Null Hypothesis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 295
Iniobong Ekong Nkang ◽  
Christopher S. Uwah

Peace is a necessary condition for the sustainable development of any nation. It is described as the absence of physical and structural violence, and the presence of justice. Peace education involves human rights and conflict resolution education. This justifies the prominence of peace and conflict resolution education in the educational agenda of nations. Based on this, the paper examines the management of tertiary education for peace and conflict resolution in Nigeria. The population of the study comprised lecturers from the Faculty of Social and Management Sciences from the Universities of Benin, Port Harcourt, Calabar and Uyo, totalling 2312. A sample of 231 lecturers was drawn for the study using the Cluster Sampling Technique. One research question and one null hypothesis were considered in this study. Data collection was done using a structured instrument tagged, "Managing Tertiary Education for Peace and Conflict Resolution" (MTEPCR) Questionnaire. The Instrument was duly validated and tested for reliability using the Cronbach Alpha reliability formula. This gave a reliability coefficient of 0.81. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and simple percentage were used to answer the research question. The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 alpha level, the one-way ANOVA. The result of the study indicated a low extent in the implementation of peace and conflict resolution education in tertiary institutions. There was no substantial difference in the implementation of peace and conflict resolution education among four federal universities. Based on these findings, key policy, practice and research implications are discussed.

Alexander Ly ◽  
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

AbstractThe “Full Bayesian Significance Test e-value”, henceforth FBST ev, has received increasing attention across a range of disciplines including psychology. We show that the FBST ev leads to four problems: (1) the FBST ev cannot quantify evidence in favor of a null hypothesis and therefore also cannot discriminate “evidence of absence” from “absence of evidence”; (2) the FBST ev is susceptible to sampling to a foregone conclusion; (3) the FBST ev violates the principle of predictive irrelevance, such that it is affected by data that are equally likely to occur under the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis; (4) the FBST ev suffers from the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox in that it does not include a correction for selection. These problems also plague the frequentist p-value. We conclude that although the FBST ev may be an improvement over the p-value, it does not provide a reasonable measure of evidence against the null hypothesis.

2021 ◽  
Udi Alter ◽  
Alyssa Counsell

AbstractPsychological research is rife with inappropriately concluding lack of association or no effect between a predictor and the outcome in regression models following statistically nonsignificant results. This approach is methodologically flawed, however, because failing to reject the null hypothesis using traditional, difference-based tests does not mean the null is true (i.e., no relationship). This flawed methodology leads to high rates of incorrect conclusions that flood the literature. This thesis introduces a novel, methodologically sound alternative. I demonstrate how equivalence testing can be applied to evaluate whether a predictor has negligible effects on the outcome variable in multiple regression. I constructed a simulation study to evaluate the performance (i.e., power and error rates) of two equivalence-based tests and compared it to the common, but inappropriate, method of concluding no effect by failing to reject the null hypothesis of the traditional test. I further propose two R functions to accompany this thesis and supply researchers with open-access and easy-to-use tools that they can flexibly adopt in their own research. The use of the proposed equivalence-based methods and R functions is then illustrated using examples from the literature, and recommendations for results reporting and interpretations are discussed. My results demonstrate that using tests of equivalence instead of the traditional test is the appropriate statistical choice: Tests of equivalence show high rates of correct conclusions, especially with larger sample sizes, and low rates of incorrect conclusions, whereas the traditional method demonstrates unacceptably high incorrect conclusion rates.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0252991
Werner A. Stahel

The p-value has been debated exorbitantly in the last decades, experiencing fierce critique, but also finding some advocates. The fundamental issue with its misleading interpretation stems from its common use for testing the unrealistic null hypothesis of an effect that is precisely zero. A meaningful question asks instead whether the effect is relevant. It is then unavoidable that a threshold for relevance is chosen. Considerations that can lead to agreeable conventions for this choice are presented for several commonly used statistical situations. Based on the threshold, a simple quantitative measure of relevance emerges naturally. Statistical inference for the effect should be based on the confidence interval for the relevance measure. A classification of results that goes beyond a simple distinction like “significant / non-significant” is proposed. On the other hand, if desired, a single number called the “secured relevance” may summarize the result, like the p-value does it, but with a scientifically meaningful interpretation.

