aerobic glycolysis
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Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Avital Schurr ◽  
Salvatore Passarella

The term ‘aerobic glycolysis’ has been in use ever since Warburg conducted his research on cancer cells’ proliferation and discovered that cells use glycolysis to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) rather than the more efficient oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) pathway, despite an abundance of oxygen. When measurements of glucose and oxygen utilization by activated neural tissue indicated that glucose was consumed without an accompanied oxygen consumption, the investigators who performed those measurements also termed their discovery ‘aerobic glycolysis’. Red blood cells do not contain mitochondria and, therefore, produce their energy needs via glycolysis alone. Other processes within the central nervous system (CNS) and additional organs and tissues (heart, muscle, and so on), such as ion pumps, are also known to utilize glycolysis only for the production of ATP necessary to support their function. Unfortunately, the phenomenon of ‘aerobic glycolysis’ is an enigma wherever it is encountered, thus several hypotheses have been produced in attempts to explain it; that is, whether it occurs in cancer cells, in activated neural tissue, or during postprandial or exercise metabolism. Here, it is argued that, where the phenomenon in neural tissue is concerned, the prefix ‘aerobic’ in the term ‘aerobic glycolysis’ should be removed. Data collected over the past three decades indicate that L-lactate, the end product of the glycolytic pathway, plays an essential role in brain energy metabolism, justifying the elimination of the prefix ‘aerobic’. Similar justification is probably appropriate for other tissues as well.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dongling Zhong ◽  
Yuxi Li ◽  
Yijie Huang ◽  
Xiaojuan Hong ◽  
Juan Li ◽  

Objective: To analyze the research hot spots and frontiers of molecular mechanisms of exercise on cancer via CiteSpace.Method: Related publications in the Web of Science Core Collection Science Citation Index Expanded were retrieved from inception to November 27th, 2021. Then we used CiteSpace to generate network maps and identify top authors, institutions, countries, keywords, co-cited authors, journals, references and research trends.Results: A total of 1,130 related publications were retrieved. The most productive author and journal were Lee W Jones and PLOS ONE. Hanahan D and Warburg O were the most cited authors. Fudan University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University were the leading institutions, while China was the leading country. Top-cited authors and references generally focused on the epidemiology and hallmarks of cancer. Top five keywords with both high frequency and high betweenness centrality were breast cancer, aerobic glycolysis, oxidative stress, gene expression, skeletal muscle. Keyword “warburg effect” ranked first with the highest citation burst, while “inflammation”, “hepatocellular carcinoma”, “epithelial mesenchymal transition”, and “adipose tissue” were emerging research foci.Conclusion: This study analyzed the research hot spots and frontiers of molecular mechanisms of exercise on cancer via CiteSpace. Based on the results, altered metabolism (aerobic glycolysis, insulin resistance, myokines), oxidative stress, gene expression and apoptosis were hot-research mechanisms of exercise on cancer. Emerging research foci of mechanisms were generally around inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition and adipokines. In addition, future studies could carry in-depth research of interactions between different mechanisms and try to elucidate the recommended doses and intensities of exercise for cancer, especially in breast, colorectal, prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yu-Ling Bin ◽  
Hong-Sai Hu ◽  
Feng Tian ◽  
Zhen-Hua Wen ◽  
Mei-Feng Yang ◽  

Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) represents the fifth most common cancer for incidence and the third leading cause of death in developed countries. Despite the development of combination chemotherapies, the survival rates of GC patients remain unsatisfactory. The reprogramming of energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, especially increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis. In the present review, we summarized current evidence on how metabolic reprogramming in GC targets the tumor microenvironment, modulates metabolic networks and overcomes drug resistance. Preclinical and clinical studies on the combination of metabolic reprogramming targeted agents and conventional chemotherapeutics or molecularly targeted treatments [including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and HER2] and the value of biomarkers are examined. This deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying successful pharmacological combinations is crucial in finding the best-personalized treatment regimens for cancer patients.

2022 ◽  
Jingyu Chen ◽  
Zizhen Zhang ◽  
Jiaojiao Ni ◽  
Jiawei Sun ◽  
Fangyu Ju ◽  

Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aerobic glycolysis, as a metabolic hallmark of cancer, plays an important role in CRC progression. Enolase 3 (ENO3) is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate, while its role in CRC is still unknown. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was performed to examine the expression changes and roles of ENO3 in CRC patients from public databases. Then, ENO3 expression was validated in CRC tissues using Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, and western blot. Overexpression and silencing models were constructed using plasmid and lentivirus transfection. Cell viability, proliferation, and migration in vitro were applied to evaluate the protumoral effects of ENO3 on CRC. RNA sequencing and GO enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were performed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of ENO3 in CRC progression. The ATP and lactate production level were detected to assess cell glycolysis.

Chenguang Yao ◽  
Jun Weng ◽  
Lingyun Feng ◽  
Wanjun Zhang ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  

Increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis is characteristic of most cancer cells, whereas the mechanism underlying the promotion of aerobic glycolysis in metastatic breast cancer cells under ambient oxygen has not been well understood. Here, we demonstrated that aberrant expression of signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 (SIPA1) enhanced aerobic glycolysis and altered the main source of ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in breast cancer cells. We revealed that SIPA1 promoted the transcription of EPAS1, which is known as the gene encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and up-regulated the expression of multiple glycolysis-related genes to increase aerobic glycolysis. We also found that blocking aerobic glycolysis by either knocking down SIPA1 expression or oxamate treatment led to the suppression of tumor metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, aberrant expression of SIPA1 resulted in the alteration of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis even at ambient oxygen levels, which might aggravate the malignancy of breast cancer cells. The present findings indicate a potential target for the development of therapeutics against breast cancers with dysregulated SIPA1 expression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Shanshan Song ◽  
Lauren Yu ◽  
Md Nabiul Hasan ◽  
Satya S. Paruchuri ◽  
Steven J. Mullett ◽  

