treatment conditions
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Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Sergey P. Zimin ◽  
Nikolai N. Kolesnikov ◽  
Ildar I. Amirov ◽  
Viktor V. Naumov ◽  
Egor S. Gorlachev ◽  

The nanostructuring of the (100) PbS single crystal surface was studied under varying argon plasma treatment conditions. The initial PbS single crystals were grown by high-pressure vertical zone melting, cut into wafer samples, and polished. Subsequently, the PbS single crystals were treated with inductively coupled argon plasma under varying treatment parameters such as ion energy and sputtering time. Plasma treatment with ions at a minimum energy of 25 eV resulted in the formation of nanotips with heights of 30–50 nm. When the ion energy was increased to 75–200 eV, two types of structures formed on the surface: high submicron cones and arrays of nanostructures with various shapes. In particular, the 120 s plasma treatment formed specific cruciform nanostructures with lateral orthogonal elements oriented in four <100> directions. In contrast, plasma treatment with an ion energy of 75 eV for 180 s led to the formation of submicron quasi-spherical lead structures with diameters of 250–600 nm. The nanostructuring mechanisms included a surface micromasking mechanism with lead formation and the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, with liquid lead droplets acting as self-forming micromasks and growth catalysts depending on the plasma treatment conditions (sputtering time and rate).

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Huixue Ren ◽  
Kaifang Fu ◽  
Wenqing Cheng ◽  
Daoji Wu ◽  

The printing and dyeing wastewater produced by different dyes, as well as different printing and dyeing processes, have different components. These wastewater have high toxicity, high organic concentration, and deep chromaticity. Ozone catalytic oxidation is a very promising technical method for wastewater treatment. In this paper, Mn/Mg/Ce ternary catalyst was prepared, and the ozone catalytic oxidation treatment of actual and simulated printing and dyeing wastewater was performed to study the performance of four different carrier catalysts, namely, molecular sieve (MS), silica gel (SG), attapulgite (ATP), and nano alumina (Al2O3), by simulated dynamic test. The effects of reaction time, pH, and catalyst dosage on methyl orange degradation were studied. The results showed that under the optimum treatment conditions (120 min, pH 11, and 12.5 g/L catalyst dosage), the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 96% and the removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand of printing and dyeing wastewater reached 48.7%. This study shows that the treatment effect of ozone catalytic oxidation on printing and dyeing wastewater is remarkably improved after catalyst addition. This study provides a new choice of ozone catalyst for the degradation of printing and dyeing wastewaters in the future.

Arthur Y Yu

Abstract Background Filler injection for nose tip improvement remains a difficult subject due to efficacy and safety issues. Objectives To better the techniques and safety for nose tip improvement with a filler. Methods Patients seeking nose tip improvement were recruited regardless of their pre-treatment conditions. A hyaluronic acid filler is injected through the skin behind the nose tip into the potential septal space. To achieve tip elevation, the filler is retro injected from the anterior nasal spine, stopping at the mid-level of medial crura. To elongate the nose, the filler is deposited just in front of the caudal septal cartilage. The tip extends in the sagittal plane, causing the nose tip to move either caudally (tip elongation) or anteriorly (tip elevation), or both, as directed by the surgeon. Results Depending on the patients, the nose could be elongated by 2 to 6mm, and the tip could be elevated by 2 to 8 mm. Additionally, stronger columellar support, finer tip structures, and improved nasolabial angle are observed. Interestingly, the upper lip appears shorter. The nostril shapes and the alar widths are also improved. A total of 1288 cases are reported. Only two patients expressed dissatisfaction. Conclusions This technique is easy and safe to perform and, the results are natural and comparable to those from rhinoplasty surgeries. Further, this report of filler nose lengthening may be the first large series in the world. Finally, this technique works well in all populations.

