pathway analysis
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fang Dong ◽  
Fangfei Xiao ◽  
Xiaolu Li ◽  
Youran Li ◽  
Xufei Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Compelling evidences demonstrated that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Therapies for targeting the microbiota may provide alternative options for the treatment of IBD, such as probiotics. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of a probiotic strain, Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) CECT 8330, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 (5 × 108 CFU/day) once daily by gavage for 5 days prior to or 2 days after colitis induction by DSS. Weight, fecal conditions, colon length and histopathological changes were examined. ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to determine the cytokines and regulatory T cells (Treg) ratio. Western blot was used to examine the tight junction proteins (TJP) in colonic tissues. Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels and microbiota composition were analyzed by targeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG) pathway analysis were used to predict the microbial functional profiles. Results P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 treatment protected DSS-induced colitis in mice as evidenced by reducing the weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histological damage, and colon length shortening. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and increased level of IL-10 in DSS treated mice. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 upregulated the expression of ZO-1, Occludin and the ratio of Treg cells in colon tissue. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 increased the fecal SCFAs level and relative abundances of several protective bacteria genera, including norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Dubosiella. Furthermore, the increased abundances of bacteria genera were positively correlated with IL-10 and SCFAs levels, and negatively associated with IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, respectively. The KEGG and COG pathway analysis revealed that P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 could partially recover the metabolic pathways altered by DSS. Conclusions P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 administration protects the DSS-induced colitis and modulates the gut microbial composition and function, immunological profiles, and the gut barrier function. Therefore, P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 may serve as a promising probiotic to ameliorate intestinal inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Rabaa Takala ◽  
Dipak Ramji ◽  
Robert Andrews ◽  
You Zhou ◽  
Mustafa Farhat ◽  

Abstract Objectives: Pinolenic acid (PNLA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid from pine nuts, has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. We aimed to investigate the actions of PNLA on activated purified monocytes from peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods: Flow cytometry was used to assess the intracellular expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 in purified monocytes from patients with RA after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with/without PNLA pre-treatment. The whole genomic transcriptomic (WGT) profile of PNLA-treated, and LPS-activated monocytes from patients with active RA was investigated by RNA-sequencing.Results: PNLA reduced percentage of monocytes expressing the cytokines TNF-α by 23% (p=0.048), IL-6 by 25% (p=0.011), IL-1β by 23% (p=0.050) and IL-8 by 19% (p=0.066). Canonical pathway analysis showed that PNLA inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (p= 9.14E-09) and mitochondrial dysfunction (p=4.18E-08), while the sirtuin (SIRTs) signalling pathway was activated (p=8.89E-06). Pathway analysis predicted upstream activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sirtuin3, and let7miRNA, which are anti-inflammatory and antioxidative. In contrast, DAP3, LIF and STAT3, which are involved in TNF-α, and IL-6 signal transduction, were inhibited. Many miRNAs were modulated by PNLA suggesting potential post-transcriptional regulation of metabolic and immune response that has not been described previously. Multiple miRNAs target pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4), single-immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR), mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase membrane subunit 6 (MT-ATP6) and acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2); genes implicated in cell metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.Conclusion: PNLA has anti-inflammatory and immune-metabolic effects on monocytes that are pathogenic in RA and atherosclerosis. Dietary PNLA supplementation may regulate key miRNAs that are involved in mitochondrial, metabolic, and inflammatory pathways.

