plant morphogenesis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13250
Shuwei Chang ◽  
Zhanhong Ren ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Pingzhou Du ◽  
Jingbin Li ◽  

The actin cytoskeleton is crucial for plant morphogenesis, and organization of actin filaments (AF) is dynamically regulated by actin-binding proteins. However, the roles of actin-binding proteins, particularly type II formins, in this process remain poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that a type II formin in rice, Oryza sativa formin homolog 3 (OsFH3), acts as a major player to modulate AF dynamics and contributes to rice morphogenesis. osfh3 mutants were semi-dwarf with reduced size of seeds and unchanged responses to light or gravity compared with mutants of osfh5, another type II formin in rice. osfh3 osfh5 mutants were dwarf with more severe developmental defectiveness. Recombinant OsFH3 could nucleate actin, promote AF bundling, and cap the barbed end of AF to prevent elongation and depolymerization, but in the absence of profilin, OsFH3 could inhibit AF elongation. Different from other reported type II formins, OsFH3 could bind, but not bundle, microtubules directly. Furthermore, its N-terminal phosphatase and tensin homolog domain played a key role in modulating OsFH3 localization at intersections of AF and punctate structures of microtubules, which differed from other reported plant formins. Our results, thus, provide insights into the biological function of type II formins in modulating plant morphology by acting on AF dynamics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dengying Qiu ◽  
Shouling Xu ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Ming Zhou ◽  
Lilan Hong

Plant morphogenesis involves multiple biochemical and physical processes inside the cell wall. With the continuous progress in biomechanics field, extensive studies have elucidated that mechanical forces may be the most direct physical signals that control the morphology of cells and organs. The extensibility of the cell wall is the main restrictive parameter of cell expansion. The control of cell wall mechanical properties largely determines plant cell morphogenesis. Here, we summarize how cell wall modifying proteins modulate the mechanical properties of cell walls and consequently influence plant morphogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Ryo Murakami ◽  
Ryo Ushima ◽  
Ryoma Sugimoto ◽  
Daisuke Tamaoki ◽  
Ichirou Karahara ◽  

AbstractInsect-induced galls are microhabitats distinct from the outer environment that support inhabitants by providing improved nutrients, defence against enemies, and other unique features. It is intriguing as to how insects reprogram and modify plant morphogenesis. Because most of the gall systems are formed on trees, it is difficult to maintain them in laboratories and to comprehend the mechanisms operative in them through experimental manipulations. Herein, we propose a new model insect, Smicronyx madaranus, for studying the mechanisms of gall formation. This weevil forms spherical galls on the shoots of Cuscuta campestris, an obligate parasitic plant. We established a stable system for breeding and maintaining this ecologically intriguing insect in the laboratory, and succeeded in detailed analyses of the gall-forming behaviour, gall formation process, and histochemical and physiological features. Parasitic C. campestris depends on host plants for its nutrients, and usually shows low chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity. We demonstrate that S. madaranus-induced galls have significantly increased CO2 absorbance. Moreover, chloroplasts and starch accumulated in gall tissues at locations inhabited by the weevil larvae. These results suggest that the gall-inducing weevils enhance the photosynthetic activity in C. campestris, and modify the plant tissue to a nutrient-rich shelter for them.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aleksandr Bobrovskikh ◽  
Alexey Doroshkov ◽  
Stefano Mazzoleni ◽  
Fabrizio Cartenì ◽  
Francesco Giannino ◽  

Single-cell technology is a relatively new and promising way to obtain high-resolution transcriptomic data mostly used for animals during the last decade. However, several scientific groups developed and applied the protocols for some plant tissues. Together with deeply-developed cell-resolution imaging techniques, this achievement opens up new horizons for studying the complex mechanisms of plant tissue architecture formation. While the opportunities for integrating data from transcriptomic to morphogenetic levels in a unified system still present several difficulties, plant tissues have some additional peculiarities. One of the plants’ features is that cell-to-cell communication topology through plasmodesmata forms during tissue growth and morphogenesis and results in mutual regulation of expression between neighboring cells affecting internal processes and cell domain development. Undoubtedly, we must take this fact into account when analyzing single-cell transcriptomic data. Cell-based computational modeling approaches successfully used in plant morphogenesis studies promise to be an efficient way to summarize such novel multiscale data. The inverse problem’s solutions for these models computed on the real tissue templates can shed light on the restoration of individual cells’ spatial localization in the initial plant organ—one of the most ambiguous and challenging stages in single-cell transcriptomic data analysis. This review summarizes new opportunities for advanced plant morphogenesis models, which become possible thanks to single-cell transcriptome data. Besides, we show the prospects of microscopy and cell-resolution imaging techniques to solve several spatial problems in single-cell transcriptomic data analysis and enhance the hybrid modeling framework opportunities.

Agronomy ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1800
Naoya Fukuda ◽  
Tomohiro Suenaga ◽  
Erika Miura ◽  
Atsuko Tsukamoto ◽  
Jorunn E. Olsen

The signals from photoreceptors modify plant morphogenesis and regulate the timing of flowering. In the long-day plant petunia, flowering is accelerated under blue (B) and white (W) light compared to red (R) light. In Arabidopsis thaliana L., ELF genes are involved in circadian clock-associated regulation of flowering under different light conditions. In this study, we aimed to assess the involvement of ELF genes in control of flowering by light quality in petunia. Two ELF4-like genes, PhELF4-1 and PhELF4-2 with 76% and 70% similarity to orthologues in pepper but low overall similarity to ELF genes in A. thaliana L., were characterized in petunia and their expression patterns studied under different light qualities. Both genes showed a rhythmic expression pattern and higher expression under B light from light emitting diodes (LED) and W light from fluorescent lamps than under R LED light from LED. For both genes, the expression peaked towards the end of the day, 12 h after start of a 14 h photoperiod. Compared with PhELF4-2, PhELF4-1 expression showed higher amplitude with significantly higher peak expression. As investigated for PhELF4-1, such an expression rhythm was kept for two days after transfer of the plants to continuous lighting using B LED, indicating a circadian rhythm. PhELF4-1 also responded with a phase shift after transfer to short days of an 8 h photoperiod. These results indicate that PhELF4-like genes in petunia are under photoperiodic control involving a circadian clock and play a role in signal transduction from one or more B light photoreceptors.

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