axons. Instead, these isolated domains formed ectopic heterotypic junctions with overlying periderm cells, a distinct epithelial cell type in the epidermis. Thus, axons inhibit the formation of epithelial heterotypic junctions by recruiting cadherin-rich lipid microdomains to form autotypic junctions at ensheathment channels. These findings demonstrate that sensory nerve endings dramatically remodel polarized epithelial components and regulate the adhesive properties of the epidermis.

2021 ◽  
Jason Small ◽  
Alison Weiss

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and in severe cases even death. The study of O157:H7 is difficult due to the high specificity of the bacteria for the human intestine, along with our lack of sufficiently complex human cell culture models. The recent development of human intestinal enteroids derived from intestinal crypt multipotent stem cells has allowed us to construct 2-dimensional differentiated epithelial monolayers grown in transwells that mimic the human intestine. Unlike previous studies, saline was added to the apical surface, while maintaining culture media in the basolateral well. The monolayers continued to grow and differentiate with apical saline. Apical infection with O157:H7 or commensal E. coli resulted in robust bacterial growth from 105 to over 108 over 24 hours. Despite this robust bacterial growth, commensal E. coli neither adhered to nor damaged the epithelial barrier over 30 hours. However, O157:H7 was almost fully adhered (>90%) by 18 hours with epithelial damage observed by 30 hours. O157:H7 contains the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island responsible for attachment and damage to the intestinal epithelium. Previous studies report the ability of nutrients such as biotin, D-serine, and L-fucose to downregulate LEE gene expression. O157:H7 treated with biotin or L-fucose, but not D-serine displayed both decreased attachment and reduced epithelial damage over 36 hours. These data illustrate enteroid monolayers can serve as a suitable model for the study of O157:H7 pathogenesis, and identification of potential therapeutics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13625
Vladislav E. Sobolev ◽  
Margarita O. Sokolova ◽  
Richard O. Jenkins ◽  
Nikolay V. Goncharov

The delayed effects of acute intoxication by organophosphates (OPs) are poorly understood, and the various experimental animal models often do not take into account species characteristics. The principal biochemical feature of rodents is the presence of carboxylesterase in blood plasma, which is a target for OPs and can greatly distort their specific effects. The present study was designed to investigate the nephrotoxic effects of paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, POX) using three models of acute poisoning in outbred Wistar rats. In the first model (M1, POX2x group), POX was administered twice at doses 110 µg/kg and 130 µg/kg subcutaneously, with an interval of 1 h. In the second model (M2, CBPOX group), 1 h prior to POX poisoning at a dose of 130 µg/kg subcutaneously, carboxylesterase activity was pre-inhibited by administration of specific inhibitor cresylbenzodioxaphosphorin oxide (CBDP, 3.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally). In the third model (M3), POX was administered subcutaneously just once at doses of LD16 (241 µg/kg), LD50 (250 µg/kg), and LD84 (259 µg/kg). Animal observation and sampling were performed 1, 3, and 7 days after the exposure. Endogenous creatinine clearance (ECC) decreased in 24 h in the POX2x group (p = 0.011). Glucosuria was observed in rats 24 h after exposure to POX in both M1 and M2 models. After 3 days, an increase in urinary excretion of chondroitin sulfate (CS, p = 0.024) and calbindin (p = 0.006) was observed in rats of the CBPOX group. Morphometric analysis revealed a number of differences most significant for rats in the CBPOX group. Furthermore, there was an increase in the area of the renal corpuscles (p = 0.0006), an increase in the diameter of the lumen of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT, p = 0.0006), and narrowing of the diameter of the distal tubules (p = 0.001). After 7 days, the diameter of the PCT lumen was still increased in the nephrons of the CBPOX group (p = 0.0009). In the M3 model, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the kidneys were revealed after the exposure to POX at doses of LD50 and LD84. Over a period from 24 h to 3 days, a significant (p = 0.018) expansion of Bowman’s capsule was observed in the kidneys of rats of both the LD50 and LD84 groups. In the epithelium of the proximal tubules, stretching of the basal labyrinth, pycnotic nuclei, and desquamation of microvilli on the apical surface were revealed. In the epithelium of the distal tubules, partial swelling and destruction of mitochondria and pycnotic nuclei was observed, and nuclei were displaced towards the apical surface of cells. After 7 days of the exposure to POX, an increase in the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was observed in the LD50 and LD84 groups (p = 0.019 and 0.026, respectively). Moreover, signs of damage to tubular epithelial cells persisted with blockage of the tubule lumen by cellular detritus and local destruction of the surface of apical cells. Comparison of results from the three models demonstrates that the nephrotoxic effects of POX, evaluated at 1 and 3 days, appear regardless of prior inhibition of carboxylesterase activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 53-58
O.I. Tiron