Niklas Paul Grusdat ◽  
Alexander Stäuber ◽  
Marion Tolkmitt ◽  
Jens Schnabel ◽  
Birgit Schubotz ◽  

Abstract Background and purpose Breast cancer can be a major challenge for affected women. Knowledge of the physical function, symptoms of cancer-related fatigue, anxiety, and depression based on the cancer treatment may help to guide adequate support. Methods For this prospective observational study, we collected data from seventy-nine women with a mean age 54.6 ± 9.5 years prior to the onset of breast cancer treatment (T0) and after (T1/T2). Handgrip strength test (HGS), six-minute walk test (6MWT), the phase angle (PhA), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F) were used to collect data from four treatment subgroups SC, surgery + chemotherapy; SCR, surgery + chemotherapy + radiation therapy; SR, surgery + radiation therapy; and S, surgery. Results A mixed ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between time and group for PhA, F = 8.55, p < 0.01; HGS, F = 3.59, p < 0.01; 6MWT, F = 4.47, p < 0.01; and FACIT-F, F = 2.77, p < 0.05 with most pronounced deterioration seen in group SCR (PhA 4.8°; HGS 27.5 kg, 6MWT 453.4 m, FACIT-F 33.8 points). HADS data displayed moderate anxiety and depression predominantly after treatment. Conclusion Our study showed that the extent of change in physical function, symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, and depression depends on the treatment conditions. The potentially higher risk of impaired function due to the prevalence of values below a critical threshold requires early initiated multidisciplinary support.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-55
Nalok Dutta ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Gang Luo ◽  
Shicheng Zhang

Biomass valorization plays a significant role in the production of biofuels and various value-added biochemicals, in addition to lowering greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of biorefining methods, hydrothermal (HT) and biological techniques have demonstrated the capability of valorizing biomass raw materials to yield value added end-products. An inter-disciplinary bio-economical approach is capable of optimizing biomass’s total potential in terms of environmental perspective and circular bioeconomy standpoint. The aim of this review is to provide an in-depth overview of combinatorial HT and biological techniques to maximize biomass value, which includes biological valorization following HT pretreatment and HT valorization of lignocellulosic substrates emanating from biocatalytic hydrolysis/anaerobic digestion and/or pretreated food waste for the ultimate yield of biogas/biochar and biocrude. In this study, we discuss recent advances regarding HT and biological treatment conditions, synergies between the two technologies, and optimal performance. Additionally, energy balances and economic feasibility assessments of alternative integrated solutions reported in previous studies are compared. Furthermore, we conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities involved in integrating HT and biologicals methods toward complete biomass utilization.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Ioana Cretu ◽  
Bogdan Cretu ◽  
Catalin Cirstoiu ◽  
Adrian Cursaru ◽  
Mihaela Milicescu ◽  

Background and Objectives: The occurrence of rheumatological side effects in a patient after receiving immunotherapy for cancer is becoming increasingly common. Oncologists often fail to diagnose and refer affected patients to rheumatologists. This paper presents the various rheumatological adverse events that occur after immunotherapy in patients as well as their treatment and evolution. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients were monitored between November 2018 and March 2020. The oncologist monitoring the immunotherapy-treated patients identified the occurrence of musculoskeletal side effects. The grading of toxicities was performed by both the oncologist and the rheumatologist using common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE). Rheumatological treatment was administered, and for some patients, immunotherapy was discontinued. Results: The clinical presentations of the patients varied. Mild side effects (grade 1–2) were reported in a higher proportion than severe side effects (grade 3–5). Therefore, thirty-one patients had mild-to-moderate side effects, and five patients had severe side effects. Adverse reactions occurred, on average, 10 weeks after the initiation of immunotherapy; this indicated that the severity of the toxicity was dose dependent. Patients were treated with NSAIDs or prednisone, depending on the severity of the side effects, and for patients with severe manifestations, immunotherapy was discontinued. The remission of rheumatic manifestations varied depending on the grade of the manifestations. Conclusions: The clinical, biological, and ultrasound presentations of the patients with adverse events followed by cancer treatments differed from classic rheumatological manifestations. Thorough examinations of these patients by both oncologists and rheumatologists are needed in order to correctly diagnose and treat rheumatological adverse events. Multiple studies that include a larger number of participants are needed in order to better understand the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of these patients under different treatment conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-46
Paola Vanessa Navarrete Cuesta ◽  
Alberto Medina Fernández

