Polyetheretherketone is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, that so with heat treatments, it is possible to get different properties which are very important for the material performance. Heat treatment is a broadly utilized to develop the semi-crystalline polymers properties. In the present investigation, annealing of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) was carried out at temperatures above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to study its effects upon the biological conduct of the control and PEEK ternary composites. The bioactivity of the specimens was evaluated by investigating the apatite formation after immersion for different periods in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The biocompatibility of specimens was assessed by MTT assay. Additionally, the antibacterial property of the specimens versus S. aureus was observed with the optical density methods. The results manifested that the formation of hydroxyapatite was obviously observed on specimens after immersion for (7 and 14 days) in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Otherwise, the results of MTT assay recorded the PEEK specimens that excited the activity of fibroblasts, and therefore a high cytocompatibility was noticed and the specimens revealed antibacterial properties against S. aureus. So, the results of the bioactivity, biocompatibility and antibacterial tests in vitro demonstrated that the heat treatment enhanced biological behavior.
Pathological mandibular fracture after dental extraction usually occurs in dogs with moderate to severe periodontitis. A nanohydroxyapatite-based hydrogel (HAP hydrogel) was developed to diminish the limitations of hydroxyapatite for post-extraction socket preservation (PSP). However, the effect of the HAP hydrogel in dogs has still not been widely investigated. Moreover, there are few studies on PSP in dogs suffering from clinical periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HAP hydrogel for PSP in dogs with periodontitis. In five dogs with periodontitis, the first molar (309 and 409) of each hemimandible was extracted. Consequently, all the ten sockets were filled with HAP-hydrogel. Intraoral radiography was performed on the day of operation and 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation. The Kruskal–Wallis test and paired t-test were adopted for alveolar bone regeneration analysis. The results demonstrated that the radiographic grading, bone height measurement, and bone regeneration analysis were positively significant at all follow-up times compared to the day of operation. Moreover, the scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy imaging after immersion showed a homogeneous distribution of apatite formation on the hydrogel surface. Our investigation suggested that the HAP hydrogel effectively enhances socket regeneration in dogs with periodontitis and can be applied as a bone substitute for PSP in veterinary dentistry.
Nanoparticles based on metal and metallic oxide have become a novel trend for dental use as they interfere with bacterial metabolism and prevent biofilm formation. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity by metal ion release, oxidative stress induction and non-oxidative mechanisms. Silver, zinc, titanium, copper, and magnesium ions have been used to develop metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. In addition, fluoride has been used to functionalise the metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. The fluoride-functionalised nanoparticles show fluoride-releasing properties that enhance apatite formation, promote remineralisation, and inhibit demineralisation of enamel and dentine. The particles’ nanoscopic size increases their surface-to-volume ratio and bioavailability. The increased surface area facilitates their mechanical bond with tooth tissue. Therefore, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been incorporated in dental materials to strengthen the mechanical properties of the materials and to prevent caries development. Another advantage of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles is their easily scalable production. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in caries prevention. The study reviews their effects on dental materials regarding antibacterial, remineralising, aesthetic, and mechanical properties.
Glass-ceramic nanopowder with a composition of 55SiO2-35CaO-10MgO (mol %) was synthesized by the sol–gel method and was heat treated at three temperatures (T1 = 835 °C, T2 = 1000 °C, T3 = 1100 °C) in order to obtain different materials (C1, C2, C3, respectively) varying in crystal structure. Bioactivity and oxidative stress were evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods (up to 10 days). The structure of the synthesized materials and their apatite-forming ability were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The antibacterial properties of the synthesized materials were evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacterial strains and their biocompatibility was verified on a primary cell line of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by the MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The crystallization of the materials was increased by sintering temperature. Heat treatment did not inhibit the bioactive behavior of the materials as apatite formation started after 3 days in SBF. C2, C3 showed some indications of apatite forming even from the first day. Regarding cell viability, a variety of biological behaviors, concerning both dose and time points, was observed between the positive control and the tested materials by both the MTT assay and oxidative stress analysis. In conclusion, the nanobioceramic materials of this study possess a multitude of attractive physicochemical and biological properties that make them suitable candidates for bone regeneration applications, fillers in nanocomposite scaffolds, or as grafts in bone cavities and periodontal lesions.
In this work, biocompatible glass (bioglass) particles were prepared by low temperature, acid catalysed sol-gel method. The effect of varying phosphate (P2O5) content (10, 15 and 20 mol %) in the sol-gel derived glass composition were studied. The sol-gel derived bioglass particles were compacted into cylindrical pellets via hydraulic press machine and sintered at 600°C for 3 hours. The bioglass particulates were analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas adsorption. Meanwhile, the sintered bioglass pellets were analysed by FTIR, XRD and FESEM-EDX. Furthermore, in vitro bioactivity analysis was performed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days. Bioglass particulates with high glassy phase, high surface area and high porosities were obtained for all compositions. Increasing of phosphate content to 20 mol% particularly reduced the porous characteristics of the bioglass particulates. Furthermore, leads to higher bridging oxygen (BO) atoms, higher amorphous silicate networks, lower glass crystallinity and higher number of phosphate crystallites within the amorphous glassy matrix. Increased to 20 mol% of phosphate also reduced the ability of the bioglass surface to induce carbonated apatite formation when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.
For the past few years, many researchers are focusing on biomaterials fabrication in porous form. The research on porous calcium phosphate has been investigated due to its excellent biocompatibility and better osseointegration. This research paper presented nanoporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) synthesised using chemical precipitation method. Triblock co-polymer F127 was used as pore directing agent. The chemical compositions of pure BCP samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which shows common peak of BCP. The pore size distribution (PSD) on the other hand shows that the pore size of the samples mainly distributed at 52.8 nm, 49.6 nm and 32 nm. BCP pellets were soaked in phosphates buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water (DW) for 15 days. The pH of the soaking medium decreases throughout the soaking period due to degradation of BCP pellets, which release hydrogen ions into the PBS and distilled water. BCP degrades faster in distilled water than in PBS. After soaking for 15 days, materials were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to assess the morphological structure before and after in vitro degradation. Apatite formation was discovered on the surface of the BCP pellet that had been immersed in the PBS solution.
This study compared the apatite-forming ability (AFA) levels of flowable and putty formulations of Nishika Canal Sealer BG Multi (F-NBG and P-NBG, respectively) and attempted to clarify the cause of differences in the AFA levels of F-NBG and P-NBG. NBG samples were aged in simulated body fluid (SBF) or 1-, 5-, or 10-g/L bovine serum albumin-containing SBF (BSA-SBF) and analyzed in terms of their ultrastructures, elemental compositions, and Raman spectra to identify apatite formation. The phosphate ion consumption rates of NBG samples in the media were evaluated as an indicator of apatite growth. The original elemental composition, calcium ion release, and alkalizing ability levels of F-NBG and P-NBG were also evaluated. Apparent apatite formation was detected on all NBG samples except F-NBG aged in 10-g/L BSA-SBF. P-NBG consumed phosphate ions faster than F-NBG. As-prepared P-NBG showed more silicon elements on its surface than as-prepared F-NBG. P-NBG released more calcium ions than F-NBG, although their alkalizing ability levels did not differ statistically. In conclusion, the AFA of P-NBG was greater than that of F-NBG, probably because of the greater ability of P-NBG to expose silanol groups on the surface and release calcium ions.