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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (19) ◽  
pp. 48-51
Víctor M. Muñoz-Pérez ◽  
Raquel Cariño-Cortés ◽  
Iris C. López-Santillán ◽  
Andrés Salas-Casas

Inflammation plays an important role to the development of cancer and promotes all stages of tumorigenesis. Cancer cells, as well as inflammatory cells, carry out reciprocal interactions to form an inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer cells within the TME are highly able to change their phenotypic and functional characteristics. Here, we review the relationship between inflammation and infection in cancer origins, and the mechanisms whereby inflammation and infection drive tumor formation. We discuss how infection promotes tumorigenesis related to inflammatory processes typically found in autoimmune diseases, release of inflammatory mediators induced by tumors, inflammation induced by therapy in cancer, and stimuli for induction of inflammation during tumorigenesis, including spatiotemporal considerations. A better understanding of the fundamental rules of engagement that govern the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor-promoting inflammation will be essential for further development of cancer therapies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1932202X2110611
Lesley Henderson ◽  
Desiree Gilbert ◽  
Alice Duffield ◽  
Janet Farrall

Using a Design Thinking (DT) approach, the ChallenGE Project in South Australia (SA) was an innovative professional learning (PL) program that was developed, implemented, and researched by three Senior Educational Consultants from the Association of Independent Schools of South Australia (AISSA) and one academic from Flinders University over three years. The aim was to support participating schools (n = 27) to improve outcomes for their highly able learners (HALs). The ChallenGE Design-Based Research (DBR) project developed principles and a framework for contextualised PL in gifted education through an inductive qualitative manual coding analysis of participants’ self-reported learning. This paper, applying the format for reporting DBR studies recommended by Jen et al. (2015) explains the goals and elements of the innovation, the setting within which it was implemented, a description of each phase, the outcomes, and the lessons learned. This research study contributes to an expanded view of effective PL in gifted education using insights gained from a DT approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 008-015
Sharma Prashant ◽  
Khera Amit Kumar ◽  
Raghav Pradeep

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring round the world varying with the race, ethnicity and geography. Cleft lip and/or palate problems tends to worsen as the individual grows older. Although it occurs as a different entity in itself but its presence can hamper aesthetics as well as functions by effecting growth, dentition, speech, hearing and overall appearance resulting in social and psychological problems for the child as well as the parents. Cleft lip and palate is of a multifactorial origin such as inheritance, teratogenic drugs, and nutritional deficiencies and can also occur as syndromic or non-syndromic cleft. Treatment of Cleft Lip and Palate comprises of different specialists having an individual insight in a particular case ultimately reaching to a consensus for a successful culmination of the treatment. Although appropriate timing and method of each intervention is still arguable. An orthodontist plays a role in pre surgical maxillary orthopaedics, in aligning the maxillary segments and dentition, in preparation for secondary alveolar bone grafting and finally in obtaining ideal dental relation and preparing the dentition for prosthetic rehabilitation or orthognathic surgery if required. Therefore, for efficient treatment outcome and refinement of individual techniques or variations of the treatment protocol a highly able team of specialists from different specialities is a must, preferably on a multicentre basis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (11) ◽  
Christine Ireland ◽  
Terence V. Bowles ◽  
Susan Nikakis ◽  
Daniela Russo

2021 ◽  
pp. 247-261
Judy K. Stewart ◽  
Christopher R. Gareis ◽  
M. Caroline Martin

Jasmin Droege

AbstractI develop a game-theoretic framework to study the repercussions of an evaluator’s bias against a specific group of applicants. The evaluator decides upfront between holding an informed or a blind audition. In the latter, the evaluator learns neither the applicant’s ability nor the gender. I show that, above a threshold bias, the evaluator prefers a blind audition to provide high effort incentives exclusively for high-ability applicants. Consequently, committing to no information can be beneficial for the evaluator. I also show that a highly biased evaluator’s preferences align with those of a highly able female. I extend the framework to performance uncertainty and gender-blind CVs and compare blind auditions to affirmative action. The framework is relevant for auditory-based applications: my results can explain why blind auditions have increased the probability of a female orchestra musician being hired via taste-based discrimination and challenge explanations grounded in statistical discrimination.

2021 ◽  
pp. 016235322110235
Claudia A. Cornejo-Araya ◽  
Leonie Kronborg

Adopting a constructivist grounded theory approach, 91 students from Years 9 to 11, in gifted educational programs from three schools in Melbourne, nominated their inspiring teachers. Eleven teachers, who received the highest number of nominations, were invited to an interview and an observation of their teaching. The emerged theoretical construct was identified as “Opening new possibilities: Inspiring teachers of gifted and highly able students,” which is further explained through three main categories: Being a knowledgeable and passionate teacher, creating an academically safe learning environment, and teaching beyond and above the regular curriculum. In addition, the theoretical process was explained through three phases: Expanding knowledge and understanding, Fostering positive attitudes, and Encouraging students to take action. Contextual determinants were considered to analyze and report the findings: students’ developmental characteristics, school culture, curriculum, and gifted educational provisions. Findings are discussed in the light of existing literature, as well as study limitations and ideas for future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 48
Nasser M. Almutairi ◽  
Penny N. Round ◽  
Niranjan R. Casinader

This paper aims to understand the influence of Islamic religious philosophy on the application of gifted education in schools. To date, little attention has been paid to the influence of religion, particularly Islam, on how giftedness or areas of talent are viewed and accommodated in the education system. The article considers that Islamic culture pays more attention to areas of talent, such as religious studies, leadership, wisdom and morality, with much emphasis on highly able people with spiritual, social and emotional needs. While in the West, religion may have less impact on gifted education which could be because of separating religion from the state. Therefore, a number of areas of giftedness/talent may be admired or ignored due to the influence of religion when it comes to educational practices. This paper gives an example of how Islam influences some areas of giftedness/talent such as music, art, sports and leadership.

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