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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shoma Hattori ◽  
Shinji Nozue ◽  
Yoshiaki Ihara ◽  
Koji Takahashi

AbstractTo evaluate the expiratory sounds produced during swallowing recorded simultaneously with videofluorographic examination of swallowing (VF) using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and to examine the relationship between dysphagia and its acoustic characteristics. A total of 348 samples of expiratory sounds were collected from 61 patients with dysphagia whose expiratory sounds were recorded during VF. The VF results were evaluated by one dentist and categorized into three groups: safe group (SG), penetration group (PG), and aspiration group (AG). The duration and maximum amplitude of expiratory sounds produced were measured as the domain characteristics on the time waveform of these sounds and compared among the groups. Time window-length appropriate for FFT and acoustic discriminate values (AD values) of SG, PG, and AG were also investigated. The groups were analyzed using analysis of variance and Scheffé's multiple comparison method. The maximum amplitude of SG was significantly smaller than those of PG and AG. The mean duration in SG (2.05 s) was significantly longer than those in PG (0.84 s) and AG (0.96 s). The AD value in SG was significantly lower than those in PG and AG. AD value detects penetration or aspiration, and can be useful in screening for dysphagia.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 214
Margarita Shtremel ◽  
Yana Saprykina ◽  
Berna Ayat

Sand bar migration on the gently sloping sandy bottom in the coastal zone as a result of nonlinear wave transformation and corresponding sediment transport is discussed. Wave transformation on the intermediate depth causes periodic exchange of energy in space between the first and the second wave harmonics, accompanied by changes in the wave profile asymmetry. This leads to the occurrence of periodical fluctuations in the wave-induced sediment transport. It is shown that the position of the second nonlinear wave harmonic maximum determines location of the divergence point of sediment transport on the inclined bottom profile, where it changes direction from the onshore to the offshore. Such sediment transport pattern leads to formation of an underwater sand bar. A method is proposed to predict the position of the bar on an underwater slope after a storm based on calculation of the position of the maximum amplitude of the second nonlinear harmonic. The method is validated on the base of field measurements and ERA 5 reanalysis wave data.

Guoliang Li ◽  
Kai Tao ◽  
Min Chen ◽  
Jiaqi Li ◽  
Ross Maguire ◽  

Abstract The SPECFEM3D_Cartesian code package is widely used in simulating seismic wave propagation on local and regional scales due to its computational efficiency compared with the one-chunk version of the SPECFEM3D_Globe code. In SPECFEM3D_Cartesian, the built-in meshing tool maps a spherically curved cube to a rectangular cube using the Universal Transverse Mercator projection (UTM). Meanwhile, the geodetic east, north, and up directions are assigned as the local x–y–z directions. This causes coordinate orientation issues in simulating waveform propagation in regions larger than 6° × 6° or near the Earth’s polar regions. In this study, we introduce a new code package, named Cartesian Meshing Spherical Earth (CMSE), that can accurately mesh the 3D geometry of the Earth’s surface under the Cartesian coordinate frame, while retaining the geodetic directions. To benchmark our new package, we calculate the residual amplitude of the CMSE synthetics with respect to the reference synthetics calculated by SPECFEM3D_Globe. In the regional scale simulations with an area of 1300 km × 1300 km, we find a maximum of 5% amplitude residual for the SPECFEM3D_Cartesian synthetics using the mesh generated by the CMSE, much smaller than the maximum amplitude residual of 100% for the synthetics based on its built-in meshing tool. Therefore, our new meshing tool CMSE overcomes the limitations of the internal mesher used by SPECFEM3D_Cartesian and can be used for more accurate waveform simulations in larger regions beyond one UTM zone. Furthermore, CMSE can deal with regions at the south and north poles that cannot be handled by the UTM projection. Although other external code packages can be used to mesh the curvature of the Earth, the advantage of the CMSE code is that it is open-source, easy to use, and fully integrated with SPECFEM3D_Cartesian.

