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Caitlin E. Malik ◽  
David M. Wong ◽  
Katarzyna A. Dembek ◽  
Katherine E. Wilson

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of 2 interstitial glucose-monitoring systems (GMSs) for use in horses compared with a point-of-care (POC) glucometer and standard laboratory enzymatic chemistry method (CHEM). ANIMALS 8 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES One of each GMS device (Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day) was placed on each horse, and blood glucose concentration was measured via POC and CHEM at 33 time points and compared with simultaneous GMS readings. An oral glucose absorption test (OGAT) was performed on day 2, and glucose concentrations were measured and compared. RESULTS Glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with one another between all devices on days 1 to 5. Acceptable agreement was observed between Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day when compared with CHEM on days 1, 3, 4, and 5 with a combined mean bias of 10.45 mg/dL and 1.53 mg/dL, respectively. During dextrose-induced hyperglycemia on day 2, mean bias values for Dexcom G6 (10.49 mg/dL) and FreeStyle Libre 14-day (0.34 mg/dL) showed good agreement with CHEM. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serial blood glucose measurements are used to diagnose or monitor a variety of conditions in equine medicine; advances in near-continuous interstitial glucose monitoring allow for minimally invasive glucose assessment, thereby reducing stress and discomfort to patients. Data from this study support the use of the Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day interstitial glucose-monitoring systems to estimate blood glucose concentrations in horses.

Lupus ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 096120332110664
Chanidapa Wongtada ◽  
Stephen J Kerr ◽  
Pawinee Rerknimitr

Background The lupus band test (LBT) using a sample of clinically normal skin was proposed as a useful diagnostic test for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is mostly performed to help diagnosing SLE in patients with insufficient clinical and serological profiles. However, most published studies on its utility are outdated and the results remain controversial. Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of LBT on non-lesion sun-protected (NLSP) and sun-exposed (NLSE) skin for SLE. Methods Consecutively presenting patients with clinical and serological suspicion of SLE who had LBT performed on non-lesion skin during January 2012 to August 2021 were retrospectively studied. LBT performed on either NLSE or NLSP skin biopsies were all included. Laboratory characteristics, number, types and patterns of deposited immunoreactants and disease activity were also assessed. Results LBT was performed in 57 patients with suspected SLE. LBT was positive in 18/57, 9/28 and 6/21 patients in overall non-lesion, NLSE and NLSP, respectively. Of all patients, 23 patients were diagnosed with SLE and 34 patients with other diseases. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of LBT on non-lesion skin was 56.5% and 88.2%, respectively. The ability of the test to discriminate between those with and without SLE, assessed by the area under the Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve, was 0.72 (0.61–0.84). The sensitivity and specificity of LBT on NLSE skin was 58.3% and 87.5% while those of NLSP skin, were 57.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We found no significant correlation between the positivity of LBT and overall disease activity. Types, number and pattern of deposited immunoreactants also showed no correlation with disease activity (all p > 0.05). Conclusions Used as a diagnostic adjunct, non-lesion LBT is still of value for diagnosing SLE in inconclusive cases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 248
Verena Katheder ◽  
Matti Sievert ◽  
Sarina Katrin Müller ◽  
Vivian Thimsen ◽  
Antoniu-Oreste Gostian ◽  

The aim of this study was to search for associations between an electrodiagnostically abnormal but clinically normal facial nerve before parotidectomy and the intraoperative findings, as well as the postoperative facial nerve function. The records of all patients treated for parotid tumors between 2002 and 2021 with a preoperative House–Brackmann score of grade I but an abnormal electrophysiologic finding were studied retrospectively. A total of 285 patients were included in this study, and 222 patients had a benign lesion (77.9%), whereas 63 cases had a malignant tumor (22.1%). Electroneurographic facial nerve involvement was associated with nerve displacement in 185 cases (64.9%) and infiltration in 17 cases (6%). In 83 cases (29.1%), no tumor–nerve interface could be detected intraoperatively. An electroneurographic signal was absent despite supramaximal stimulation in 6/17 cases with nerve infiltration and in 17/268 cases without nerve infiltration (p < 0.001). The electrophysiologic involvement of a normal facial nerve is not pathognomonic for a malignancy (22%), but it presents a rather rare (~6%) sign of a “true” nerve infiltration and could also appear in tumors without any contact with the facial nerve (~29%). Of our cases, two thirds of those with an anatomic nerve preservation and facial palsy had already directly and postoperatively recovered to a major extent in the midterm.

