Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Compelling evidences demonstrated that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Therapies for targeting the microbiota may provide alternative options for the treatment of IBD, such as probiotics. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of a probiotic strain, Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) CECT 8330, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.
C57BL/6 mice were administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 (5 × 108 CFU/day) once daily by gavage for 5 days prior to or 2 days after colitis induction by DSS. Weight, fecal conditions, colon length and histopathological changes were examined. ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to determine the cytokines and regulatory T cells (Treg) ratio. Western blot was used to examine the tight junction proteins (TJP) in colonic tissues. Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels and microbiota composition were analyzed by targeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG) pathway analysis were used to predict the microbial functional profiles.
P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 treatment protected DSS-induced colitis in mice as evidenced by reducing the weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histological damage, and colon length shortening. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and increased level of IL-10 in DSS treated mice. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 upregulated the expression of ZO-1, Occludin and the ratio of Treg cells in colon tissue. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 increased the fecal SCFAs level and relative abundances of several protective bacteria genera, including norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Dubosiella. Furthermore, the increased abundances of bacteria genera were positively correlated with IL-10 and SCFAs levels, and negatively associated with IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, respectively. The KEGG and COG pathway analysis revealed that P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 could partially recover the metabolic pathways altered by DSS.
P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 administration protects the DSS-induced colitis and modulates the gut microbial composition and function, immunological profiles, and the gut barrier function. Therefore, P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 may serve as a promising probiotic to ameliorate intestinal inflammation.
miR-210, a key HypoxamiR, regulates the hypoxia and inflammation-linked hypoxia. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic autoimmune disease, responsible for many pathological disorders, including photosensitivity.
Finding the correlation between the circulating miR-210/HIF-1α levels and photosensitivity in SLE patients and other SLE-associated pathological complications, in a single-center case control study.
Study population of 104 SLE Egyptian patients with photosensitivity, 32 SLE patients without photosensitivity, and 32 healthy subjects. SLE activity was assessed for all patients by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). The clinical complications/manifestations and the hematological/serological analyses were recorded. HIF-α concentration was investigated by ELISA and miR-210 expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR.
The results revealed that circulating miR-210 was significantly increased in SLE/photosensitivity than SLE and controls. The additional occurrence of malar rash, oral ulcers, renal disorders or hypertension resulted in a higher expression of miR-210. SLEDAI activity status showed no effect on miR-210. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets, the patients age and the disease duration were positively correlated with circulatory miR-210. HIF-α concentration was significantly induced in SLE/photosensitivity than SLE and controls. In SLE/photosensitivity, presence of renal disorders and hypertension resulted in highest HIF-α concentrations. A strong positive correlation was recorded between HIF-α concentration and circulatory miR-210 in SLE/photosensitivity patients (r = 0.886).
The dysregulation of circulating miR-210/ HIF-1α levels in SLE/photosensitivity patients is controlled by the presence of additional pathological complications and supposed that hypoxia pathway might interact positively with the pathogenesis and illness progress of SLE.
We developed ω-3-enriched bread by adding a liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) concentrate to the bread recipe. We determined that subsequent feeding of the ω-3-enriched bread to experimental animals in the alimentary dyslipidaemia state led to normalisation of the lipid profile of the blood serum, with a decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density and very lowdensity lipoproteins. The high-density lipoproteins, antioxidants, reduced glutathione and glutathione reductase activity index increased compared to the corresponding indicators in animals with alimentary dyslipidaemia that were fed bread without ω-3. The ω-3-enriched bread diet significantly decreased harmful oxidation products (diene conjugates and malondialdehyde) in the blood plasma, erythrocytes and liver. Therefore, the results suggested that bread enriched with ω-3 fatty acids is a functional food with hypolipidaemic action. The results on the total content of fatty acids in lipids from bread samples prepared according to a standard recipe and bread enriched with concentrate showed that the relative content of omega-3 PUFAs in the fortified bread significantly increased by 3.2 times compared to bread without the addition of concentrate. The additive did not change the consumer qualities of the finished product (taste and smell of the bread).
Keywords: alimentary dyslipidaemia, antioxidant effect, bread, functional food, lipid profile, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Background The skin and the kidney are commonly affected in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with similar molecular mechanisms. Although clinical indicators of renal injury in SLE are fairly uncontroversial, few biomarkers are reliable. The role of micro-RNAs (mi-RNAs) in lupus nephritis (LN) pathogenesis has been investigated to help in early diagnosis. Purpose The aim of work is to evaluate miRNA132 and SOX2 expressions in SLE Egyptian patients; with and without nephritis, and the relation between miRNA132 and its long non-coding gene SOX2 in both patients groups. Research Design This is a case-control study involving 100 SLE patients with and without LN (LN and non-LN groups), and 50 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. The study was carried out to detect miRNA132 and SOX2 expression by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase chain reaction methods. The SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) was assessed. Results SLEDAI increased in LN compared to non-LN. Micro-RNA132 expression was significantly increased in patient groups compared to controls ( p<0.01) and increased in LN more than non-LN group ( p<0.001). SOX2 significantly decreased in patient groups compared to controls ( p<0.001), and was more in LN compared to non-LN group ( p<0.001). There was a negative correlation between miRNA132 and SOX2 expression in both patient groups ( p<0.001). Conclusion miRNA132 and SOX2 may play a role in SLE activity and help in the early non-invasive diagnosis of LN.
