nitrogen deficiency
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qi Chen ◽  
Yanpeng Wang ◽  
Zhijun Zhang ◽  
Xiaomin Liu ◽  
Chao Li ◽  

Arginine plays an important role in the nitrogen (N) cycle because it has the highest ratio of N to carbon among amino acids. In recent years, there has been increased research interest in improving the N use of plants, reducing the use of N fertilizer, and enhancing the tolerance of plants to N deficiency. Here, the function of arginine in the growth of apple (Malus hupehensis) under N deficiency was explored. The application of 100 μmol L–1 arginine was effective for alleviating N-deficiency stress. Exogenous arginine promoted the absorption and use of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) under low N stress. The net photosynthetic rate, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and chlorophyll content were higher in treated plants than in control plants. Exogenous arginine affected the content of many metabolites, and the content of many amino acids with important functions was significantly increased, such as glutamate and ornithine, which play an important role in the urea cycle. Half of the metabolites were annotated to specialized metabolic pathways, including the synthesis of phenolic substances, flavonoids, and other substances with antioxidant activity. Our results indicate that arginine promotes the plant photosynthetic capacity and alters amino acid metabolism and some antioxidants including phenolic substances and flavonoids to improve the tolerance of apple to N deficiency, possibly through the improvement of arginine content, and the absorption of mineral.

Khalil Kariman ◽  
Benjamin Moreira-Grez ◽  
Craig Scanlan ◽  
Saleh Rahimlou ◽  
Gustavo Boitt ◽  

AbstractA controlled-environment study was conducted to explore possible synergistic interactions between the feremycorrhizal (FM) fungus Austroboletus occidentalis and soil free-living N2-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown under N deficiency conditions in a field soil without adding microbial inoculum (control: only containing soil indigenous microbes), or inoculated with a consortium containing four free-living diazotroph isolates (diazotrophs treatment), A. occidentalis inoculum (FM treatment), or both diazotrophs and A. occidentalis inoculums (dual treatment). After 7 weeks of growth, significantly greater shoot biomass was observed in plants inoculated with diazotrophs (by 25%), A. occidentalis (by 101%), and combined inoculums (by 106%), compared to the non-inoculated control treatment. All inoculated plants also had higher shoot nutrient contents (including N, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn) than the control treatment. Compared to the control and diazotrophs treatments, significantly greater shoot N content was observed in the FM treatment (i.e., synergism between the FM fungus and soil indigenous diazotrophs). Dually inoculated plants had the highest content of nutrients in shoots (e.g., N, P, K, S, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn) and soil total N (13–24% higher than the other treatments), i.e., synergism between the FM fungus and added diazotrophs. Root colonization by soil indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi declined in all inoculated plants compared to control. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that the FM fungus modified the soil microbiome. Our in vitro study indicated that A. occidentalis could not grow on substrates containing lignocellulosic materials or sucrose, but grew on media supplemented with hexoses such as glucose and fructose, indicating that the FM fungus has limited saprotrophic capacity similar to ectomycorrhizal fungi. The results revealed synergistic interactions between A. occidentalis and soil free-living diazotrophs, indicating a potential to boost microbial N2 fixation for non-legume crops.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Toshihiro Watanabe ◽  
Ryoskuke Okada ◽  
Soyoka Tokunaga ◽  
Hayato Maruyama ◽  
Masaru Urayama ◽  

Brayden W. Burns ◽  
V. Steven Green ◽  
Ahmed A. Hashem ◽  
Joseph H. Massey ◽  
Aaron M. Shew ◽  

AbstractDetermining a precise nitrogen fertilizer requirement for maize in a particular field and year has proven to be a challenge due to the complexity of the nitrogen inputs, transformations and outputs in the nitrogen cycle. Remote sensing of maize nitrogen deficiency may be one way to move nitrogen fertilizer applications closer to the specific nitrogen requirement. Six vegetation indices [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI), triangle greenness index (TGI), normalized area vegetation index (NAVI) and chlorophyll index-green (CIgreen)] were evaluated for their ability to detect nitrogen deficiency and predict grain maize grain yield. Strip trials were established at two locations in Arkansas, USA, with nitrogen rate as the primary treatment. Remote sensing data was collected weekly with an unmanned aerial system (UAS) equipped with a multispectral and thermal sensor. Relationships among index value, nitrogen fertilizer rate and maize growth stage were evaluated. Green NDVI, RENDVI and CIgreen had the strongest relationship with nitrogen fertilizer treatment. Chlorophyll Index-green and GNDVI were the best predictors of maize grain yield early in the growing season when the application of additional nitrogen was still agronomically feasible. However, the logistics of late season nitrogen application must be considered.

