Disk Diffusion
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Sri Hidanah ◽  
Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum ◽  
Soeharsono . ◽  
Ayu Andira ◽  
Noor Amina Varhana

Background: Salmonella Pullorum are pathogenic bacteria that causes salmonellosis and causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry and are zoonotic. Treatment of diseases caused by bacteria generally use antibiotics, but excessive administration of antibiotics causes bacterial resistance and residues in livestock. Major chemical constituents of Sambiloto are andrographolide and flavonoids. Andrographolide has antibacterial effect in addition to being antitoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic. Methods: The research was conducted by isolating and identifying Salmonella Pullorum on SSA media and a series of biochemical tests (TSIA, SIM, SCA, urea media and sugar test), manufacturing sambiloto extract, testing the sensitivity of several antibiotics using the disk diffusion method and testing the activation of sambiloto extract against Salmonella Pullorum using the disk diffusion and dilution methods. Result: The result show that sambiloto had antibacterial activity because it contained andrographolide, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins and the lowest extract dose that effectively killed Salmonella Pullorum is concentrations of 20%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 19-26
Ayşenur Denizkara ◽  
İlker Atik ◽  
Azize Atik ◽  
Gökhan Akarca

In this study, antibacterial and antifungal properties of four medlar extracts obtained using four different solvents, ethanol, methanol, acetone and water, were investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial effects of the extracts. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were determined. The antibacterial effect of the pure water extract of medlar on S. aureus bacteria was found to be high (11.46 mm). In addition, the MIC and MBC values of the pure water extract were determined as 35.15 and 23.39 µg/mL for S. aureus bacteria. When the antifungal effect was examined, the antifungal effect of the pure water extract of medlar against P. crysogenum was found to be high (14.00 mm). The MIC and MFC values of the pure water extract of medlar are 23.43 and 11.72 µg/mL for P. crysogenum, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the pure water extract had the highest antimicrobial effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 227-233
Dwi Lestari ◽  
Desy Fitriani ◽  
Serli Anngraeni

Kasturi mango (Mangifera casturi Kosterm.) is a typical mango of South Kalimantan. Kasturi mango leaves are reported to have antioxidant activity and are potential for treating various diseases, including diseases related to antibacterial. This study examines the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate fraction and the n-hexane fraction of mango musk leaves on bacteria that cause acne. Experimental research started with plant determination, making extracts and fractions, phytochemical screening, and antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes using the disk diffusion method. The study results found that the ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions had weak antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. acnes bacteria, which cause acne

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 3090-3094

Objective: the isolation and phenotypically identification of a Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica strain from a hen with hemorrhagic ooforitis; the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this isolate. Methods and results: a strain of G. anatis biovar haemolytica, was isolated and phenotypic identified by morphological, cultural and biochemical characters examination, with API 20 E, API 20 NE, API STAPH, API ZYM tests and ABIS online software. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate was performed using the standard disk diffusion method. Conclusions: a strain of G. anatis biovar haemolytica was isolated and phenotypically identified from a hen. From our knowledge, this is the first reporting in Romania of isolation and identification of G. anatis biovar haemolytica. The Gah IDSA 161 strain could be phenotypic identified only by ABIS on line software, Pasteurellaceae Database version, unifying the results of four API kits and other biochemical tests. The isolate showed a multi-drug resistant profile to tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxitetracycline, doxicyclin), floroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, and it was susceptible to sulfonamide, sulfomethoxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, cephalothin, streptomycin, amoxicilin/clavulanic acid.

Nova ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (37) ◽  
pp. 121-134
Lidia Po Catalao Dionisio ◽  
Alejandro Manuel Labella ◽  
María Palma ◽  
Juan José Borrego

Aim. In vitro antimicrobial activities of seven wines (5 reds and 2 whites) from the Douro region (Iberian Peninsule) against eleven clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori were evaluated. Methods. The disk diffusion method, using Columbia Agar supplemented with horse blood (CAB), were used to determine the antimicrobial properties of some wine components against H. pylori strains. Potential interactions of antioxidants contained in the wines and two antimicrobials (amoxicillin and metronidazole) were studied by the disk diffusion method. Results. All the tested strains showed growth in CAB supplemented with 9% of the tested wines but none of them grew in media supplemented with 45% and 67.5% of wine. Similarly, all the tested strains grew in media with the concentration of proanthocyanidins present in the different types of the studied wines. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the wine antioxidant components tested (benzoic acid, catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) indicate that resveratrol was the most powerful inhibitory substance against H. pylori. An effect of potentiation between amoxicillin and metronidazole and the antioxidants tested was also established. The interaction of amoxicillin and resveratrol or metronidazole and catechin increased the antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. Conclusions. The results obtained suggested a potential role of resveratrol as a chemopreventive agent for H. pylori infection.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Vinicius de Queiroz Albuquerque ◽  
Maria Janeila Carvalho Soares ◽  
Maria Nágila Carneiro Matos ◽  
Rafaela Mesquita Bastos Cavalcante ◽  
Jesús Alberto Pérez Guerrero ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) and their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus strains isolated from canine otitis. First, the CZEO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG-MS). External otitis samples collected from dogs were submitted to staphylococcal isolation, followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification. The antimicrobial action was tested against the isolates using the disk-diffusion and microdilution methods. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by CZEO-based concentrations, subMIC for biofilm formation and supraMIC against preformed biofilm, quantified by crystal violet (CV) staining and CFU counting. The chemical analysis revealed that (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and (E)-cinnamyl acetate were the main compounds in the CZEO, representing 77.42, 8.17 and 4.50%, respectively. Two strains of three different species, S. saprophyticus, S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, were identified. The disk-diffusion test showed an inhibitory zone diameter, ranging from 34.0 to 49.5 mm, while the MIC and MBC values were around 500 and 1000 µg/mL. SubMIC demonstrated an inhibition on biofilm formation against 4 out the 6 strains tested. On mature biofilm, the CZEO-based supraMIC groups had slightly change on biomass, however, the biofilm cell viability decreased the CFU in 3 magnitude orders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 179-186
Devi Yanti Sari ◽  
Herwin Pisestyani ◽  
Denny Widaya Lukman

