animal medicine
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jacqueline Graff Reis ◽  
Rafael Dorighello Cadamuro ◽  
Ariadne Cristiane Cabral ◽  
Izabella Thaís da Silva ◽  
David Rodríguez-Lázaro ◽  
...  

The pharmaceutical industry is currently trying to develop new bioactive compounds to inactivate both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses for therapeutic purposes. Consequently, microalgal and macroalgal bioactive compounds are being explored by pharmaceutical, as well as biotechnology and food industries. In this review, we show how compounds produced by algae include important candidates for viral control applications. We discuss their mechanisms of action and activity against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including those causing infections by enteric, parenteral, and respiratory routes. Indeed, algal products have potential in human and animal medicine.


Author(s):  
Chung-Ming Chang ◽  
Ramendra Pati Pandey ◽  
Riya Mukherjee

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing hazard to human and animal health that necessitates an international response. Surveillance methods in high-income nations aided in the development of measures to combat AMR in animals. Demand for meat is increasing in countries making it critical to implement anti-AMR initiatives. Surveillance of AMR, on the other hand, is at best in its infancy, and the current evidence base for informing policymakers is geographically disparate. All of the isolates had high rates of AMR to medicines that are critical/highly important in human and animal medicine. A higher incidence of AMR was found in poultry farms. Our findings show that AMR, including MDR, is common in coli, Salmonella spp., commonly found in poultry. The study promotes the development of national policies, programs, and additional research based on a "One Health" approach that helps humans and animals, as well as the environment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12370
Author(s):  
Ying Chen ◽  
Wenqing Xu ◽  
Yuan Yuan ◽  
Houyang Chen ◽  
Shuangyan Zheng ◽  
...  

Ketamine, which used to be widely applied in human and animal medicine as a dissociative anesthetic, has become a popular recreational drug because of its hallucinogenic effect. Our previous study preliminarily proved that ketamine could inhibit human sperm function by affecting intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the specific signaling pathway of [Ca2+]i induced by ketamine in human sperm is still not clear yet. Here, the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor was detected in the tail region of human sperm. Its physiological ligand, NMDA (50 μM), could reverse ketamine’s inhibitory effect on human sperm function, and its antagonist, MK801 (100 μM), could restrain the effect of NMDA. The inhibitory effect caused by 4 mM ketamine or 100 μM MK801 on [Ca2+]i, which is a central factor in the regulation of human sperm function, could also be recovered by 50 μM NMDA. The results suggest that the NMDA receptor is probably involved in the inhibitory effect of ketamine on human sperm functions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 260
Author(s):  
Kira Schmitt ◽  
Anna Barbara Emilia Zimmermann ◽  
Roger Stephan ◽  
Barbara Willi

Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections. HH compliance in companion animal clinics has been reported to be poor. The present study compared an online application with the WHO evaluation form to assess the WHO five moments of HH in a Swiss companion animal clinic. In 202 hand swabs from 87 staff members, total viable count (TVC) before and after patient contact was evaluated and the swabs were tested for selected antimicrobial resistant microorganisms of public health importance. HH compliance (95% confidence interval) was 36.6% (33.8–39.5%) and was similar when assessed with the two evaluation tools. HH differed between hospital areas (p = 0.0035) and HH indications (p < 0.0001). Gloves were worn in 22.0% (18.0–26.6%) of HH observations and were indicated in 37.2% (27.3–48.3%) of these observations. Mean TVC before patient contact was lower (0.52 log CFU/cm2) than after patient contact (1.02 log CFU/cm2) but was similar before patient contact on gloved and ungloved hands. Three hand swabs (1.5% (0.4–4.3%)) were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Gloving should not be regarded as a substitute for HH. Overall, HH in companion animal medicine should urgently be fostered.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Margaret L. Musser ◽  
Kaitlin M. Curran ◽  
Brian K. Flesner ◽  
Chad M. Johannes