Seda Erdoğan Bayram

This study was conducted to examine the soil fertility of the Büyük Menderes Basin, where wheat is widely cultivated. Soil samples were taken from 50 different points at a depth of 0-30 cm and various physical and chemical properties and amounts of nutrient elements were determined. With regard to the results of the study, the soils were generally sandy-clay-loam in texture, with slightly alkaline reaction, limy, rich in organic matter and showed no risk of salinity. The examined soils were found to be insufficient as 34% for total N, 14% for available K, 26% Mg, 10% Fe, 94% Zn and 98% Mn contents while all of the soils were determined as sufficient in terms of available P, Cu and Ca contents. When relationships between nutrient elements and soil physical-chemical properties were examined, negative correlations were found between soil pH and EC, organic matter, total N, available K, Zn; lime contents and available Mg, Fe, Cu; clay and available K and Mn contents. The positive correlations were found between EC and available K, Ca and Zn; organic matter % and total N, available K, Cu, Zn and Mn; sand % and available Mn; clay % and available Fe contents. Investigation of relationships between plant nutrients demonstrated that, there were positive correlations between total N and available K, Cu, Zn, Mn; available P and Zn; available K and Cu, Zn, Mn; available Ca and Fe; available Mg and Fe, Cu; available Fe and Cu, Mn; available Cu and Mn contents. The results of the study showed that attention should be paid to fertilization programs to fertilization with Zn and Mn, which were found to be insufficient in the greater part of the basin’s soils, and also to nitrogen deficiency is observed, as this directly affects the protein content of wheat.

2021 ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Shujuan Gao ◽  
Yunan Hu ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Jixun Guo ◽  

Abstract Background As an important germplasm resource, wild soybean has good tolerance to complex stress environment stress. This study described the differences of physiological and metabolomic changes between common wild soybean (GS1) and the barren tolerance wild soybean (GS2) under low nitrogen (LN) stress. Results The result showed the barren tolerance wild soybean young leaves can maintain relatively stable chlorophyll content and increased the contents of Car;Photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate decreased significantly in in the barren tolerance wild soybean old leaves, but there was no significant change in young leaves; the barren tolerance wild soybean enhanced the enrichment of beneficial ion pairs such as zinc, calcium and phosphorus. The metabolism of amino acids and organic acids in the barren tolerance wild soybean old leaves was vigorous, a large number of beneficial amino acids such as GABA, asparagine and proline were enriched, and the metabolites related to TCA cycle were significantly increased. Conclusion the barren tolerance wild soybean can ensure the nitrogen supply of young leaves by inhibiting the photosynthetic response of old leaves; the relatively stable growth of young leaves also benefits from the effective transport and reuse of beneficial ions from old leaves; More importantly, the enhanced metabolism of specific amino acids and organic acids in GS2 old leaves seemed to play an important role in resisting LN stress. GABA and Asparagine played substantial roles in N storage, C/N balance, antioxidant defense and act as signaling molecule to help GS2 to resist LN stress. Difference organic acids in the old leaves of GS2 increased which could improve the utilization rate of N in the soil. In addition, the strength of fatty acids catabolism and TCA cycle in GS2 old leaves provided energy base for substance transport. The analysis of physiological and metabolite may provide a new perspective for revealing the importance of substance transport and reuse in different plant parts to resist abiotic stress.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2974
Hualian Wu ◽  
Tao Li ◽  
Jinting Lv ◽  
Zishuo Chen ◽  
Jiayi Wu ◽  

Arthrospira platensis, a well-known cyanobacterium, is widely applied not only in human and animal nutrition but also in cosmetics for its high amounts of active products. The biochemical composition plays a key role in the application performance of the Arthrospira biomass. The present study aimed to evaluate the growth and biochemical composition characteristics of A. platensis, cultured with a nitrogen-free and seawater-supplemented medium in an outdoor raceway pond in winter. The results showed that the biomass yield could achieve 222.42 g m−2, and the carbohydrate content increased by 247% at the end of the culture period (26 d), compared with that of the starter culture. The daily and annual areal productivities were 3.96 g m−2 d−1 and 14.44 ton ha−1 yr−1 for biomass and 2.88 g m−2 d−1 and 10.53 ton ha−1 yr−1 for carbohydrates, respectively. On the contrary, a profound reduction was observed in protein, lipid, and pigment contents. Glucose, the main monosaccharide in the A. platensis biomass, increased from 77.81% to 93.75% of total monosaccharides. Based on these results, large-scale production of carbohydrate-rich A. platensis biomass was achieved via a low-cost culture, involving simultaneous nitrogen deficiency and supplementary seawater in winter.

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