AbstractNew research shows that disease-associated microglia in neurodegenerative brains present features of elevated phagocytosis, lysosomal functions, and lipid metabolism, which benefit brain repair. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Intracellular pH (pHi) is important for regulating aerobic glycolysis in microglia, where Na/H exchanger (NHE1) is a key pH regulator by extruding H+ in exchange of Na+ influx. We report here that post-stroke Cx3cr1-CreER+/−;Nhe1flox/flox (Nhe1 cKO) brains displayed stimulation of microglial transcriptomes of rate-limiting enzyme genes for glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The other upregulated genes included genes for phagocytosis and LXR/RXR pathway activation as well as the disease-associated microglia hallmark genes (Apoe, Trem2, Spp1). The cKO microglia exhibited increased oxidative phosphorylation capacity, and higher phagocytic activity, which likely played a role in enhanced synaptic stripping and remodeling, oligodendrogenesis, and remyelination. This study reveals that genetic blockade of microglial NHE1 stimulated oxidative phosphorylation immunometabolism, and boosted phagocytosis function which is associated with tissue remodeling and post-stroke cognitive function recovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 775
Verena Boschert ◽  
Jonas Teusch ◽  
Urs D. A. Müller-Richter ◽  
Roman C. Brands ◽  
Stefan Hartmann

The enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) plays a major role in the switch of tumor cells from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, one of the hallmarks of cancer. Different allosteric inhibitors or activators and several posttranslational modifications regulate its activity. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common disease with a high rate of recurrence. To find out more about PKM2 and its modulation in HNSCC, we examined a panel of HNSCC cells using real-time cell metabolic analysis and Western blotting with an emphasis on phosphorylation variant Tyr105 and two reagents known to impair PKM2 activity. Our results show that in HNSCC, PKM2 is commonly phosphorylated at Tyrosine 105. Its levels depended on tyrosine kinase activity, emphasizing the importance of growth factors such as EGF (epidermal growth factor) on HNSCC metabolism. Furthermore, its correlation with the expression of CD44 indicates a role in cancer stemness. Cells generally reacted with higher glycolysis to PKM2 activator DASA-58 and lower glycolysis to PKM2 inhibitor Compound 3k, but some were more susceptible to activation and others to inhibition. Our findings emphasize the need to further investigate the role of PKM2 in HNSCC, as it could aid understanding and treatment of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Fanglong Wu ◽  
Shimeng Wang ◽  
Qingxiang Zeng ◽  
Junjiang Liu ◽  
Jin Yang ◽  

AbstractCancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are highly heterogeneous and differentiated stromal cells that promote tumor progression via remodeling of extracellular matrix, maintenance of stemness, angiogenesis, and modulation of tumor metabolism. Aerobic glycolysis is characterized by an increased uptake of glucose for conversion into lactate under sufficient oxygen conditions, and this metabolic process occurs at the site of energy exchange between CAFs and cancer cells. As a hallmark of cancer, metabolic reprogramming of CAFs is defined as reverse Warburg effect (RWE), characterized by increased lactate, glutamine, and pyruvate, etc. derived from aerobic glycolysis. Given that the TGF-β signal cascade plays a critical role in RWE mainly through metabolic reprogramming related proteins including pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2), however, the role of nuclear PKM2 in modifying glycolysis remains largely unknown. In this study, using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence that TGF-βRII overexpression suppresses glucose metabolism in CAFs by attenuating PKM2 nuclear translocation, thereby inhibiting oral cancer tumor growth. This study highlights a novel pathway that explains the role of TGF-βRII in CAFs glucose metabolism and suggests that targeting TGF-βRII in CAFs might represent a therapeutic approach for oral cancer.

Oncogene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jinguan Lin ◽  
Longzheng Xia ◽  
Linda Oyang ◽  
Jiaxin Liang ◽  
Shiming Tan ◽  

AbstractCancer metabolic reprogramming enhances its malignant behaviors and drug resistance, which is regulated by POU domain transcription factors. This study explored the effect of POU domain class 2 transcription factor 1 (POU2F1) on metabolic reprogramming in colon cancer. The POU2F1 expression was analyzed in GEO dataset, TCGA cohorts and human colon cancer tissues by bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry. The effects of altered POU2F1 expression on proliferation, glucose metabolism and oxaliplatin sensitivity of colon cancer cells were tested. The impacts of POU2F1 on aldolase A (ALDOA) expression and malignant behaviors of colon cancer cells were examined. We found that up-regulated POU2F1 expression was associated with worse prognosis and oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer. POU2F1 enhanced the proliferation, aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity, but reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in colon cancer cells, dependent on up-regulating ALDOA expression. Mechanistically, POU2F1 directly bound to the ALDOA promoter to enhance the ALDOA promoter activity in colon cancer cells. Moreover, activation of the POU2F1-ALDOA axis decreased the sensitivity to oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells. These data indicate that the POU2F1-ALDOA axis promotes the progression and oxaliplatin resistance by enhancing metabolic reprogramming in colon cancer. Our findings suggest that the POU2F1-ALDOA axis may be new therapeutic targets to overcome oxaliplatin resistance in colon cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 123-139
Tao Huang ◽  
Yuan-Qing-Xiao Li ◽  
Ming-Yu Zhou ◽  
Rui-Han Hu ◽  
Gao-Liang Zou ◽  

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