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are about 11 million burns in the world each year, of which 180,000 are fatal. One of the systemic consequences of burn injuries is the so-called burn-associated hypermetabolism, the clinical picture of which includes immunological dysfunction, loss of bone mineral density, endocrine disorders, including thyroid dysfunction. The aim of the study was to establish histological and ultrastructural changes of the thyroid gland of experimental animals 14 days after the simulated thermal trauma of the skin on the background of using first 7 days 0.9 % NaCl solution. At the optical and ultrastructural levels of the study 14 days after thermal skin burn on the background of 0.9 % NaCl solution in the thyroid gland of experimental animals found: follicles – mostly large, overstretched (epithelium flat, with desquamation); cytoplasm of thyrocytes is poor in organelles, part of mitochondria with damaged cristae and enlightened matrix, available electron-dense lysosomes, apical surface smoothed; there is swelling of the capsule and trabeculae, leukocyte infiltration; components of the arterial and venous bed are dilated, there is a deformation of the lumen of blood vessels; hemocapillaries are dilated with numerous erythrocytes and perivascular edema. The detected changes cause a violation of the secretory cycle of thyrocytes, transendothelial metabolism and lead to an imbalance in the production and excretion of thyroid hormones.

Zoomorphology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Julian Müller ◽  
Thomas Bartolomaeus ◽  
Ekin Tilic

AbstractPhylotranscriptomic studies of the past decade have repeatedly placed Oweniidae together with Magelonidae, as the sister group to remaining annelids. This newly established placement clearly makes them a key-lineage for understanding annelid evolution and morphology. One of the most prominent morphological features of all annelids are their chaetae. The arrangement and formation process (chaetogenesis) of these chitinous bristles have been studied extensively in hooked chaetae that are arranged in rows. However, the information on other types of chaetae is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the scaled capillary notochaetae of Owenia fusiformis, looking both into the formation process that causes the scaly surface ornamentation and into their arrangement within tight bundles. Our results demonstrate the incredible plasticity of chaetogenesis that allows forming a vast array of three-dimensional structures. The capillary chaetae of Owenia fusiformis are unique in lacking an enamel coating and the scales covering the apical surface of each chaeta are formed by a single microvillus of the chaetoblast. Furthermore, the bundle of chaetae has a peripherally located formative site and a central degenerative site and it appears to result from a secondary curling of the chaetal sac.

2021 ◽  
Jia Chen ◽  
Daniel St Johnston

AbstractIn the adult Drosophila midgut, basal intestinal stem cells give rise to enteroblasts that integrate into the epithelium as they differentiate into enterocytes. Integrating enteroblasts must generate a new apical domain and break through the septate junctions between neighboring enterocytes, while maintaining barrier function. We observe that enteroblasts form an apical membrane initiation site when they reach the septate junction between the enterocytes. Cadherin clears from the apical surface and an apical space appears above the enteroblast. New septate junctions then form laterally with the enterocytes and the AMIS develops into pre-apical compartment before it has a free apical surface in contact with the gut lumen. Finally, the enterocyte septate junction dissolves and the pre-enterocyte reaches the gut lumen with a fully-formed brush border. The process of enteroblast integration resembles lumen formation in mammalian epithelial cysts, highlighting the similarities between the fly midgut and mammalian epithelia.

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