Roman Brajša ◽  
Giuli Verbanac ◽  
Mario Bandić ◽  
Arnold Hanslmeier ◽  
Ivica Skokić ◽  

Perfusion ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 026765912110575
Akram Zaaqoq ◽  
Tariq Sallam ◽  
Caitlin Merley ◽  
Lan Anh Galloway ◽  
Sameer Desale ◽  

Objective Bleeding and thrombosis are common complications during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support for COVID-19 patients. We sought to examine the relationship between inflammatory status, coagulation effects, and observed bleeding and thrombosis in patients receiving venovenous (VV) ECMO for COVID-19 respiratory failure. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Settings Quaternary care institution. Patients The study period from April 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021, we included all patients with confirmed COVID-19 who received VV ECMO support. Intervention None. Measurements and Main Results Thirty-two patients were supported with VV ECMO during the study period, and 17 patients (53%) survived to hospital discharge. The ECMO nonsurvivors mean lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were markedly elevated in comparison to survivors (1046 u/L [IQR = 509, 1305] vs 489 u/L [385 658], p = 0.003). Platelet/fibrinogen dysfunction, as reflected by the low Maximum Amplitude (MA) on viscoelastic testing, was worse in nonsurvivors (65.25 mm [60.68, 67.67] vs 74.80 mm [73.10, 78.40], p = 0.01). Time-group interaction for the first seven days of ECMO support, showed significantly lower platelet count in the nonsurvivors (140 k/ul [103, 170] vs 189.5 k/ul [ 146, 315], p < 0.001) and higher D-dimer in (21 μg/mL [13, 21] vs 14 μg/mL [3, 21], p < 0.001) in comparison to the survivors. Finally, we found profound statistically significant correlations between the clinical markers of inflammation and markers of coagulation in the nonsurvivors group. The ECMO nonsurvivors experienced higher rate of bleeding (73.3% vs 35.3%, p = 0.03), digital ischemia (46.7% vs 11.8%, p = 0.02), acute renal failure (60% vs 11.8%, p = 0.01) and bloodstream infection (60% vs 23.5%, p = 0.03). Conclusion The correlation between inflammation and coagulation in the nonsurvivors supported with VV ECMO could indicate dysregulated inflammatory response and worse clinical outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 285
Tao Zhang ◽  
Xiaodong Jiang ◽  
Linlin Jiang ◽  
Xuran Li ◽  
Shenbin Yang ◽  

To analyze the hyperspectral reflectance characteristics of rice canopies under changes in diffuse radiation fraction, experiments using different cover materials were performed in Nanjing, China, during 2016 and 2017. Each year, two treatments with different reduction ratios of diffuse radiation fraction but with similar shading rates were set in the field experiment: In T1, total solar radiation shading rate was 14.10%, and diffuse radiation fraction was 31.09%; in T2, total solar radiation shading rate was 14.42%, and diffuse radiation fraction was 39.98%, respectively. A non-shading treatment was included as a control (CK). Canopy hyperspectral reflectance, soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD), and leaf area index (LAI) were measured under shading treatments on different days after heading. The red-edge parameters (position, λ0; maximum amplitude, Dλ; area, α0; width, σ) were calculated, as well as the area, depth, and width of three absorption bands. The location of the first absorption band appeared in the range of 553–788 nm, and the second and third absorption bands appeared in the range of 874–1257 nm. The results show that the shading treatment had a significant effect on the rice canopy’s hyperspectral reflectance. Compared with CK, the canopy reflectance of T1 (the diffuse radiation fraction was 31.09%) and T2 (the diffuse radiation fraction was 39.98%) decreased in the visible light range (350–760 nm) and increased in the near-infrared range (800–1350 nm), while the red-edge parameters (λ0, Dλ, α0), SPAD, and LAI increased. On the other hand, under shading treatment, the increase in diffuse radiation fraction also had a significant impact on the hyperspectral spectra of the rice canopy, especially at 14 days after heading. Compared with T1, the green peak (550 nm) of T2 reduced by 16.12%, and the average reflectance at 800–900 nm increased by 10%. Based on correlation analysis, it was found that these hyperspectral reflectance characteristics were mainly due to the increase in SPAD (2.31%) and LAI (7.62%), which also led to the increase in Dλ (8.70%) and α0 (13.89%). Then, the second and third absorption features of T2 were significantly different from that of T1, which suggests that the change in diffuse radiation fraction could affect the process of water vapor absorption by rice.

