mindful eating
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2022 ◽  
Vol 59 (1) ◽  
Cathrine Nitter ◽  
Kari Anne Vrabel ◽  
Per-Einar Binder ◽  
Irene Kingswick ◽  

This study evaluates a mindful eating-based program for people with self-reported binge eating problems. The study was initiated by a non-governmental eating disorder interest organization. Participants met once a week over eight weeks. The Eating Disorder Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and three subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) were used to measure eating pathology, self-compassion and mindfulness before, after, and six-months after the program. Results: Significant improvements in EDE-Q and SCS scores were found, and results remained stable at the six-month follow-up. The number of binge eating days decreased significantly during the study, both from before to after program participation, and from post-program participation to six-month follow-up. Conclusion: Future studies investigating the current program are clearly needed. These preliminary results are nonetheless encouraging and illustrate that mindful eating-based interventions as an interesting treatment avenue for individuals with binge eating pathology, a group which currently has few treatment options available to them.

2022 ◽  
pp. 55-67
Fathima M. A. ◽  
Milu Maria Anto

The chapter is an attempt by authors to highlight the scope of mindful eating as an adjunct therapeutic tool. There is a close link between emotional states and eating, specifically intense emotional states and unhealthy eating practices. Mediating factors such as an individual's perception of food-related cues, changes in cognitive control, and eating as an emotional coping strategy influence the relationship between emotion and eating behavior. Mindful eating can be utilized as an adjunct in therapy by helping clients to practice cognitive control and by breaking the cycle of unhealthy coping strategies like emotional eating. Similar to other mindfulness techniques, mindful eating involves paying attention to the food intentionally, in the moment and without judgment. The chapter covers various approaches to mindfulness eating. Authors have compiled guidelines for therapists on how to introduce mindful eating as an adjunct in therapy settings for clients who have unhealthy eating patterns along with anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as for those suffering from eating disorders.

10.52586/5048 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (12) ◽  
pp. 1548-1558
Karen L Lindsay ◽  
Jasper Most ◽  
Kerrie Buehler ◽  
Maryam Kebbe ◽  
Abby D Altazan ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 026010602110527
Vera Salvo ◽  
Adriana Sanudo ◽  
Jean Kristeller ◽  
Mariana Cabral Schveitzer ◽  
Patricia Martins ◽  

Background: Worldwide, approximately 95% of obese people who follow diets for weight loss fail to maintain their weight loss in the long term. To fill this gap, mindfulness-based interventions, with a focus on mindful eating, are promising therapies to address this challenging public health issue. Aim: To verify the effects of the Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training (MB-EAT) protocol by exploring quantitative and qualitative data collected from Brazilian women. Methods: A single-group, mixed-methods trial was conducted at a public university with adult women ( n = 34). Four MB-EAT groups were offered weekly for 2.5-h sessions over 12 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention assessments included body mass index (BMI) and self-report measures of anxiety, depression, mindfulness, self-compassion, and eating behaviour. Qualitative information was collected using focus groups in the last session of each group, including both participants and MB-EAT instructors. The qualitative data were examined using thematic analyses and empirical categories. Results: Twenty participants (58.8%) completed both pre- and post-intervention assessments, with adequate attendance (≥4 sessions). There was a significant average decrease in weight of 1.9 ± 0.6 kg from pre- to post-intervention. All participants who had scored at the risk level for eating disorders on the EAT-26 decreased their score below this risk level. Qualitative analysis identified that participants were able to engage a more compassionate perspective on themselves, as well as greater self-awareness and self-acceptance. Conclusion: The MB-EAT showed preliminary efficacy in promoting weight loss and improvements in mindfulness and eating behaviour. This intervention promoted effects beyond those expected, extending to other life contexts.

Lauren C. Hayashi ◽  
Giada Benasi ◽  
Marie-Pierre St-Onge ◽  
Brooke Aggarwal

Abstract Objectives This brief narrative review aims to give an up-to-date overview of intuitive and mindful eating (I/ME) interventions with specific focus on cardiometabolic risk factors, including glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Content I/ME intervention studies in adults which measured at least one physiological parameter other than weight were identified from PubMed. The clinical trial/randomized controlled trial filters and publication dates 2001 through April 2021 with variations of the following keywords were applied: intuitive eating, mindful eating, weight neutral. Ten articles were identified. Summary/Outlook Of the 10 studies, seven showed I/ME interventions were more effective than control in at least one cardiometabolic outcome, two showed significant I/ME within-group improvements but no between-group differences, and one showed neither within-group nor between-group differences. Specifically, I/ME improved glucose levels among pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes, lipid profile among adults with overweight or obesity, blood pressure among participants with overweight and inflammatory markers among post-menopausal women with obesity. However, the positive impact of I/ME on each of these cardiometabolic parameters was not consistent across studies: of the six studies that examined glucose regulation, two demonstrated positive outcomes for I/ME group, whereas four found no effect compared to control. Three out of five studies had positive lipid effects, one out of five demonstrated systolic blood pressure (SBP) improvements and one of two showed improvements in inflammatory markers. Given these mixed results, more research is needed to understand the possible effectiveness of I/ME to improve cardiometabolic health.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4439
Taro Nakamura ◽  
Rie Akamatsu ◽  
Nobuo Yoshiike

Mindfulness is a process of focusing one’s attention on the present moment. Applying this concept to eating (i.e., mindful eating (ME)) is associated with regulated eating behaviors, particularly in people with obesity and who are overweight. Sustaining healthy eating habits requires both healthy eating literacy (HEL) and proficiency in ME. However, ME proficiency in Japanese people has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, we conduct a survey of mothers with 4- to 5-year-old children in Aomori City, Japan, to investigate their ME proficiency and HEL level and eating behavior and self-reported body mass index in both mothers and their children from August to September 2019. This study is the first to describe ME proficiency in Japanese mothers. The study sample includes 128 participants from 18 nursery schools. ME proficiency in mothers was positively correlated with both their own and their children’s eating behaviors, thereby suggesting a potential relationship, while strong relationships were not observed between the HEL level and eating behaviors of mothers and children. Improving ME skills, rather than HEL, may be an effective way to sustain healthier eating behaviors in mothers and their children. The level of evidence was Level V: Opinions of respected authorities based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, or reports of expert committees.

