vaginal opening
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Akanksha Awasthi ◽  
Mamta F. Singh ◽  
Saurabh Sharma

Background: Phytoestrogens have recently become a hot topic among scientists. Phytoestrogens’ estrogen-like properties have led to their widespread use in the reproductive system. The aim of this research was to see whether the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum had any estrogenic activity in female wistar rats. Methods: In female wistar rats, the estrogenic effect was studied using a uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and vaginal opening. In ovariectomized immature and mature female wistar rats, a 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) dose of ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum was given. Result: When compared to ovariectomized control rats, the uterine wet weight increased significantly. The estrogen-treated rats had only cornified epithelial cells, indicating the existence of oestrogen, as well as 100% vaginal opening. At 400 mg/kg b.w., the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum demonstrated promising estrogenic activity, as evidenced by uterotropic assays, vaginal opening measurements and histopathological changes. As a result of this research, it’s possible to infer that the ethanolic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae, Trichosanthes dioica and Punica granatum play an important role in estrogenic activity in female rats.

2022 ◽  
Recep Polat ◽  
Erdem Çokluk ◽  
Özcan Budak ◽  
Fatıma Betül Tuncer

Abstract Introduction: Nutrition and exposure to various chemicals, including environmental pollution, insecticides, and plant phytoestrogens (having oestrogen-like effects), are environmental factors that affect puberty onset. We aimed to identify the effects of propolis on precocious puberty and the reproductive system in prepubertal female rats (ovary, endometrium, breast).Methods: Thirty-four 25-day-old prepubertal female Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. Rats were randomly divided into the propolis (n 17) and control groups (n 17). The primary endpoint was the number of rats that developed vaginal opening (It's a sign of puberty) at 12-day follow-up. In addition, the effect of propolis on ovary, uterus and breast tissue was evaluated.Results: Vaginal patency occurred earlier in the propolis group. At the same time, a greater number of rats developed vaginal opening. The number of ovarian follicles (in all follicles), endometrial thickness, and mammary gland secretory gland area were significantly higher in the propolis group than in the control group (p-values <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, Ki-67 activity in the endometrium, breast tissue and ovary was more intense in the propolis group compared to the control group (p-values <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Propolis triggers precocious puberty in female rats, possibly by interacting with the oestrogen receptor. The mechanism of action of propolis should be considered before prescribing it. In addition, further studies are needed to explore the mechanism of action of propolis and to determine the component of propolis that triggers puberty.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Kyeong Ri Kim ◽  
Tuy An Trinh ◽  
Ji Yun Baek ◽  
Dahae Lee ◽  
Sehun Lim ◽  

Anemarrhenae rhizome and Phellodendri cortex have historically been used for the treatment of precocious puberty (PP) in oriental medicine. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of APE, a mixture of the extracts from these herbs, against danazol-induced PP in female rats. The offspring were injected danazol to establish the PP model, and then treated with APE daily, and observed for vaginal opening. At the end of the study, the levels of gonadotropic hormones, such as estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, were determined by ELISA. Moreover, the mRNA expression of GnRH, netrin-1, and UNC5C in hypothalamic tissues was determined by real-time PCR. Network pharmacological analysis was performed to predict the active compounds of APE and their potential actions. APE treatment delayed vaginal opening in rats with PP. In addition, APE treatment reduced LH levels and suppressed UNC5C expression. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the targets of APE were significantly associated with GnRH signaling and ovarian steroidogenesis pathways. In conclusion, APE may be used as a therapeutic remedy to inhibit the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
Saurabh Srivastava ◽  
Anand Pandey ◽  
Piyush Kumar ◽  
Survesh K. Gupta ◽  
Sudhir Singh ◽  

Abstract Background Labial adhesion is the fusion of the labia minora or majora. The literature reports conservative management. However, the situation may be different in our setup, where management differs due to prevailing circumstances. The present study was conducted to evaluate labial adhesion presentation, management, and outcome in our center. Methods It was a retrospective observational study from January 2015 to January 2020. The patients were evaluated for age at presentation, presenting symptoms, type of adhesions, treatment, recurrence, and follow-up. The treatment included the manual release of labial adhesion and Mupirocin ointment application for 15 days. They were advised to attend the outpatient department after 1 month for evaluation and later on in case of any problem. Results The total number of patients was 150, of which 104 (69.33%) were from rural backgrounds. The complaint was of the absent vaginal opening in all patients. Seventeen (11.33%) were advised ultrasonography of the abdomen elsewhere to look for the presence of internal genital organs. The local examination revealed poor hygiene in 65 (43.33%) patients. The patient with thick adhesions has minor erythema after the release of adhesions. Ten (6.66%) patients had a recurrence managed by repeat release with no recurrence. Conclusion Despite being a benign entity, labial adhesion may be a cause of severe concern. Manual separation and antibiotic ointment may be a viable first option in its management with minimal recurrence. Maintenance of local hygiene may be needed to prevent a recurrence. The overall outcome is excellent.