Danny Sack ◽  
Philip Hyndman ◽  
Melissa Milligan ◽  
Daniel Spector

Abstract CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an acute onset of dyspnea and open-mouthed breathing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic radiography revealed pleural effusion and signs consistent with restrictive pleuritis, and results of preoperative CT were consistent with diffuse, severe restrictive pleuritis, bilateral pleural effusion, and pulmonary atelectasis. Thoracocentesis yielded a red, turbid fluid that was identified as chylous effusion with chronic inflammation. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy revealed diffuse, severe fibrous adhesions between the mediastinum, heart, lung lobes, and thoracic wall, with a thick fibrous capsule enveloping all lung lobes. Surgical treatment consisted of complete pleural decortication, pericardiectomy, and thoracic omentalization. The cat remained hospitalized for 6 days, receiving oxygen supplementation, multimodal analgesia, and supportive care. Long-term home care consisted of prednisolone administration, rutin supplementation, and provision of a low-fat diet. At recheck examinations 3-, 7-, and 20-weeks postoperatively, the cat remained tachypneic, but was otherwise clinically normal without dyspnea or respiratory distress. Follow-up thoracic radiography revealed improved pulmonary expansion, decreased pleural effusion, and resolved pneumothorax. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical management of fibrosing pleuritis secondary to idiopathic chylothorax in cats has historically resulted in poor outcomes. This report details the first successful use of complete decortication in the surgical management of severe fibrosing pleuritis in a cat.

Cameron D. Owens ◽  
Tammy M. Michau ◽  
Justin Boorstein ◽  
Elizabeth R. Wynn ◽  
Richard J. McMullen

Abstract OBJECTIVE To calculate the necessary pseudophakic intraocular lens (IOL) power to approximate emmetropia in adult tigers. ANIMALS 17 clinically normal adult tigers. PROCEDURES 33 eyes of 17 clinically normal adult tigers underwent routine ophthalmic examination and B-scan ultrasonography while anesthetized for unrelated procedures. Specific ultrasound data (globe measurements and corneal curvature) and estimated postoperative IOL positions were utilized to calculate predicted IOL power by use of Retzlaff and Binkhorst theoretical formulas. Applanation tonometry and refraction were also performed. RESULTS Mean ± SD axial globe length was 29.36 ± 0.82 mm, preoperative anterior chamber depth was 7.00 ± 0.74 mm, and crystalline lens thickness was 8.72 ± 0.56 mm. Mean net refractive error (n = 33 eyes) was +0.27 ± 0.30 diopters (D). By use of the Retzlaff formula, mean predicted IOL power for the postoperative anterior chamber depth (PACD), PACD – 2 mm, and PACD + 2 mm was 43.72 ± 4.84 D, 37.62 ± 4.19 D, and 51.57 ± 5.72 D, respectively. By use of the Binkhorst equation, these values were 45.11 ± 4.91 D, 38.84 ± 4.25 D, and 53.18 ± 5.81 D, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure for all eyes was 14.7 ± 2.69 mm Hg. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The calculated tiger IOL was lower than reported values for adult domestic felids. Further studies evaluating actual PACD and pseudophakic refraction would help determine the appropriate IOL power to achieve emmetropia in this species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Laurent Guénégo ◽  
Aldo Vezzoni ◽  
Luca Vezzoni