2021 ◽  
Eliza Kalika ◽  
Helen Egan ◽  
Michael Mantzios

Abstract Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a new concept that is more prevalent in vegan populations. The aim of this study was to explore problematic eating behaviours in a vegan population, and to explore whether mindful eating and self-compassion have an impact on orthorexia nervosa. Three hundred thirteen individuals following a vegan diet completed scales in Orthorexia, Self-Compassion, Mindful, Emotional, External and Restraint Eating. The results indicated that individuals with high levels of orthorexia nervosa display low levels of self-compassion, and high levels of restrained eating. Moreover, the findings indicated that self-compassion, but not mindful eating, partially mediated the relationship between restrained eating and orthorexia nervosa. The present results contribute to a better understanding of orthorexic eating behaviours in a vegan population, and identifies the mediating capacity of self-compassion. Future directions are discussed.

Aida Joselyn Olvera-Ruvalcaba ◽  
Gilda Gómez-Peresmitré ◽  
Eduardo Velasco-Rojano

AbstractWorldwide, mindful-eating (ME) research has gained high relevance on health psychology because of its relationship with psychological dysfunction and eating disorders. However, ME has been scarcely studied in Mexico. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a scale to assess this construct in its positive (ME) and negative connotation (mindless-eating), as well as to examine its psychometric properties in a Mexican population. After designed, the scale was completed by 527 undergraduate students (Mage = 20.8, SD = 2.0), the data with which the exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors that explained 59% of variance: Mindless eating (α = .84) and Emotional eating (α = .68). Subsequently, with 227 undergraduate students (Mage = 20.71 SD = 1.76), the confirmatory factor analysis yielded one-dimensional model with adequate fit indices (X2 = 10.15, p = .33; X2/df = 1.12; CFI = .99; TLI = .98; RMSEA y SRMR = .02) to assess mindless eating. This study represents a first approximation to ME assessment in Mexican population, so it is expected that future research can strengthen the results obtained here.ResumenEn el mundo, el estudio de la alimentación con atención plena (ACAP) ha cobrado gran relevancia en el área de la psicología de la salud, dada su relación con la disfunción psicológica y la patología alimentaria. No obstante, en México la ACAP ha sido escasamente investigada. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar una escala dirigida a evaluar el constructo tanto en su sentido positivo (ACAP) como negativo (alimentación sin atención plena [ASAP]), así como examinar sus propiedades psicométricas en población mexicana. Tras diseñarla, la escala fue completada por 527 estudiantes universitarios (Medad = 20.8, DE = 2.0), datos con los que el análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó dos factores que explicaron 59% de la varianza: Alimentación sin consciencia (α = .84) y Alimentación emocional (α = .68). Posteriormente, en 227 estudiantes universitarios (Medad = 20.71 DE = 1.76), el análisis factorial confirmatorio arrojó un modelo unidimensional, con ajuste adecuado (X2 = 10.15, p = .33; X2/gl = 1.12; CFI = .99; TLI = .98; RMSEA y SRMR = .02), dirigido a evaluar la ASAP. Este estudio representa una primera aproximación a la medición del constructo ACAP en población mexicana, de modo que se espera que futuras investigaciones puedan robustecer los resultados aquí obtenidos.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 68-78
Sherri L. LaVela ◽  
Linda S. Ehrlich-Jones ◽  
Kayla Jones ◽  
Brian Bartle ◽  
Allen W. Heinemann

Objectives: To explore the personal meanings of healthy eating and physical activity among individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the information and resources they find beneficial. Methods: We conducted in-depth semistructured individual interviews to understand the personal meanings of healthy eating and physical activity among individuals with SCI. We completed a thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results: Participants were 11 Veterans and 14 civilians, predominantly male, non-Hispanic White, and with paraplegia. Data were described across two categories, including the personal meaning of healthy eating and the personal meaning of physical activity/exercise. Individuals with SCI described their meaning of healthy eating around four themes: types of food, amounts/portions of food, conscious/mindful eating, and eating to enhance health. Individuals wanted information on tailored diets for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia and healthy foods that are easy to prepare by people with SCI. Their personal meaning of physical activity/exercise focused on four themes: types of physical activity and exercise, staying active, moving/movement, and differences from non-SCI. Desired information around physical activity included cardiovascular workouts that are effective and possible to do in a wheelchair so that people with SCI can burn enough of the calories they consume to lose or maintain weight. Conclusion: Results provide a better understanding of what healthy eating and physical activity mean to people with SCI and information they desire toward these goals, which can be used to guide patient–provider discussions, develop health promotion programs, and tailor interventions to capitalize on meaningful concepts and beliefs that facilitate healthy behaviors.

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