2021 ◽  
Azure Dominique Grant ◽  
Linda Wilbrecht ◽  
Lance J Kriegsfeld

Biological rhythms in core body temperature (CBT) provide informative markers of adolescent development under controlled laboratory conditions. However, it is unknown if these markers are preserved under more variable naturalistic conditions, and if CBT may therefore prove useful in a real-world setting. To evaluate this possibility, we examined fecal steroid concentrations and CBT rhythms from pre-adolescence (p26) through early adulthood (p76) in intact male and female rats under natural light and climate at the University of California, Berkeley Field Station. Despite greater environmental variability, CBT markers of pubertal onset and its rhythmic progression were comparable to those previously reported in laboratory conditions in female rats and extend actigraphy-based findings in males. Specifically, sex differences emerged in circadian rhythm (CR) power and temperature amplitude prior to pubertal onset and persisted into early adulthood, with females exhibiting elevated CBT and decreased CR power compared to males. Within-day (ultradian rhythm; UR) patterns also exhibited a pronounced sex difference associated with estrous cyclicity. Pubertal onset, defined by vaginal opening, preputial separation, and sex steroid concentrations, occurred later than previously reported under lab conditions for both sexes. Vaginal opening and increased fecal estradiol concentrations were closely tied to the commencement of 4-day oscillations in CBT and UR power in female rats. By contrast, preputial separation and the first rise in testosterone concentration were not associated with adolescent changes to CBT rhythms in male rats. Together, males and females exhibited unique temporal patterning of CBT and sex steroids across pubertal development, with tractable associations between hormonal concentrations, external development, and temporal structure in females. The preservation of these features outside the laboratory supports CBT as a strong candidate for translational pubertal monitoring under naturalistic conditions in females.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 100537
Xiaotian Lin ◽  
Caiyun Wang ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Yi-Hsuan Pan ◽  
Suying Dang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Michal Polak ◽  
Shane F. McEvey

Traumatic insemination (TI) is a rare reproductive behaviour characterized by the transfer of sperm to the female via puncture wounds inflicted across her body wall. Here, we challenge the claim made by Kamimura (2007) that males of species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex utilize a pair of claw-like processes (claws) to traumatically inseminate females: the claws are purported to puncture the female body wall and genital tract, and to inject sperm through the wounds into the genital tract, bypassing the vaginal opening, the route of sperm transfer occurring in other Drosophila. This supposed case of TI is widely cited and featured in prominent subject reviews. We examined high-resolution scanning electron micrographs of the claws and failed to discover any obvious groove for sperm transport. We demonstrated that sperm occurred in the female reproductive tract as a single integrated unit when mating flies were experimentally separated, inconsistent with the claim that sperm are injected via paired processes. The aedeagus in the bipectinata complex was imaged, and shown to deliver sperm through the vaginal opening. Laser ablation of the sharp terminal ends of the claws failed to inhibit insemination. The results refute the claim of TI in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

Matirel Iasmina Alideea

Vaginismus is a relatively rare female sexual dysfunction, but with significant disabling potential. Vaginismus can be defined as involuntary spasms of the muscles surrounding the vaginal opening. Its severe form makes it impossible to penetrate and causes severe pain, burning sensations. As early as 1547, when vaginismus was first described, and to this day, it continues to be an intensely researched topic, with thousands of papers published. However, the etiology of vaginismus remains controversial. Vaginismus has been shown to be a sexual disorder that has phobic elements resulting from patients' actual or imagined negative sexual experiences. Most women who suffer from vaginismus express their fear and anxiety about the act of penetration, generally feel ashamed or disgusted with their genitals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yang Guo ◽  
Youbing Wu ◽  
Jiahao Shi ◽  
Hua Zhuang ◽  
Lei Ci ◽  

miR-29a/b1 was reportedly involved in the regulation of the reproductive function in female mice, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, female mice lacking miR-29a/b1 showed a delay in vaginal opening, irregular estrous cycles, ovulation disorder and subfertility. The level of luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in plasma but higher in pituitary of mutant mice. However, egg development was normal in mutant mice and the ovulation disorder could be rescued by the superovulation treatment. These results suggested that the LH secretion was impaired in mutant mice. Further studies showed that deficiency of miR-29a/b1 in mice resulted in an abnormal expression of a number of proteins involved in vesicular transport and exocytosis in the pituitary, indicating the mutant mice had insufficient LH secretion. However, the detailed mechanism needs more research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (10) ◽  
pp. 5130
Yingjun Chen ◽  
Qinghua Liu ◽  
Ruiyan Liu ◽  
Chan Yang ◽  
Xiaodong Wang ◽  

Early folliculogenesis begins with the activation of the follicle and ends with the formation of the follicular antrum, which takes up most of the time of folliculogenesis. In this long process, follicles complete a series of developmental events, including but not limited to granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, theca folliculi formation, and antrum formation. However, the logical or temporal sequence of these events is not entirely clear. This study demonstrated in a mouse model that completion of early folliculogenesis required a minimum of two weeks. The oocyte reached its largest size in the Type 4–5 stage, which was therefore considered as the optimum period for studying oogenesis. Postnatal days (PD) 10–12 were regarded as the crucial stage of theca folliculi formation, as Lhcgr sharply increased during this stage. PD13–15 was the rapid growth period of early follicles, which was characterized by rapid cell proliferation, the sudden emergence of the antrum, and increased Fshr expression. The ovarian morphology remained stable during PD15–21, but antrum follicles accumulated gradually. Atresia occurred at all stages, with the lowest rate in Type 3 follicles and no differences among early Type 4–6 follicles. The earliest vaginal opening was observed at PD24, almost immediately after the first growing follicular wave. Therefore, the period of PD22–23 could be considered as a suitable period for studying puberty initiation. This study objectively revealed the pattern of early folliculogenesis and provided time windows for the study of biological events in this process.

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