Chemotherapy overdoses (ODs) are severe complications that can occur following the use of antineoplastics. However, little is known about chemotherapy ODs in veterinary medicine. The goals of this retrospective study were to report the occurrence, type, and cause of known chemotherapy ODs in companion animal medicine. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine oncology and internal medicine listservs were solicited for chemotherapy OD cases in dogs and cats. An OD was defined as administration of a chemotherapy dose 10% higher than intended, or at a shorter interval than planned. Twelve non-anthracycline ODs in 11 dogs, and 3 cat ODs, were collected. Overdoses in dogs included carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, L-asparaginase, lomustine, mustargen, vincristine, and vinorelbine. The cat ODs included doxorubicin and vincristine. In dogs, the median OD was 2.1x (range: 1.2–10x) the intended dose. All dogs survived the OD and developed a variety of gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities of varying grades. Both cats with a 2.4x vincristine OD died despite supportive care. The cat who received a 2x OD of doxorubicin survived the event, experiencing Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group–common terminology criteria for adverse events (VCOG) grade I thrombocytopenia and anemia, and VCOG grade II neutropenia. Chemotherapy ODs appear to be rare in veterinary medicine and are typically 2–3xs the intended dose. Clinical effects include VCOG grade I and II gastrointestinal distress and VCOG grade III and IV hematologic effects. With appropriate supportive care, most patients will survive the event. Life-threatening events are more common in cats following vincristine ODs.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (16) ◽  
pp. 5034
Author(s):  
Cindy B. McReynolds ◽  
Jun Yang ◽  
Alonso Guedes ◽  
Christophe Morisseau ◽  
Roberto Garcia ◽  
...  

There are few novel therapeutic options available for companion animals, and medications rely heavily on repurposed drugs developed for other species. Considering the diversity of species and breeds in companion animal medicine, comprehensive PK exposures in the companion animal patient is often lacking. The purpose of this paper was to assess the pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous dosing in domesticated animal species (dogs, cats, and horses) of a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, EC1728, being developed for the treatment of pain in animals. Results: Intravenous and oral administration revealed that bioavailability was similar for dogs, and horses (42 and 50% F) but lower in mice and cats (34 and 8%, respectively). Additionally, clearance was similar between cats and mice, but >2× faster in cats vs. dogs and horses. Efficacy with EC1728 has been demonstrated in mice, dogs, and horses, and despite the rapid clearance of EC1728 in cats, analgesic efficacy was demonstrated in an acute pain model after intravenous but not oral dosing. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that exposures across species can vary, and investigation of therapeutic exposures in target species is needed to provide adequate care that addresses efficacy and avoids toxicity.


2021 ◽  
pp. e20210044
Author(s):  
Myrna M. Cadena ◽  
Todd Kelman ◽  
Maurice Pitesky ◽  
Rachel S. Dutch ◽  
Lisa A. Tell

As backyard poultry (BYP) ownership has increased in the US, the demand for veterinarians who treat BYP has also increased. However, veterinarians who treat BYP remain scarce and are mostly small animal veterinarians and exotic animal practitioners who have limited training in food animal regulatory practices. To gauge whether veterinary students are interested in learning more about BYP and what BYP topics to include in an online training program for veterinary students, a BYP knowledge assessment was conducted. Pre-clinical veterinary students were asked to self-rate their level of knowledge on various topics for both small animal practice and BYP using Likert-type ordinal scales. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests of those Likert data showed significant differences ( p < .01 at α = .05) between self-assessed knowledge of poultry and small animal medicine for all surveyed topics. Specifically, veterinary students ranked themselves as less knowledgeable on poultry concepts than on small animal medicine concepts. Nevertheless, students expressed interest in an online training program for treating BYP and drug residue avoidance in BYP, despite having chosen future career tracks that are not exclusively poultry. Specific topics students expressed interest in with respect to BYP training included anatomy, husbandry, prescribing medications, treatment options, food safety, antimicrobial resistance, and extra-label drug use.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (7) ◽  
pp. 5-7
Author(s):  
Saadet Inan, MD, PhD ◽  
Michael Guarnieri, PhD, MPH

In 2005, Bob Adams, the Chief Veterinarian at Johns Hopkins, wondered if sustained release technology could be used to improve postsurgical analgesia for animal medicine. Henry Brem, Director of the Hunterian Laboratories, had organized an international consortium to advance therapy for brain tumors and stroke. The Hunterian had over 20 years of experience with the safety and effectiveness of neutral lipids, phospholipids, carbohydrates, gels, polymers, and assorted devices for sustained-release drug delivery. We had the technology. What was the best pharmacology? Buprenorphine was the obvious analgesic. Reports of adverse events in the veterinary literature were rare.


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