Introduction. This systematic research synthesis investigated the effectiveness of Task-based language teaching interventions on L2 writing performance of intermediate level students. Objective. The main aim was to determine the effects of independent variable manipulations of task-based language teaching on different modes of writing measured holistically and by means of CALF constructs. Methodology. The integration of qualitative and quantitative data was carried out by means of a systematic literature search and retrieval of published articles from 2010 until September 2011. Substantive and methodological features of the studies were coded and compared for the identification of commonly used practices and trends within the Task-based language teaching and L2 writing research domain. Results. The results indicate 3 major types of task-based interventions: TBLT framework, task complexity manipulations and task planning conditions have prevailed as treatments. Task complexity treatments have had beneficial effects on measures of fluency and lexical complexity while strategic planning and planning time also favored fluency in L2 writing. In turn, TBLT framework lesson treatments yielded large effects measured as Cohen’s d. Conclusion. In spite of the wide variety of treatment conditions and outcome measures for different modes of L2 writing, support is given to the importance of the pre-task cycle stage management of TBLT for intermediate level learners.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Nurul Aini Puasa ◽  
Siti Aqlima Ahmad ◽  
Nur Nadhirah Zakaria ◽  
Khalilah Abdul Khalil ◽  
Siti Hajar Taufik ◽  

Oil pollution such as diesel poses a significant threat to the environment. Due to this, there is increasing interest in using natural materials mainly from agricultural waste as organic oil spill sorbents. Oil palm’s empty fruit bunch (EFB), a cost-effective material, non-toxic, renewable resource, and abundantly available in Malaysia, contains cellulosic materials that have been proven to show a good result in pollution treatment. This study evaluated the optimum screening part of EFB that efficiently absorbs oil and the physicochemical characterisation of untreated and treated EFB fibre using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The treatment conditions were optimised using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), which identified optimal treatment conditions of 170 °C, 20 min, 0.1 g/cm3, and 10% diesel, resulting in 23 mL of oil absorbed. The predicted model was highly significant in statistical Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and confirmed that all the parameters (temperature, time, packing density, and diesel concentration) significantly influenced the oil absorbed. The predicted values in RSM were 175 °C, 22.5 min, 0.095 g/cm3, and 10%, which resulted in 24 mL of oil absorbed. Using the experimental values generated by RSM, 175 °C, 22.5 min, 0.095 g/cm3, and 10%, the highest oil absorption achieved was 24.33 mL. This study provides further evidence, as the data suggested that RSM provided a better approach to obtain a high efficiency of oil absorbed.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 326
George V. Theodorakopoulos ◽  
Fotios K. Katsaros ◽  
Sergios K. Papageorgiou ◽  
Margarita Beazi-Katsioti ◽  
George Em. Romanos

In this study, efficient commercial photocatalyst (Degussa P25) nanoparticles were effectively dispersed and stabilized in alginate, a metal binding biopolymer. Taking advantage of alginate’s superior metal chelating properties, copper nanoparticle-decorated photocatalysts were developed after a pyrolytic or calcination-sintering procedure, yielding ceramic beads with enhanced photocatalytic and mechanical properties, excellent resistance to attrition, and optimized handling compared to powdered photocatalysts. The morphological and structural characteristics were studied using LN2 porosimetry, SEM, and XRD. The abatement of an organic pollutant (Methyl Orange, MO) was explored in the dark and under UV irradiation via batch experiments. The final properties of the photocatalytic beads were defined by both the synthesis procedure and the heat treatment conditions, allowing for their further optimization. It was found that the pyrolytic carbon residuals enabled the adhesion of the TiO2 nanoparticles, acting as binder, and increased the MO adsorption capacity, leading to increased local concentration in the photocatalyst vicinity. Well dispersed Cu nanoparticles were also found to enhance photocatalytic activity. The prepared photocatalysts exhibited increased MO adsorption capacity (up to 3.0 mg/g) and also high photocatalytic efficiency of about 50% MO removal from water solutions, reaching an overall MO rejection of about 80%, at short contact times (3 h). Finally, the prepared photocatalysts kept their efficiency for at least four successive photocatalytic cycles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2152 (1) ◽  
pp. 012045
Lan Ma ◽  
Weijie Lian ◽  
Huiming Wu ◽  
Lijun Zhang ◽  
Yuxin Zhai

Abstract The treating fluid in the piston of inner-cooling oil channel is acid wastewater containing copper ion, it would adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem when emission directly. This paper use magnesium hydroxide as a wastewater treatment agent, to study the effect of magnesium hydroxide dose, stirring time, temerature on the results of treating fluid treatment, and get the best treatment conditions. The results indicate that magnesium hydroxide has an excellent performance including easy operation, super removing rate, supernatant can meet emission standards: c(Cu2+)≤2mg/L.

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