reproductive disorder
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Author(s):  
P.M. Shinde ◽  
M.V. Ingawale ◽  
C.H. Pawshe ◽  
S.P. Waghmare ◽  
S.W. Hajare ◽  
...  

Background: At present there is huge demand for Gir cow females however, prolonged inter calving period, more inseminations per conception and post-partum anestrus are the predominant reproductive disorder along with use of unsexed semen limit the birth of more females in Gir cows. The present research study was conducted to study the effect of sex sorted semen in synchronized estrus with Ovsynch protocol on pregnancy rate and gender ratio in Gir cows. Methods: Total twenty Gir cows that have completed post-partum period of sixty days with normal reproductive genitalia, without clinical as well as subclinical infection were selected and divided into two equal groups. The cows from both the groups were synchronized with Ovsynch protocol. In Group- I (n=10), the cows were inseminated with sex sorted semen while in Group-II, the cows were inseminated with coneventional semen. The pregnancy rate and gender ratio was recorded. Result: Efficacy of estrus synchronization was 100.00 per cent for Gir cows treated by Ovsynch protocol in both groups. The pregnancy rate was numerically lower after AI with sex sorted semen (40%) than conventional semen (50%) and results are non significant (P less than 0.05) with 100% calving rate. The proportion of female calves born from sex sorted semen AI was 75% and from conventional semen was 60%. The proportion of live calves born from sex sorted and conventional semen AI was 100%. The sex sorted semen may be used in Ovsynch protocol in Gir cows.


Author(s):  
A. Ganesan ◽  
D. Antoine ◽  
A. Palanisammi ◽  
R. Ramprabu

Background: Canine pyometra is a common reproductive disorder of sexually intact bitches characterized by accumulation of pus in the uterine lumen and it is always associated with vagaries of clinical and pathological manifestations of multisystemic origin. Methods: The present study involved twenty three bitches of 8- 13 years of age with pyometra. Diagnosis of pyometra was performed based on the anamnesis, ultrasound examination, hematoglocial and biochemical changes. As an alternate to conventional prostaglandin protocol, Tab. Methylergometrine 0.125 mg/dog (Methergine, Novartis) BID and Tab. Cabergoline @ 10 µg/kg body weight (Cabgolin, Sun Pharma) SID and Tab. Amoxicillin- Clavulinic acid @ 10 mg/kg body weight (Augmentin, Glaxo Smithkline) BID was advised for two weeks. In addition to that supportive fluid therapy and Inj. Pantoprazole @ 1 mg/kg body weight was also administered prior to initiation of treatment protocol. There was a significant clinical recovery in terms of physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters. Ultrasound examination on Day 0, 7, 9 and Day 14 of treatment revealed reduction in the diameter of uterine sacculations. All the bitches recovered after 10 to 15 days with complete evacuation of pus, with no recurrence. Result: Our investigation revealed that this alternative protocol along with antibiotics and supportive fluid therapy can be a better alternative to young dogs to preserve the reproductive capability and also in geriatric dogs which are unfit for traditional ovariohysterectomy.


Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emily V Ho ◽  
Chengxian Shi ◽  
Jessica Cassin ◽  
Michelle Y He ◽  
Ryan D Nguyen ◽  
...  

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder characterized by elevated androgens and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). These hormones remain elevated throughout pregnancy, and potential effects of hormone exposure on offspring from women with PCOS remain largely unexplored. Expanding on recent reports of prenatal AMH exposure in mice, we have fully characterized the reproductive consequences of prenatal AMH (pAMH) exposure throughout the lifespan of first- and second-generation offspring of both sexes. We also sought to elucidate mechanisms underlying pAMH-induced reproductive effects. There is a known reciprocal relationship between AMH and androgens, and in PCOS and PCOS-like animal models, androgen feedback is dysregulated at the level the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin neurons express androgen receptors and play a critical role in sexual development and function. We therefore hypothesized that pAMH-induced reproductive phenotypes would be mediated by androgen signaling at the level of kisspeptin cells. We tested the pAMH model in kisspeptin-specific androgen receptor knockout (KARKO) mice and found that virtually all pAMH-induced phenotypes assayed are eliminated in KARKO offspring compared to littermate controls. By demonstrating the necessity of androgen receptor in kisspeptin cells to induce pAMH phenotypes, we have advanced understanding of the interactions between AMH and androgens in the context of prenatal exposure, which could have significant implications for children of women with PCOS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (02) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rozeena Shaikh

ABSTRACT Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine reproductive disorder which causes oligomenorrhea/ amenorrhea, infertility, type II diabetes. The present study aims in CYP19A1 polymorphism rs700519 (C/T) identification that elevates androgen among PCOS females in Quetta, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study involved enrollment of 100 control and 100 affected females. Blood samples were collected for genetic and hormonal analysis. The samples were amplified via ARMS PCR and analyzed by sequencing. The frequency of CC genotype in control and PCOS group was 48 percent and 33 percent. For CT, it was 52 percent and 67 percent. In control group, the allele frequency for C and T was 0.74 and 0.26. In PCOS group, it was 0.67 and 0.33 for C and T, respectively. The Pearson Chi-Square p=0.031 (p<0.05) at 95% Confidence Interval inferred a significant difference between the observed genotypes. The study inferred that CT genotype is a risk factor for PCOS progression in the population of Quetta.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (03) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rozeena Shaikh