Ana Carolina Costa Viana ◽  
Poliana Dias de Moraes ◽  
Ivo José Padaratz

Abstract The ultrasonic pulse velocity, obtained by ultrasonic non-destructive testing, has been applied to evaluate the concrete integrity. The attenuation parameters have shown more sensitivity to damage detection in the microstructure of concrete since they consider the entire ultrasonic waveform. However, it is still necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of those parameters to thermally damaged concrete. This work aims to assess the behavior and the sensitivity of the following ultrasonic parameters: pulse and group velocities, maximum amplitude, total energy, accumulated energy, and time instants corresponding to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the energy, in detecting changes due to thermal degradation of the concrete. A sample of 39 cylindrical concrete specimens with 100 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length and C25 strength class was used. The sample was distributed into 5 groups heated between 20 and 400 ºC until the internal temperature of the specimens became homogeneous. The groups were cooled inside a muffle furnace until reaching 150 ºC. Subsequently, they were exposed to the ambient temperature and humidity of the laboratory environment for, at least, 24 hours prior to the tests of mass loss, ultrasound, and compressive strength. The results show that the ultrasonic parameters are sensitive to the thermal degradation of the concrete. The pulse velocity, the accumulated energy, and the time instants corresponding to percentages of the energy decrease monotonically as the temperature increases. The group velocity shows significant dispersions, while the maximum amplitude and the total energy increase at 200 ºC. The results led to the conclusion that the pulse velocity is the least sensitive parameter, while the time instants corresponding to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the energy are the most sensitive parameters in detecting changes due to thermal degradation of the concrete.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 413
Victor Getmanov ◽  
Roman Sidorov ◽  
Alexei Gvishiani

This article describes a method for recognizing sudden commencement events using digital differentiating filters. This method is applied to INTERMAGNET observatory data. Maximum amplitude derivatives for the magnetic components (X, Y, Z) and the total intensity (F) of the geomagnetic field are introduced, and the decision-making rule is formulated. The authors developed a procedure for selecting optimal digital differentiating filters. Estimates of probabilities of correct and false recognition of sudden commencements were obtained. The calculations of the probabilistic characteristics have confirmed the effectiveness of the method.

Jiamin Zou ◽  
Yin Luo ◽  
Yuejiang Han ◽  
Yakun Fan

Mechanical seal failure has a great negative impact on the operation of a centrifugal pump system. A method to analyze the stator current characteristics of the motor in a centrifugal pump system is proposed to monitor the internal flow of the centrifugal pump and to identify the failure status of the mechanical seal. Experiments were conducted under different mechanical seal states. Based on sensorless technology, the stator current signal of the motor is collected, processed by windowing function, anti-aliasing filter, singular value decomposition, Hilbert–Huang transform, and the marginal spectrum of correlation quantity is drawn. The results show that according to the external characteristic curve of the centrifugal pump, after the failure of the mechanical seal, the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump decrease, and the head is greatly affected by the degree of failure, while the degree of mechanical seal failure has little effect on the shaft power of the centrifugal pump; the centrifugal pump has good operation stability under design conditions or near slightly large flow; the stability of centrifugal pump operation decreases with the aggravation of mechanical seal failure; the corresponding maximum amplitude in the marginal spectrum can be used as an index to diagnose the damage degree of the mechanical seal.

2021 ◽  
pp. 25-29
A. E. Barulin ◽  
S. V. Klauchek ◽  
A. E. Klauchek

Purpose of the study. To establish the relationship between neurophysiological status and the level of efficiency in young people with bruxism.Materials and methods. Two groups of 64 and 53 subjects (males and females) aged 20–35 years old with bruxism and non-bruxers were formed according to questionnaire results and physical examination. The level of efficiency was assessed by the results of sensorimotor tracking of a moving object (the ‘Smile’ model). Spectral analysis was performed for evaluation of the baseline electroencephalograms. Microsoft Excel and Statistica 10.0 programs were used for statistical data processing.Results. The level of efficiency was statistically significantly lower in the hardest test of Smile model among the individuals with bruxism (p < 0.05). The bruxers also demonstrated a significantly lower dominant frequency and maximum amplitude of alpha-rhythm (p < 0.05), and significantly higher dominant frequency of beta2 rhythm (p < 0.05). The dominant frequency and the maximum amplitude of the alpha-rhythm are parameters corresponding to significant coefficients of the regression analysis. A negative relationship was found between the degree of error during sensorimotor tracking and the frequency and amplitude of alpha-rhythm.Conclusion. Regression models present the relationship between the level of efficiency and the alpha-rhythm severity. The regression equations make it possible to determine the functional state of the subject using an electroencephalogram.

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