class level
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Carla Haelermans

AbstractThis study analyses the effects of group differentiation by students’ learning strategies of around 1200 students in 46 classes from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands. In an experimental setup with randomization at the class level, division of students over three groups per class (an instruction-independent group, an average group, and an instruction-dependent group) is based on learning strategies, measures using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Each group is offered instruction fitting their own learning strategy. The results show that student performance is higher in classes where the differentiation was applied, and that these students score higher at some scales of the posttest of the questionnaire on motivation, metacognition and self-regulation. However, there are differences between classrooms from different teachers. Additional teacher questionnaires confirm the discrepancy in teacher attitudes towards the intervention.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Emanuela Piciucco ◽  
Viviana Masia ◽  
Emanuele Maiorana ◽  
Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri ◽  
Patrizio Campisi

Abstract Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals can reveal the cost required to deal with information structure mismatches in speech or in text contexts. The present study investigates the costs related to the processing of different associations between the syntactic categories of Noun and Verb and the information categories of Topic and Focus. It is hypothesized that – due to the very nature (respectively, predicative and non-predicative) of verbal and nominal reference – sentences with Topics realized by verbs, and Focuses realized by nouns, should impose greater processing demands, compared to the decoding of nominal Topics and verbal Focuses. Data from event-related potential (ERP) measurements revealed an N400 effect in response to both nouns encoded as Focus and verbs packaged as Topic, confirming that the cost associated with information structure processing follows discourse-driven expectations also with respect to the word-class level.

Lisa Bardach ◽  
Takuya Yanagida ◽  
Petra Gradinger ◽  
Dagmar Strohmeier

AbstractSchool-based aggression prevention programs may not be equally effective for all students and classes, depending on student and class characteristics. This study investigated moderators of a cluster randomized controlled socio-ecological aggression prevention program’s effectiveness (change from pretest to posttest, sample: 2,042 preadolescents, mean age = 11.7 years, SD = 0.09, 47.6% girls) and sustainability (change from posttest to follow-up test, sample: 659 preadolescents, mean age = 12.7 years, SD = 0.08, 47.9% girls). The program worked better in multicultural classes, as greater ethnic diversity strengthened the program’s effectiveness and sustainability. Moderating effects of a positive social class climate and higher baseline levels of aggressive behavior and victimization were also found. These results advance socio-ecological theorizing and can help develop more contextualized interventions.

Kang Yang ◽  
Linjie Hu ◽  
Shengcai Huang ◽  
Can Liu ◽  
Liang Feng ◽  

Seawater intrusion has become a serious natural disaster in coastal regions around the world. Four shallow groundwater aquifers of Pearl River were sampled to study the changes of groundwater types and microbial communities caused by seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion caused significantly increased cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-), and the groundwater type turned from HCO3-Ca to Cl•HCO3-Na•Ca and Cl•SO4-Na•Mg. The composition and diversity of groundwater geochemistry changes. Gammaproteobacteria species and Alphaproteobacteria species are dominant species, and the salinity of groundwater is the main environment factor that affect the relative abundance. The α-diversity of microbial community in three types groundwater are significantly different (P = 0.002,R2 = 0.959). The correlation between species in class level with different ions were also observed. Aeromonadales, Vibrionales, Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales have a significant positive correlation with Cl-, SO42-, Na+ and Mg2+ (P < 0.05) in Cl•SO4-Na•Mg type, while in Cl•HCO3-Na•Ca type groundwater, Vibrionales and Oceanospirillales have positive correlations with Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, but negative correlations with HCO3-. Aeromonadales and Alteromonadales are opposite of this. The results demonstrate that groundwater type is the main factors influence the correlation between species and environments, other geophysical factors have weak influence. This shift of shallow groundwater type and microbial community under seawater intrusion were studied for the first time, it is momentous for forward exploration of groundwater microbial ecology in the coastal area under the background of seawater intrusion.