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate tibial anatomical-mechanical axis angles (AMA-angles) and proximodistal and craniocaudal patellar positions following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and AMA-based modified cranial closing wedge osteotomy (CCWO) in large dogs with tibial plateau angle (TPA) > 30°, to compare these postoperative positions with those of a control group of healthy normal dogs, and to assess which procedure yields postoperative morphology of the tibiae and stifles that is most consistent with that of the unaffected group. This study also investigated whether the occurrence of patellar ligament thickening (PLT), which is commonly observed 2 months postoperatively after TPLO, is associated with misplacement of the osteotomy. A total of 120 dogs weighing more than 20 kg, 40 of which were control animals, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Stifles were radiographically evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively on the side with CCLR and on the healthy contralateral side and compared with clinically normal stifles. PLT was reassessed after 2 months. Results Significant decreases in median patellar height ratio were found after both procedures (TPLO 0.24 (0.05–0.8); CCWO 0.22 (0.05–0.4)). The postoperative craniocaudal patellar position and the median AMA angle differed significantly among the groups (P = 0.000) (TPLO 87.5% caudal to the AA and 3.12° (0.76–6.98°); CCWO 100% cranial to the AA and 0° (− 1.34–0.65°); control group 5% caudal to the AA and 0.99° (0–3.39°)). At 8 weeks, PLT grade differed significantly in the two operated groups (P = 0.000) (TPLO 40% 0–2, 20% 2–4, 40% > 4; CCWO 98.8% 0). Conclusions TPLO and AMA-based CCWO are associated with significant decreases in patellar height; however, the PLT results 2 months postoperatively differed between the two groups; the decrease in patellar height and PLT were independent of osteotomy position in the TPLO group. Compared to TPLO, CCWO results in reduced postoperative AMA angles and craniocaudal patellar positions that more closely resemble those of unaffected dogs, suggesting that the CCWO procedure allows us to better correct the caudal bowing of the proximal tibia that is often associated with deficient stifles in large dogs with TPA > 30°.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S6) ◽  
Elena Tsoy ◽  
Anna Brugulat‐Serrat ◽  
Lawren Vandevrede ◽  
Sabrina J Erlhoff ◽  
Kaitlin B Casaletto ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S10) ◽  
Jennifer S Rabin ◽  
Jeremy J Pruzin ◽  
Aaron P Schultz ◽  
Matthew R Scott ◽  
Olivia L Hampton ◽  

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3418
Charles El-Hage ◽  
Zelalem Mekuria ◽  
Kemperly Dynon ◽  
Carol Hartley ◽  
Kristin McBride ◽  

Equine herpesviruses (EHVs) are common respiratory pathogens in horses; whilst the alphaherpesviruses are better understood, the clinical importance of the gammaherpesviruses remains undetermined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and any association between, equine respiratory herpesviruses EHV1, -2, -4 and -5 infection in horses with and without clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were collected from 407 horses in Victoria and included clinically normal horses that had been screened for regulatory purposes. Samples were collected from horses during Australia’s equine influenza outbreak in 2007; however, horses in Victoria required testing for proof of freedom from EIV. All horses tested in Victoria were negative for EIV, hence archived swabs were available to screen for other pathogens such as EHVs. Quantitative PCR techniques were used to detect EHVs. Of the 407 horses sampled, 249 (61%) were clinically normal, 120 (29%) presented with clinical signs consistent with mild respiratory disease and 38 (9%) horses had an unknown clinical history. Of the three horses detected shedding EHV1, and the five shedding EHV4, only one was noted to have clinical signs referable to respiratory disease. The proportion of EHV5-infected horses in the diseased group (85/120, 70.8%) was significantly greater than those not showing signs of disease (137/249, 55%). The odds of EHV5-positive horses demonstrating clinical signs of respiratory disease were twice that of EHV5-negative horses (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.16). No quantitative difference between mean loads of EHV shedding between diseased and non-diseased horses was detected. The clinical significance of respiratory gammaherpesvirus infections in horses remains to be determined; however, this survey adds to the mounting body of evidence associating EHV5 with equine respiratory disease.

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