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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Fereshteh Jafariakinabad ◽  
Kien A. Hua

The syntactic structure of sentences in a document substantially informs about its authorial writing style. Sentence representation learning has been widely explored in recent years and it has been shown that it improves the generalization of different downstream tasks across many domains. Even though utilizing probing methods in several studies suggests that these learned contextual representations implicitly encode some amount of syntax, explicit syntactic information further improves the performance of deep neural models in the domain of authorship attribution. These observations have motivated us to investigate the explicit representation learning of syntactic structure of sentences. In this article, we propose a self-supervised framework for learning structural representations of sentences. The self-supervised network contains two components; a lexical sub-network and a syntactic sub-network which take the sequence of words and their corresponding structural labels as the input, respectively. Due to the n -to-1 mapping of words to their structural labels, each word will be embedded into a vector representation which mainly carries structural information. We evaluate the learned structural representations of sentences using different probing tasks, and subsequently utilize them in the authorship attribution task. Our experimental results indicate that the structural embeddings significantly improve the classification tasks when concatenated with the existing pre-trained word embeddings.

Zulqarnain Nazir ◽  
Khurram Shahzad ◽  
Muhammad Kamran Malik ◽  
Waheed Anwar ◽  
Imran Sarwar Bajwa ◽  

Authorship attribution refers to examining the writing style of authors to determine the likelihood of the original author of a document from a given set of potential authors. Due to the wide range of authorship attribution applications, a plethora of studies have been conducted for various Western, as well as Asian, languages. However, authorship attribution research in the Urdu language has just begun, although Urdu is widely acknowledged as a prominent South Asian language. Furthermore, the existing studies on authorship attribution in Urdu have addressed a considerably easier problem of having less than 20 candidate authors, which is far from the real-world settings. Therefore, the findings from these studies may not be applicable to the real-world settings. To that end, we have made three key contributions: First, we have developed a large authorship attribution corpus for Urdu, which is a low-resource language. The corpus is composed of over 2.6 million tokens and 21,938 news articles by 94 authors, which makes it a closer substitute to the real-world settings. Second, we have analyzed hundreds of stylometry features used in the literature to identify 194 features that are applicable to the Urdu language and developed a taxonomy of these features. Finally, we have performed 66 experiments using two heterogeneous datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of four traditional and three deep learning techniques. The experimental results show the following: (a) Our developed corpus is many folds larger than the existing corpora, and it is more challenging than its counterparts for the authorship attribution task, and (b) Convolutional Neutral Networks is the most effective technique, as it achieved a nearly perfect F1 score of 0.989 for an existing corpus and 0.910 for our newly developed corpus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-58
Telutci Telutci ◽  
Yunisa Oktavia

The aim is to find out the writing on the banner to get pictures or photos on the banner to see in this case which vocabulary and sentences are wrong on the banner and to get information that can be processed as material for making scientific articles, which consists of the basic theory of the language used is far from the norm. This case is caused by the lack of public understanding of language and writing in the use of words according to the KBBI which uses vocabulary and is structured in sentences. In producing data sources obtained from the surrounding environment to be able to take data such as interviews with people who are responsive around the environment to obtain accurate data as material for scientific works. The perfection and correctness of linguistic basics in language use errors were found around the banner, from the results of research in the use of descriptive methods in language use errors found in research as objects and research subjects on banners in data recording is observed in case studies used in writing the results of the study indicate that the writing on the banner uses informal language in the form of various written languages ​​depending on the inappropriate writing style. According to the rules. From the results of the study, it was found that there was a lot of error information on language users on banners in grouping sentences and vocabulary based on factual information in processing data as an object of analysis in solving Indonesian.

2022 ◽  
Vol 04 (01) ◽  
pp. 543-556

Divan Scribe is a very old profession and it is said that it was one of the highest and most ‎respected statures among worldly affairs, after the caliphate, when their positions in the state policy ‎and judicial affairs are taken into account. Most of the time, the profession of the Divan Scribe was ‎an important step to enter politics, as well as an important tool for reaching high positions such as ‎Vizier. In general, Divan Scribes had a special role serving the Arab culture during the Abbasid ‎period. Because the writing style of the Scribes had both lofty ideas and beautiful expression. As a ‎matter of fact, as required by their statures, these people developed a dual-character expression that ‎both emphasized the goals of the orders given from the administration and had the characteristics of ‎Arabic rhetoric in the literal sense of the word. Their language was not a dry administrative ‎language, on the contrary, it had brought together the requirements of the administrative language ‎and the artistic beauties of the word. This study sheds light on the relations of the Divan Scribes ‎with politics and the importance of this position during the Abbasid period. Again, in this study, the ‎connection of the art of scribe with the vizier and the contributions of the scribes in service to the ‎Arab-Islamic culture and especially in political thought are discussed despite the political crisis and ‎troubles faced by the scribes.‎

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (1) ◽  
Iraktânia Vitorino Diniz ◽  
Ana Elza Oliveira de Mendonça ◽  
Karen Krystine Gonçalves de Brito ◽  
Adriana Montenegro de Albuquerque ◽  
Simone Helena dos Santos Oliveira ◽  

ABSTRACT Objective: To develop and validate a booklet on the use of the colostomy plug as a technological support for educational intervention. Methods: Methodological study focusing on the production of soft and hard technologies for colostomized people using a plug, developed in three stages: literature review; validation with 13 experts; and with seven colostomized persons. Results: The content for the booklet was selected based on the analysis of the articles identified in Step 1. In Step 2, regarding the content, the number of pages and appearance obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.85 and 1.00 respectively. In Step 3, the minimum Content Validity Index was 0.71 in two items related to organization and 0.86 for the writing style. The other items obtained a Content Validity Index of 1.0. Conclusion: The booklet was validated among experts and colostomized persons, and the final version, containing 50 pages, was offered to health professionals and colostomized people in use of a plug.

