physical aggression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Anitha Jeyagurunathan ◽  
Jue Hua Lau ◽  
Edimansyah Abdin ◽  
Saleha Shafie ◽  
Sherilyn Chang ◽  

Aims: Aggression is defined as “any behavior intended to cause physical, emotional, or psychological harm to another.” The aims of the current study were to (i) examine underlying factor structure of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and (ii) explore socio-demographic and clinical correlates (symptom severity, substance use and alcohol use) among patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in a multi-ethnic Asian population.Methods: Data collected from 397 participants who were seeking outpatient treatment for schizophrenia and related psychoses at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were included in the analyses. BPAQ, a 29-item, four-factor instrument that measures physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility was used to assess aggression. Data on socio-demographic variables, age of onset of illness, drug use, alcohol use and symptom severity were also collected. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to establish the underlying factor structure of the BPAQ. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to examine socio-demographic and clinical correlates of the BPAQ factors.Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.2 years (SD = 10.9, range: 21–65). Factor structure obtained from the CFA indicated that a higher order four-factor solution had an acceptable fit to the observed data (WLSMV χ2 = 1,025.35, df = 320, RMSEA = 0.07, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.93, SRMR = 0.05). Females had lower physical aggression and hostility scores as compared to males. Those with lower education had higher physical aggression scores as compared to those with higher education. Participants who received a diagnosis after the age of 30 years had higher physical aggression and anger scores as compared to those who received a diagnosis at or before 20 years of age. Symptom severity was positively associated with higher BPAQ scores.Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated high internal consistency and applicable measurement factor structure of BPAQ in this study sample, making it an appropriate questionnaire for assessing aggressive behavior in this population. We also identified socio-demographic and clinical factors that were associated with aggression in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 330-336
Tanvi Singh ◽  
Gaurav Singh Kushwah ◽  
Gaurav Singh ◽  
Rohit Kumar Thapa

The purpose of this study was to find the effects of an eight-week psycho-yogic training intervention on theselected psychological parameters of female police recruits. Materials and methods. Initially, the study involved 200 FPR. Out of the 200 participants, 100 participants werescreened using the lie score of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Participants were then further divided intotwo groups (i.e., experimental and control) using the stratified random sampling method based on the lie score. Thepsychological variables selected for the study were aggression (physical aggression, verbal aggression, hostility, andanger), emotional intelligence (self-awareness, managing emotions, self-motivation, empathy, and social skill), anxiety, perceived stress, satisfaction with life, and self-esteem. Tests were conducted pre-training and post-training after eightweeks. Results. The Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance revealed significant difference in verbal aggression (p = 0.016), hostility (p = 0.017), managing emotions (p = 0.004), self-motivation (p = 0.004), empathy (p = 0.017), social skill (p= 0.015), anxiety (p = <0.001), perceived stress (p = <0.001), satisfaction with life (p = 0.022), and self-esteem (p = <0.001). Further post-hoc analysis test – Kruskal Wallis revealed that the experimental group improved significantly from pre- to post-test in managing emotions (p = 0.005, d = 0.61, Δ% = 9), self-motivation (p = 0.027, d = 0.57, Δ% = 8.8), social skill (p = 0.002, d= 0.59, Δ% = 10.2), satisfaction with life (p = 0.036, d = 0.5, Δ% = 11.7), and self-esteem (p = <0.001, d = 0.94, Δ% = 17.6). In addition, the experimental group had reduced anxiety (p = <0.001, d = 1.27, Δ% = 59.3) and perceived stress (p = <0.001, d = 1.32, Δ% = 41.7) from pre- to post-testing. On the other hand, the control group showed significant deterioration in physical aggression (p = 0.018, d = 0.58, Δ% = 19.9), verbal aggression (p = 0.017, d = 0.57, Δ% = 17), andhostility (p = 0.013, d = 0.54, Δ% = 17.8). Conclusion. The study findings suggest psycho-yogic training of eight weeks duration to be an effective strategyor method to improve the psychological parameters of female police recruits.