Dr. Dominic Owusu ◽  

This study assessed the class level differences in stress experiences and coping strategies among undergraduate students in Ghana. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 265 undergraduate students out of the 846 student population in the Department of Education and Psychology. The research instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire entitled “Stress Experiences and Coping Strategies” (SECS). Means and standard deviations were used to analyse the research questions. The findings revealed that common stress experiences varied, with lack of social contact with students of other faculties in the University as the most common stress experienced among the respondents. Also the most commonly used coping strategy was having enough rest. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the University should champion and promote inter-faculty, social and academic programmes and activities that would enable students to interact, socialize and build rapport among themselves.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (8) ◽  
pp. 925-930
Baiq Nurullayali ◽  
Sartika Sartika ◽  
Supriadin Supriadin

This research aims to identify the way of polite language used by Sasak people in Central Lombok. In this research, qualitative descriptive method was employed in analyzing the data. There were three participants that consist of Sasak native speaker from two villages such as Beraim and Dakung village. The data were collected through three techniques that are, observation, interview and documentation. The Results of this research showed that firstly, Sasak language has three levels of polite utterances used by Sasak people such as most polite (Base Alus Utami), more polite (Base Alus Madya), and polite (Base Sasak Biase). When kingdom was exist, Base Alus Utami only used by Perwangse, who was the king or people with high class level in Lombok Island and marked by Raden/Datu, and Dende at the first name. But, when they interacted with the lower class, they used biase language while the lower class of people must use Base Utami then, Base Alus Madya only used by people with the second level in society Baiq and Lalu at the first name, and Base Sasak Biase used by people with the lower class, called Jajar Karang. Secondly, the next generation in Sasak today do not really cosidere the rules when they using the polite language as people used in the past. It can be seen when they are communicating each other. They cannot able to speak with Base Alus Utami even speak with the older people. Only some of old people are still maintenance this language and teach their children but it is so rarely.

Shah Harishchandra ◽  
Pandey Basu Dev

With the objectives of determining the association between risk factors and Dengue Fever (DF), a case-control study with a random sample size of 102:102 in each was conducted at Hetauda and Kamalamai Municipalities, Nepal. The hypothesis of risk factors for DF like low level of knowledge about DF, discarded receptacles, old tires, containers, etc. nearby house, and use of stagnant AC/Coolers was used to conduct the study. Traveling to DF affected areas nearly 2 weeks before the onset of disease was significantly associated with dengue fever (OR= 6.10, 95% cl: 1.31-28.34, p<0.021). Waste disposal of old containers, receptacles, tires during the rainy season were significantly associated with the incidence of DF (AOR= 6.308, 96% cl: 2-751-14.462, p<0.000). The frequency of DF was associated with the middle social class level (p<0.05, d. f. 2). Uncovered water tanks of the household were significantly associated with DF (AOR= 3.78, 95% cl: 1.51-9.45, p<0.0043). As the number of families increases in the household, the number of cases increases with a positive correlation (r = +0.62). Crowded households with more than 2 occupants in one room were at risk of dengue infection. The study concluded that DF was associated with the risk factors of traveling to endemic areas, discarded waste containers, receptacles, tires, and uncovered water tanks, middle social class, and crowded households. Public health managers should prioritize these risk factors while planning for DF control and prevention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 1888-1898
Endah Kurtianti ◽  
Endang Setyaningsih ◽  
Nur Arifah Drajati

This research was designed to investigate which factors influenced the formation of lecturers’ expectations amid online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak in an Indonesian Islamic university. The recent study employed an exploratory case study by observing online EFL writing learning activities, interviewing the three lecturers, and collecting documents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively using an interactive model. Lecturers' expectations in this study were viewed from the key focus of expectation: feedback provided by lecturers. They established class-level expectations, not individual ones as primary and secondary levels. This study elucidates Islamic university lecturers' factors contributing to form expectations: lecturers’ past teaching experiences and teaching self-efficacy. Lecturers have not highly adjusted to any change that emerged in online learning. Accordingly, they have not shown firm belief in grouping students and assuring students’ originality in composing essays. At the same time, the students' demographic factors were motivation and gender. Female students showed higher motivation through participating more often during discussions. It yielded more learning feedback they received. Implications of this study were noted for self-reflection among lecturers to establish high expectations for students to enhance their learning.

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