ABSTRACT Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine reproductive disorder which causes oligomenorrhea/ amenorrhea, infertility, type II diabetes. The present study aims in CYP19A1 polymorphism rs700519 (C/T) identification that elevates androgen among PCOS females in Quetta, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study involved enrollment of 100 control and 100 affected females. Blood samples were collected for genetic and hormonal analysis. The samples were amplified via ARMS PCR and analyzed by sequencing. The frequency of CC genotype in control and PCOS group was 48 percent and 33 percent. For CT, it was 52 percent and 67 percent. In control group, the allele frequency for C and T was 0.74 and 0.26. In PCOS group, it was 0.67 and 0.33 for C and T, respectively. The Pearson Chi-Square p=0.031 (p<0.05) at 95% Confidence Interval inferred a significant difference between the observed genotypes. The study inferred that CT genotype is a risk factor for PCOS progression in the population of Quetta.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenyan Pan ◽  
Fangfang Zhu ◽  
Kai Zhou

Background and AimAnogenital distance (AGD) can serve as a life-long indicator of androgen action in gestational weeks 8–14. AGD has been used as an important tool to investigate the exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds in newborns and in individuals with male reproductive disorder. Endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are two common gynecological disorders and both are related to prenatal androgen levels. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to evaluate the relationships of AGD with these gynecological disorders.MethodsPubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for published studies up to January 25, 2021. No language restriction was implemented.ResultsTen studies were included in this review. Five focused on women with endometriosis, and six investigated women with PCOS. According to these studies, PCOS patients had longer AGD than controls, while endometriosis patients had shorter AGD than controls. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed and accurate review of the associations of AGD with endometriosis and PCOS.ConclusionThe current findings indicate the longer AGD was related to PCOS and shorter AGD was related to endometriosis. However, further well-designed studies are needed to corroborate the current findings.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhiqi Liao ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Lan Wang ◽  
Cong Sui ◽  
Hanwang Zhang

Reproductive disorders, including intrauterine adhesion (IUA), premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are great threats to female reproduction. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells derived–extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have presented their potentials to cure these diseases, not only for the propensity ability they stemmed from the parent cells, but also for the higher biology stability and lower immunogenicity, compared to MSCs. EVs are lipid bilayer complexes, functional as mediators by transferring multiple molecules to recipient cells, such as proteins, microRNAs, lipids, and cytokines. EVs appeared to have a therapeutic effect on the female reproductive disorder, such as repairing injured endometrium, suppressing fibrosis of endometrium, regulating immunity and anti-inflammatory, and repressing apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) in ovaries. Although the underlying mechanisms of MSC-EVs have reached a consensus, several theories have been proposed, including promoting angiogenesis, regulating immunity, and reducing oxidate stress levels. In the current study, we summarized the current knowledge of functions of MSC-EVs on IUA, POI, and PCOS. Given the great potentials of MSC-EVs on reproductive health, the critical issues discussed will guide new insights in this rapidly expanding field.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 1480
Author(s):  
Soudabeh Sabetian ◽  
Isabella Castiglioni ◽  
Bahia Namavar Jahromi ◽  
Pegah Mousavi ◽  
Claudia Cava

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) facilitates ACE2-mediated virus entry. Moreover, the expression of ACE2 in the testes of infertile men is higher than normal, which indicates that infertile men may be susceptible to be infected and SARS-CoV-2 may cause reproductive disorder through the pathway induced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Little is known about the pathway regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in male reproductive disorder. Since the regulation of gene expression is mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) at the post-transcriptional level, the aim of this study was to analyze the dysregulated miRNA–lncRNA interactions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in male reproductive disorder. Using bioinformatics analysis, we speculate that the predicted miRNAs including miR-125a-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-574-5p, and miR-936 as regulators of ACE2 and miR-204-5p as a modulator of TMPRSS2 are associated with male infertility. The lncRNAs with a tissue-specific expression for testis including GRM7-AS3, ARHGAP26-AS1, BSN-AS1, KRBOX1-AS1, CACNA1C-IT3, AC012361.1, FGF14-IT1, AC012494.1, and GS1-24F4.2 were predicted. The identified miRNAs and lncRNAs are proposed as potential biomarkers to study the possible association between COVID-19 and male infertility. This study encourages further studies of miRNA–lncRNA interactions to explain the molecular mechanisms of male infertility in COVID-19 patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Zhuo Chang ◽  
Hui Zhu ◽  
Xueming Zhou ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
Bei Jiang ◽  
...  

Infertility is a global reproductive disorder which is caused by a variety of complex diseases. Infertility affects the individual, family, and community through physical, psychological, social and economic consequences. The results from recent preclinical studies regarding stem cell-based therapies are promising. Stem cell-based therapies cast a new hope for infertility treatment as a replacement or regeneration strategy. The main features and application prospects of mesenchymal stem cells in the future of infertility should be understood by clinicians. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with abundant source, active proliferation, and multidirectional differentiation potential. MSCs play a role through cell homing, secretion of active factors, and participation in immune regulation. Another advantage is that, compared with embryonic stem cells, there are fewer ethical factors involved in the application of MSCs. However, a number of questions remain to be answered prior to safe and effective clinical application. In this review, we summarized the recent status of MSCs in the application of the diseases related to or may cause to infertility and suggest a possible direction for future cytotherapy to infertility.


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