Fabian Cieplik ◽  
Konstantin J. Scholz ◽  
Julian C. Anthony ◽  
Isabelle Tabenski ◽  
Sarah Ettenberger ◽  

Abstract Objectives In the context of the phase-down of amalgam, development of easily applicable, permanent restorative materials is of high clinical interest. Aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of a novel, tooth-colored, self-adhesive bulk-fill restorative (SABF, 3M Oral Care) and a conventional bulk-fill composite (Filtek One, 3M Oral Care; FOBF) for restoring class II cavities. The null-hypothesis tested was that both materials perform similar regarding clinical performance. Materials and methods In this randomized split-mouth study, 30 patients received one SABF and one FOBF restoration each. Scotchbond Universal (3M Oral Care) was used as adhesive for FOBF (self-etch mode), while SABF was applied directly without adhesive. Restorations were evaluated by two blinded examiners at baseline, 6 months and 12 months employing FDI criteria. Non-parametric statistical analyses and χ2-tests (α = 0.05) were applied. Results Thirty patients (60 restorations) were available for the 6- and 12-month recalls exhibiting 100% restoration survival. All restorations revealed clinically acceptable FDI scores at all time points and for all criteria. Only regarding esthetic properties, FOBF performed significantly better than SABF regarding surface lustre (A1) and color match and translucency (A3) at all time points and marginal staining (A2b) at 12 months. Conclusions The null-hypothesis could not be rejected. Both materials performed similarly regarding clinical performance within the first year of clinical service. SABF exhibited slightly inferior, but clinically fully acceptable esthetic properties as compared to FOBF. Clinical relevance Within the limitations of this study, the self-adhesive bulk-fill restorative showed promising results and may be recommended for clinical use.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Ahmad Hedayatpanah Shaldehi ◽  
Mohammad Saeed Hedayatpanah Shaldehi ◽  
Marziyeh Hedayatpanah Shaldehi

The main purpose of this paper is to comparatively study the similarities and differences between of the , null hypothesis and assumption of breach .The null hypothesis , in applied researches, particularly experiments for confirm or rejection .a hypothesis, regard to inferential statistics That used in many different fields of humanities researchers, particularly psychology, education, management and sociological placed assumption of breach, to prove geometric proposition( theorems), which hypothetical temporary, that with the help of reasoning, the false statements, it we conclude. Such a statement may deny our hypotheses or assume reduction ad absurdum. The use of these two words separately and hypothesis alternative in abundance, the world of science and research, has been discussed, but the relationship between these words, mention, yet. Isn’t .This article describes the relation of these assumptions. Likewise, in writing, to the similarity, their differentiation, are mentioned. Including the results, that is, the achieve results null hypothesis, researcher with the error is encountered, but In the Reduction ad absurdum the achieve results, not an error.

2021 ◽  
Ruslan Masharipov ◽  
Yaroslav Nikolaev ◽  
Alexander Korotkov ◽  
Michael Didur ◽  
Denis Cherednichenko ◽  

Classical null hypothesis significance testing is limited to the rejection of the point-null hypothesis; it does not allow the interpretation of non-significant results. Moreover, studies with a sufficiently large sample size will find statistically significant results even when the effect is negligible and may be considered practically equivalent to the null effect. This leads to a publication bias against the null hypothesis. There are two main approaches to assess null effects: shifting from the point-null to the interval-null hypothesis and considering the practical significance in the frequentist approach; using the Bayesian parameter inference based on posterior probabilities, or the Bayesian model inference based on Bayes factors. Herein, we discuss these statistical methods with particular focus on the application of the Bayesian parameter inference, as it is conceptually connected to both frequentist and Bayesian model inferences. Although Bayesian methods have been theoretically elaborated and implemented in commonly used neuroimaging software, they are not widely used for null effect assessment. To demonstrate the advantages of using the Bayesian parameter inference, we compared it with classical null hypothesis significance testing for fMRI data group analysis. We also consider the problem of choosing a threshold for a practically significant effect and discuss possible applications of Bayesian parameter inference in fMRI studies. We argue that Bayesian inference, which directly provides evidence for both the null and alternative hypotheses, may be more intuitive and convenient for practical use than frequentist inference, which only provides evidence against the null hypothesis. Moreover, it may indicate that the obtained data are not sufficient to make a confident inference. Because interim analysis is easy to perform using Bayesian inference, one can evaluate the data as the sample size increases and decide to terminate the experiment if the obtained data are sufficient to make a confident inference. To facilitate the application of the Bayesian parameter inference to null effect assessment, scripts with a simple GUI were developed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 123-133
Norbert Hirschauer ◽  
Sven Grüner ◽  
Oliver Mußhoff ◽  
Claudia Becker