Assessment ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 107319112110632
Tamara L. F. De Beuf ◽  
Vivienne de Vogel ◽  
Nick J. Broers ◽  
Corine de Ruiter

The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a risk assessment instrument for adolescents that estimates the risk of multiple adverse outcomes. Prior research into its predictive validity is limited to a handful of studies conducted with the START:AV pilot version and often by the instrument’s developers. The present study examines the START:AV’s field validity in a secure youth care sample in the Netherlands. Using a prospective design, we investigated whether the total scores, lifetime history, and the final risk judgments of 106 START:AVs predicted inpatient incidents during a 4-month follow-up. Final risk judgments and lifetime history predicted multiple adverse outcomes, including physical aggression, institutional violations, substance use, self-injury, and victimization. The predictive validity of the total scores was significant only for physical aggression and institutional violations. Hence, the short-term predictive validity of the START:AV for inpatient incidents in a residential youth care setting was partially demonstrated and the START:AV final risk judgments can be used to guide treatment planning and decision-making regarding furlough or discharge in this setting.

2021 ◽  
pp. 403-425
Wanda Baranowska ◽  
Justyna Leszka

In inclusive education, teachers work with all students, including those exhibiting aggressive behaviors. Today, many teachers struggle with challenging student behavior. The study aims to examine (1) aggressive behaviors in students with SPE – a source of teacher frustration in inclusive education, (2) the consequences of these behaviors triggering fears in teachers, and (3) the relationship between teacher seniority and likely consequences as per objective 2. The survey was conducted among 188 teachers. The data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational approaches. We determined that (1) the main source of teacher frustration is the physical aggression displayed by students with ASD, ADHD, ODD and CD; (2) the fear students with SEN may hurt other students is prominent amongst teachers, with a linear correlation between predictable consequences, where the strongest links appear between prediction of conflict in a classroom and the accusation of incompetence levelled at teachers by parents of students with SEN and between the fear of losing self-control and disapproval by superiors; (3) no significant relationship exists between the seniority of teachers and their perception of the sources of frustrations and fears. Against the background of the results, we formulated recommendations on inclusive education training for teachers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5696
Olga V. Roschina ◽  
Lyudmila A. Levchuk ◽  
Anastasiia S. Boiko ◽  
Ekaterina V. Michalitskaya ◽  
Elena V. Epimakhova ◽  

Background: The neuropeptides β-endorphin and oxytocin are released into the bloodstream as hormones from the pituitary gland but also have an important function as neuroregulators in the forebrain. The blood levels of both polypeptides have been shown to reflect depressive symptoms. β-Endorphin, in particular, is also involved in abstinence from alcohol. Methods: The serum levels of β-endorphin and oxytocin were measured during the early withdrawal phase in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) with (N = 35) or without (N = 45) depressive comorbidity and compared with those in healthy volunteers (N = 23). In addition to comparing the groups, the study examined whether serum levels correlated with various psychometric measures of dependence, depression and aggression, as well as with clinical characteristics of dependence. Results: Both serum levels of beta-endorphin and oxytocin were significantly lower in patients than those in healthy controls (p = 0.011 for β-endorphin and p = 0.005 for oxytocin, Kruskal–Wallis test). In patients with depressive comorbidity, the significance was greatest (p = 0.005 for β-endorphin and p = 0.004 for oxytocin, U-test). There was no correlation with clinical or psychometric parameters (p > 0.05, Spearman test), but beta-endorphin levels did correlate significantly with physical aggression (p = 0.026, Spearman test). Conclusions: Serum levels of β-endorphin and oxytocin are lower in patients with AUD, particularly in those with depressive comorbidity. β-Endorphin levels correlated with physical aggression according to the Buss–Durkee (BDHI) estimates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 101 (6) ◽  
pp. 652-674
Liat Tayer ◽  
Tomer Einat ◽  
Anat Yaron Antar

This qualitative study analyzes the effects of solitary confinement on prisoners and the strategies used by them to cope with its difficulties. The findings indicate that solitary confinement is perceived as unfair and as intensifying hostile emotions and physical aggression, and that it is related to a range of long-term physiological, mental, and behavioral disorders. Three strategies are used to cope with the difficulties of solitary confinement: keeping to a ritualistic routine, a religious lifestyle, and physical exercise. We conclude that solitary confinement exacerbates the difficulties of detention and affects prisoners’ health and well-being for short and long terms.

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