2022 ◽  
Kosuke Yoshida ◽  
Akira Yokoi ◽  
Tomofumi Yamamoto ◽  
Yusuke Hayashi ◽  
Jun Nakayama ◽  

Purpose: Uterine leiomyosarcoma is among the most aggressive gynecological malignancies. No effective treatment strategies have been established. This study aimed to identify novel therapeutic targets for uterine leiomyosarcoma based on transcriptome analysis and assess the preclinical efficacy of novel drug candidates. Experimental Design: Transcriptome analysis was carried out using fresh-frozen samples of six uterine leiomyosarcomas and three myomas. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was then used to identify potential therapeutic target genes for uterine leiomyosarcoma. Moreover, our results were validated using three independent datasets, including 40 uterine leiomyosarcomas. Then, the inhibitory effects of several selective inhibitors for the candidate genes were examined using the SK-UT-1, SK-LMS-1, and SKN cell lines. Results: We identified 512 considerably dysregulated genes in uterine leiomyosarcoma compared with myoma. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the function of several genes, including CHEK1 and PLK1, were predicted to be activated in uterine leiomyosarcoma. Through an in vitro drug screening, PLK1 or CHEK1 inhibitors (BI 2536 or prexasertib) were found to exert a superior anti-cancer effect against cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations and induced cell cycle arrest. In SK-UT-1 tumor-bearing mice, BI 2536 monotherapy demonstrated a marked tumor regression. Moreover, the prexasertib and cisplatin combination therapy also reduced tumorigenicity and prolonged survival. Conclusion: We identified the upregulated expression of PLK1 and CHEK1; their kinase activity was considered to be activated in uterine leiomyosarcoma. BI 2536 and prexasertib demonstrate a significant anti-cancer effect; thus, cell cycle-related kinases may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for treating uterine leiomyosarcoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xiao-Gang Tan ◽  
Jie Zhu ◽  
Liang Cui

Abstract Background Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), previously termed ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH), is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome usually characterized by functioning adrenal macronodules and increased cortisol production. Methods To screen and analyse the microRNA (miRNA) profile of PMAH in order to elucidate its possible pathogenesis, a miRNA microarray was used to test tissue samples from patients with familial PMAH, patients with sporadic PMAH and normal control samples of other nontumour adrenocortical tissues and identify characteristic microRNA expression signatures. Randomly selected miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the key signalling pathways and miRNAs involved in PMAH pathogenesis were determined by gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results Characteristic microRNA expression signatures were identified for patients with familial PMAH (16 differentially expressed microRNAs) and patients with sporadic PMAH (8 differentially expressed microRNAs). The expression of the selected miRNAs was confirmed by qRT-PCR, suggesting the high reliability of the miRNA array analysis results. Pathway analysis showed that the most enriched pathway was the renal cell carcinoma pathway. Overexpression of miR-17, miR-20a and miR-130b may inhibit glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in PMAH pathogenesis. Conclusion We identified the miRNA signatures in patients with familial and sporadic PMAH. The differentially expressed miRNAs may be involved in the mechanisms of PMAH pathogenesis. Specific miRNAs, such as miR-17, miR-20a and miR-130b, may be new targets for further functional studies of PMAH.

2022 ◽  
Praise Noah Johnson ◽  
Taaresh Sanjeev Taneja ◽  
Suo Yang

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Ziheng Wei ◽  
Fei Ge ◽  
Yanting Che ◽  
Si Wu ◽  
Xin Dong ◽  

Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and sarcopenia are common diseases that predominantly affect postmenopausal women. In the occurrence and development of these two diseases, they are potentially pathologically connected with each other at various molecular levels. However, the application of metabolomics in sarco-osteoporosis and the metabolic rewiring happening throughout the estrogen loss-replenish process have not been reported. To investigate the metabolic alteration of sarco-osteoporosis and the possible therapeutical effects of estradiol, 24 mice were randomly divided into sham surgery, ovariectomy (OVX), and estradiol-treated groups. Three-dimensional reconstructions and histopathology examination showed significant bone loss after ovariectomy. Estrogen can well protect against OVX-induced bone loss deterioration. UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS was preformed to profile semi- polar metabolites of skeletal muscle samples from all groups. Metabolomics analysis revealed metabolic rewiring occurred in OVX group, most of which can be reversed by estrogen supplementation. In total, 65 differential metabolites were identified, and pathway analysis revealed that sarco-osteoporosis was related to the alterations in purine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, histidine metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and thermogenesis, which provided possible explanations for the metabolic mechanism of sarco-osteoporosis. This study indicates that an UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach can elucidate the metabolic reprogramming mechanisms of sarco-osteoporosis and provide biological evidence of the therapeutical effects of estrogen on sarco-osteoporosis.