It has often been noted that the “null-hypothesis-significance-testing” (NHST) framework is an inconsistent hybrid of Neyman-Pearson’s “hypothesis testing” and Fisher’s “significance testing” that almost inevitably causes misinterpretations. To facilitate a realistic assessment of the potential and the limits of statistical inference, we briefly recall widespread inferential errors and outline the two original approaches of these famous statisticians. Based on the understanding of their irreconcilable perspectives, we propose “going back to the roots” and using the initial evidence in the data in terms of the size and the uncertainty of the estimate for the purpose of statistical inference. Finally, we make six propositions that hopefully contribute to improving the quality of inferences in future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Han-Jen Hsu ◽  
Kun-Jung Hsu

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare postintervention pain related to orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Material and Methods. One hundred patients who received only orthodontic treatment are the nonsurgical group. One hundred other patients were separated equally into the following four orthognathic surgical subgroups. The visual analog scale (VAS) score was used to measure postoperative pain. Patient- and operation-related factors were compared among the four surgical subgroups. The null hypothesis was that there was no difference between orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery in terms of posttreatment pain. Results. There were no significant differences between the nonsurgical and surgical groups for gender ( P = 0.780 ) or age ( P = 0.473 ). The VAS scores of the nonsurgical group (mean: 3.59) were significantly ( P = 0.007 ) higher than those of the surgical group (mean: 3.06). The null hypothesis was rejected. Within the surgical subgroups, no significant differences were observed between the men and women for age, operation time, blood loss volume, or blood laboratory values. Conclusions. The VAS scores of the orthodontic (nonsurgical) group were significantly higher than those of the surgical group. No significant differences in VAS scores were found between the four surgical subgroups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Pauline Egberanmwen Ehirheme ◽  
Titus Iloduba Eze

Students of Office Technology and Management (OTM) in Nigerian polytechnics have consistently performed below expectations both academically and at work. This may be attributed to use of inappropriate instructional method. The need to improve this situation necessitated the research on effects of peer tutoring on students’ academic achievement in OTM in Nigerian polytechnics.  Using a research question to guide the study, and a null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. A non-randomized quasi experimental research design, adopting pre-test; post-test non-equivalent control group design was used. South West Nigeria was the region of the research work with a populace of 503 National Diploma Year II (ND II) OTM students in four federal polytechnics.  Using cluster random sampling, a sample of the intact classes of 227 students from two states in the area of the study was drawn. Three OTM experts validated the “Office Technology and Management Achievement Test (OTMAT)” 100 items instrument for face and content validity. The Experts input modified some items and cancelled some which reduced 140 test items to 100 used for collecting data. Descriptive statistics of mean was used to analyze data and to respond to the research question while t-test and Analysis of Covariance were used to test the null hypothesis. Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 was adopted to establish internal consistency and reliability of the instrument which yielded a coefficient of 0.86. The research showed that Peer Tutoring Instructional Technique (PTIT) has higher positive effects on students’ academic achievement in OTM than Teacher-dominated Instructional Approach (TDIA), thus it can enhance students’ academic achievement in OTM. It was, therefore, suggested that OTM lecturers should include the use of Peer Tutoring Instructional Technique to boost learning in teaching their students.

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