In this study, the potential of the biospeckle phenomenon for detecting fruit infestation by Drosophila suzukii was examined. We tested both graphical and analytical approaches to evaluate biospeckle activity of healthy and infested fruits. As a result of testing the qualitative approach, a generalized difference method proved to be better at identifying infested areas than Fujii’s method. Biospeckle activity of healthy fruits was low and increased with infestation development. It was found that the biospeckle activity index calculated from spatial-temporal speckle correlation of THSP was the best discriminant of healthy fruits and fruits in two different stages of infestation development irrespective of window size and pixel selection strategy adopted to create the THSP. Other numerical indicators of biospeckle activity (inertia moment, absolute value of differences, average differences) distinguished only fruits in later stage of infestation. Regular values of differences turned out to be of no use in detecting infested fruits. We found that to provide a good representation of activity it was necessary to use a strategy aimed at random selection of pixels gathered around the global maximum of biospeckle activity localized on the graphical outcome. The potential of biospeckle analysis for identification of highbush blueberry fruits infested by D. suzukii was confirmed.
Inflammatory bowel disease (namely, colitis) severely impairs human health. Isoleucine is reported to regulate immune function (such as the production of immunoreactive substances). The aim of this study was to investigate whether l-isoleucine administration might alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. In the in vitro trial, IEC-18 cells were treated by 4 mmol/L l-isoleucine for 12 h, which relieved the decrease of cell viability that was induced by TNF-α (10 ng/ml) challenge for 24 h (P <0.05). Then, in the in vivo experiment, a total of 44 Wistar rats were allotted into 2 groups that were fed l-isoleucine-supplemented diet and control diet for 35 d. From 15 to 35 d, half of the rats in the 2 groups drank the 4% DSS-adding water. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion of rats were impaired by DSS challenge (P <0.05). Drinking the DSS-supplementing water also increased disease activity index (DAI) and serum urea nitrogen level (P <0.05), shortened colonic length (P <0.05), impaired colonic enterocyte apoptosis, cell cycle, and the ZO-1 mRNA expression (P <0.05), increased the ratio of CD11c-, CD64-, and CD169-positive cells in colon (P <0.05), and induced extensive ulcer, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and collagenous fiber hyperplasia in colon. However, dietary l-isoleucine supplementation attenuated the negative effect of DSS challenge on growth performance (P <0.05), DAI (P <0.05), colonic length and enterocyte apoptosis (P <0.05), and dysfunction of colonic histology, and downregulated the ratio of CD11c-, CD64-, and CD169-positive cells, pro-inflammation cytokines and the mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB in the colon of rats (P <0.05). These results suggest that supplementing l-isoleucine in diet improved the DSS-induced growth stunting and colonic damage in rats, which could be associated with the downregulation of inflammation via regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway in colon.
Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent disorders globally and is strongly associated with many other diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an inflammatory condition of the colon and the small intestine, is reported to be associated with PD through undetermined mechanisms. We analyzed taxonomic assignment files from the Crohn’s Disease Viral and Microbial Metagenome Project (PRJEB3206). The abundance of Porphyromonadaceae in fecal samples was significantly different between patients with Crohn’s disease and control volunteers. Dextran sulfate sodium was used to induce colitis in mice to reveal the effect of this periodontopathic pathogen in vivo. After intrarectal implantation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg)—the primary pathogen causing PD—the disease activity index score, colonic epithelial loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration were intensified. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 showed the highest levels in Pg-infected colons. This revealed the importance of Pg in the exacerbation of IBD. Thus, simultaneous treatment of PD should be considered for people with IBD. Moreover, implantation of Pg in the rectum worsened the clinical symptoms of colitis in mice. Because Pg participates in the pathogenesis of IBD, reducing the chances of it entering the intestine might prevent the worsening of this disorder.
Probabilistic Hazard Assessment (PHA) provides an appropriate methodology for assessing space weather hazard and its impact on technology. PHA is widely used in the geosciences to determine the probability of exceedance of critical thresholds, caused by one or more hazard sources. PHA has proved useful where there are limited historical data to estimate the likelihood of specific impacts. PHA has also driven the development of empirical and physical models, or ensembles of models, to replace measured data. Here we aim to highlight the PHA method to the space weather community and provide an example of it could be used. In terms of space weather impact, the critical hazard thresholds might include the Geomagnetically Induced Current in a specific high voltage power transformer neutral, or the local pipe-to-soil potential in a particular metal pipe.
We illustrate PHA in the space weather context by applying it to a twelve-year dataset of Earth-directed solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), which we relate to the probability that the global three-hourly geomagnetic activity index K p exceeds specific thresholds. We call this a ‘Probabilistic Geomagnetic Hazard Assessment’, or PGHA. This provides a simple but concrete example of the method. We find that the cumulative probability of K p > 6-, > 7-, > 8- and K p = 9o is 0.359, 0.227, 0.090, 0.011, respectively, following observation of an Earth-directed CME, summed over all CME launch speeds and solar source locations. This represents an order of magnitude increase in the a priori probability of exceeding these thresholds, according to the historical K p distribution. For the lower Kp thresholds, the results are distorted somewhat by our exclusion of coronal hole high speed stream effects. The PGHA also reveals useful (for operational forecasters) probabilistic associations between solar source location and subsequent maximum Kp .