Jeroen De Gussem

This article explores by aid of stylometric methods the collaborative authorship of the Vita Hildegardis, Hildegard of Bingen's (auto-?)biography. Both Hildegard and her biographers gradually contributed to the text in the course of the last years of Hildegard's life, and it was posthumously completed in the mid-1180s by end redactor Theoderic of Echternach. In between these termini a quo and ante quem the work was allegedly taken up but left unfinished by secretaries Godfrey of Disibodenberg and Guibert of Gembloux. In light of the fact that the Vita is an indispensable source in gaining historical knowledge on Hildegard's life, the question has often been raised whether the Life of Hildegard is – by dint of contributions by multiple stakeholders – a larger-than-life depiction of the visionary's life course. Specifically the 'autobiographical' passages included in the Vita, in which Hildegard is allegedly cited directly and is taken to recount biographical information in the first-person singular, have been approached with suspicion. By applying state-of-the-art computional methods for the automatic detection of writing style (stylometry), the delicate questions of authenticity and collaborative authorship of this (auto?)hagiographical text are addressed.

Eveline Leclercq ◽  
Mike Kestemont

The quantitative analysis of writing style (stylometry) is becoming an increasingly common research instrument in philology. When it comes to medieval texts, such a methodology might be able to help us disentangle the multiple authorial strata that can often be discerned in them (issuer, dictator, scribe, etc.). To deliver a proof of concept in 'distant diplomatics,' we have turned to a corpus of twelfth-century Latin charters from the Cambrai episcopal chancery. We subjected this collection to an (unsupervised) stylometric modelling procedure, based on lexical frequency extraction and dimension reduction. In the absence of a sizable 'ground truth' for this material, we zoomed in on a specific case study, namely the oeuvre of the previously identified dictator-scribe known as 'RogF/JeanE.' Our results offer additional support for the attribution of a diplomatic oeuvre to this individual and even allow us to enlarge it with additional documents. Our analysis moreover yielded the serendipitous discovery of another, previously unnoticed, oeuvre, which we tentatively attribute to a scribe-dictator 'JeanB.' We conclude that the large-scale stylometric analysis is a promising methodology for digital diplomatics. More efforts, however, will have to be invested in establishing gold standards for this method to realize its full potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 319-330
Sumaira Mahboob ◽  
Asmat Naz

The name of Pakistani historians I.H. Qureshi, K.K.Aziz and Ayesha Jallal are highly praised for their work on the history of Pakistan. They adopted different research patterns for their research and introduced the new directions for historiography. The research methodology of each is different to other. The work of I. H. Qurushi consider the authentic source of Pakistani historiography but K.K. Aziz criticized the work of former author and believes that Pakistani classic research work and text books are full of wrong information and do not provide the reasonable and rational guidance to the new generation. But Ayesh Jallal the new famous and appreciated Pakistani historian took the next step in the field of historiography and introduced the method of focusing on the factors which forced the circumstances to shift interests and make history different. They contributed well to improve the Pakistani writing style and make Pakistani historiography up to date so that it will compete the worldwide history works.

Olga Demydenko ◽  
Maryna Tszyan

The article is devoted to the topical issue of defining the characteristic features of the author's individual style in a literary text and the peculiarities of their reproduction in translation by means of translation tactics, techniques and transformations in order to preserve the author`s stylistic markers, convey the author’s message to a recipient through the lens of cultural, linguistic and stylistic adaptation  arising from the differences between the language of the original text and the language of translation, paying due regard to the specifics of translator’s individual writing style.

2021 ◽  
Shloak Rathod

<div><div><div><p>The proliferation of online media allows for the rapid dissemination of unmoderated news, unfortunately including fake news. The extensive spread of fake news poses a potent threat to both individuals and society. This paper focuses on designing author profiles to detect authors who are primarily engaged in publishing fake news articles. We build on the hypothesis that authors who write fake news repeatedly write only fake news articles, at least in short-term periods. Fake news authors have a distinct writing style compared to real news authors, who naturally want to maintain trustworthiness. We explore the potential to detect fake news authors by designing authors’ profiles based on writing style, sentiment, and co-authorship patterns. We evaluate our approach using a publicly available dataset with over 5000 authors and 20000 articles. For our evaluation, we build and compare different classes of supervised machine learning models. We find that the K-NN model performed the best, and it could detect authors who are prone to writing fake news with an 83% true positive rate with only a 5% false positive rate.</p></div></div></div>

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