Alfonso Manuel Durán ◽  
W. Lawrence Beeson ◽  
Anthony Firek ◽  
Zaida Cordero-MacIntyre ◽  
Marino De León

Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly reported to improve chronic neuroinflammatory diseases in peripheral and central nervous systems. Specifically, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protects nerve cells from noxious stimuli in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports link PUFA supplementation to improving painful diabetic neuropathy (pDN) symptoms. However, the molecular mechanism behind omega-3 PUFAs ameliorating pDN symptoms is lacking. Therefore, we sought to determine the distinct cellular pathways that omega-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation promotes in reducing painful neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. Methods: Forty volunteers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the "En Balance-PLUS" diabetes education study. The volunteers participated in weekly lifestyle/nutrition education and daily supplementation with 1,000 mg DHA and 200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire validated clinical determination of baseline and post-intervention pain complaints. Laboratory and untargeted metabolomics analyses were conducted using blood plasma collected at baseline and after three months of participation in the dietary regimen. The metabolomics data was analyzed using random forest, hierarchical cluster, ingenuity pathway analysis, and metabolic pathway mapping. Results: We found that metabolites involved in oxidative stress and glutathione production shifted significantly to a more anti-inflammatory state post supplementation. Example of these metabolites include cystathionine (+90%), S-methylmethionine (+9%), glycine cysteine-glutathione disulfide (+157%) cysteinylglycine (+19%), glutamate (-11%), glycine (+11%) and arginine (+13.4%). In addition, the levels of phospholipids associated with improved membrane fluidity such as linoleoyl-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol (18:2/22:6) (+253 %) were significantly increased. Ingenuity pathway analysis suggested several key bio functions associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation such as formation of reactive oxygen species (p = 4.38 × 10-4, z-score = -1.96), peroxidation of lipids (p = 2.24 × 10-5, z-score = -1.944), Ca2+ transport (p = 1.55 × 10-4, z-score = -1.969), excitation of neurons (p = 1.07 ×10-4, z-score = -1.091), and concentration of glutathione (p = 3.06 × 10-4, z-score = 1.974). Conclusion: The reduction of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways following omega-3 PUFAS supplementation is consistent with using omega-3 PUFAs as a complementary dietary strategy as part of the overall treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Lalitha Gopalan ◽  
Aswathy Sebastian ◽  
Craig A. Praul ◽  
Istvan Albert ◽  
Ramesh Ramachandran

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in women. Metformin intake is associated with a reduced incidence of ovarian cancer and increased overall survival rate. We determined the effect of metformin on sphere formation, extracellular matrix invasion, and transcriptome profile of ovarian cancer cells (COVCAR) isolated from ascites of chickens that naturally developed ovarian cancer. We found that metformin treatment significantly decreased sphere formation and invasiveness of COVCAR cells. RNA-Seq data analysis revealed 0, 4, 365 differentially expressed genes in cells treated with 0.5, 1, 2 mM metformin, respectively compared to controls. Transcriptomic and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) revealed significant downregulation of MMP7, AICDA, GDPD2, APOC3, APOA1 and predicted inhibition of upstream regulators NFKB, STAT3, TP53 that are involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, and lipid metabolism. The analysis revealed significant upregulation of RASD2, IHH, CRABP-1 and predicted activation of upstream regulators VEGF and E2F1 that are associated with angiogenesis and cell cycle. Causal network analysis revealed novel pathways suggesting predicted inhibition of ovarian cancer through master regulator ASCL1 and dataset genes DCX, SEMA6B, HEY2, and KCNIP2. In summary, advanced pathway analysis in IPA revealed novel target genes, upstream regulators, and pathways affected by metformin treatment of COVCAR cells.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document