Kebab merupakan salah satu makanan siap saji atau ready to eat (RTE) yang populer di seluruh dunia. Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 banyak dihubungkan dengan kejadian outbreak foodborne disease pada kebab. Kontaminasi E. coli O157:H7 resistan antibiotik pada kebab dapat menimbulkan masalah kesehatan serius. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi E. coli O157:H7 resistan antibiotik yang diisolasi dari daging kebab yang dijual di sekitar Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor. Total 43 sampel daging kebab diambil dari seluruh pedagang kebab di sekitar Kampus IPB Dramaga dalam radius 2 km dari batas terluar Kampus. Isolasi dan identifikasi E. coli mengacu pada Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 2897:2008 dari Badan Standardisasi Nasional tentang Metode Pengujian Cemaran Mikroba dalam Daging, Telur, dan Susu, serta Hasil Olahannya. Uji serotyping E. coli O157:H7 menggunakan uji Serologis. Uji resistansi E. coli O157:H7 mengacu pada standar Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) dan dilakukan terhadap 10 jenis antibiotik menggunakan metode Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan enam isolat positif E. coli O157:H7 (31.6%; 6/19) yang resistan terhadap ampisilin, amoksisilin-asam klavulanat, sefotaksim, gentamisin, siprofloksasin, enrofloksasin, kolistin sulfat dengan satu isolat termasuk multidrug resistant (MDR). Semua isolat E. coli O157:H7 masih sensitif terhadap trimethoprim-sulfametoksasol, oksitetrasiklin, dan kloramfenikol.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3070
Winnie Mukuna ◽  
Abdullah Ibn Mafiz ◽  
Bharat Pokharel ◽  
Aniume Tobenna ◽  
Agnes Kilonzo-Nthenge

The consumption of non-dairy milk is on the rise due to health benefits. Although there is increasing inclination towards milk alternatives (MA), there is limited data on antibiotic resistant bacteria in these substitutes. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from MA. A total of 138 extracts from almonds (n = 63), cashew nuts (n = 36), and soybeans (n = 39) were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae. The identification of the bacteria was based on biochemical and PCR methods. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Overall, 31% (43 of 138) of extracts were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten bacterial species were identified, of which Enterobacter cloacae (42.7%) and Enterobacter cancerogenus (35.4%) were the most predominant species (p < 0.05). Antibiotic resistance was exhibited to vancomycin (88.3%), novobiocin (83.8%), erythromycin (81.1%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in tetracycline (59.5%), cefpodoxime (30.6%), and nalidixic acid (6.3%). There was no resistance displayed to kanamycin and imipenem. ERY-NOV-VAN-TET and ERY-NOV-CEP-VAN-TET were the most common resistant patterns displayed by Enterobacter cloacae. The findings of this study suggest that MAs, though considered healthy, may be a reservoir of multidrug resistant opportunist pathogens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (48) ◽  
Marissa N. Schroeter ◽  
Safiya J. Gazali ◽  
Anutthaman Parthasarathy ◽  
Crista B. Wadsworth ◽  
Renata Rezende Miranda ◽  

We report the isolation, whole-genome sequencing, and annotation of Enterobacter sp. strain RIT 637, Pseudomonas sp. strain RIT 778, and Deinococcus sp. strain RIT 780. Disk diffusion assays using spent medium demonstrated that all bacteria produced bactericidal compounds against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
Farzad Mohamadi ◽  
Jalil Vand Yousefi ◽  
Naser Harzandi ◽  
Sobhan Ghafourian

Background: Due to the importance of identifying the source of infectious agents, different typing methods have been developed, among which the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method is known as the gold standard for bacteria. Also, Enterococcus faecalis is classified as a nosocomial infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify the source of E. faecalis by the PFGE method. Methods: Bacteria were collected from all cases of urinary tract infections. Then, the identification process was performed. All isolates were evaluated for vancomycin resistance, and then PFGE was carried out. Results: The results of disk diffusion showed that 54% of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin. Also, 4% of the isolates were intermediate, and 42% showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Afterwards, the PCR of the VanA gene was performed to confirm the results of disk diffusion. Thus, 48 out of 54 (88.8%) isolates had the VanA gene, and none of the four intermediate isolates had the VanA gene. Our results demonstrated that 54 isolates were vancomycin-resistant, and 50 different pulsotypes groups were identified. Conclusions: Our findings showed the isolates of E. faecalis were from different clonal lineages.

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