Maize Grain
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
C. Jucker ◽  
S. Belluco ◽  
S. Bellezza Oddon ◽  
A. Ricci ◽  
L. Bonizzi ◽  

The house cricket Acheta domesticus is one of the species of major interest as alternative protein source for humans in the recent research of sustainable and nutritious sources of food. However, grain feeds, feed for poultry and soybean still represent common source of feeds for the insect industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some agro-food by-products on the growth parameters of the crickets and the nutritional composition of the final cricket meal. Our study included five by-products (maize grain distiller, fruits and vegetables, grape marc, and two brewery’s wastes), while hen feed was used as a control diet. Substrates were analysed for their microbiological contamination prior to be provided to crickets. No Listeria and Salmonella were detected, but high microbial counts were observed. Crickets grown on the given by-products showed significant differences on the insect’s weight starting from the third week. High mortality was observed on all substrates, except on maize distiller and the control diet. The final cricket meal showed a similar protein content (66-68% as is), while the lipid content was higher in the meal from cricket reared on maize distiller (22% as is). Finally, microbiological and chemical analyses on the cricket meals did not show safety concerns for the consumers. The by-products studied, except maize grain distiller, did not support an optimal cricket rearing, but more studies are necessary to identify a mix-formulation meeting the cricket nutritional requirements.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2285
Jessee Spencer Smith ◽  
William Paul Williams

In-field infection of maize (Zea mays L.) ears by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr causes pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of maize grain. Germplasm lines with host-plant resistance to aflatoxin accumulation are available to breeders, but these lines often possess undesirable agronomic characteristics. Commercial lines with expired plant variety protection (ex-PVP lines) are a potential source of elite germplasm available to public maize breeders. A diallel cross containing three aflatoxin-accumulation-resistant germplasm lines and seven ex-PVP lines were evaluated in replicated trials for aflatoxin contamination after artificial inoculation and for yield. The resistant germplasm lines Mp313E, Mp715, and Mp717 were the only lines with significant general combining ability (GCA) for reduced aflatoxin accumulation. Of the ex-PVP lines evaluated, the Stiff-Stalk line F118 was the most promising line to use in breeding crosses. Based on its GCA, it was the only ex-PVP line that did not significantly increase aflatoxin and the only ex-PVP line that significantly increased yield. Second-cycle breeding lines derived from crosses between F118 and the resistant donor lines will be valuable if they combine the donor lines’ disease resistance with F118’s earlier maturity while introgressing the disease resistance into a genetic background that aligns with the industry’s well-defined heterotic groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (5) ◽  
pp. 343-352
A. Abdulazeez ◽  
C. M. Tsopito ◽  
O. R. Madibela

Effect of treating maize cobs with a combination of urea and wood ash (WA) on chemical composition, in vitro gas production, and in sacco degradability were examined in a previous study. The treatments were: (100U) =100% urea +0% wood ash, (75U25WA) = 75% urea +25% wood ash, (50U50WA) = 50% urea +50% wood ash, (25U75WA) =25 % urea + 75% wood ash and (0U0WA) = Untreated maize cobs. It was concluded in the study that, treatment 25U75WA gave better results in terms of all the parameters measured. This study aimed at determining the effect of feeding Twana sheep diets whose grain was substituted with maize cobs treated with 25%U and 75%WA on nutrient intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen NH3, pH and performance. Tswana sheep were fed experimental diet whose maize grain was substituted with graded levels of 25U75WA in the dietary ingredients and the treatments were: 100M = 100% maize grain, 66M34C = 66% maize grain plus 34% treated maize cobs, 34M66C = 34% maize grain plus 66% treated maize cobs and 100C = 100% treated maize cobs in a 4×4 Latin Square Design (4 animals were rotated in 4 periods for all the treatments). Treatment 34M66C had crude protein intake (CPI), dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) and neutral detergent fibre intake (NDFI) of 0.1334, 0.9500, 0.8921 and 0.4800 kg/d respectively (P<0.05) while the crude protein digestibility (CPD), dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and neutral detergentfibre digestibility (NDFD) were 79.57, 68.02, 66.26, and 57.8% respectively (P<0.05). All the treatments had similar (P>0.05) rumen NH3 ranging from 23.55 – 24.00 mg/ml while rumen pH were different (P<0.05) and ranged from 6.117 – 6.937 however treatment 100M had lower pH. Treatment 100M and 34M66C had average daily gain (ADG) of 0.1150 and 0.1417 kg/d, respectively (P<0.05), however, treatment 100M had lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 5.217 compared to 7.059 (P<0.05) for 34M66C. It was concluded that farmers should include 34M66C in the diet of Tswana sheep for optimum performance and also reduce the cost of feed.     Effet du traitement des épis de maïs avec une combinaison d'urée et de cendres de bois (CB) sur la composition chimique, la production de gaz in vitro et dans la dégradabilité de SACCO ont été examinées dans une étude précédente. Les traitements étaient: (100u) = 100% urée + 0% de cendre de bois, (75U25CB) = 75% d'urée + 25% de cendres de bois, (50u50wa) = 50% d'urée + 50% de cendre de bois, (25U75CB) = 25% d'urée + 75% de cendres bois et (0U0CB) = épis de maïs non traité. Il a été conclu dans l'étude que, le traitement 25U75CB a donné de meilleurs résultats en termes de tous les paramètres mesurés. Cette étude visait à déterminer l'effet de l'alimentation des régimes de moutons Twana dont le grain a été substitué aux épis de maïs traité avec 25% U et 75% de CB sur l'apport nutritionnel, la digestibilité, l'utilisation de l'azote, le rumen NH3, la performance de la pharmacie. Les moutons de Tswana ont été nourris à une alimentation expérimentale dont le grain de maïs était substitué par des niveaux de grade de 25U75WA dans les ingrédients alimentaires et les traitements étaient les suivants: 100m = 100% de grain de maïs, 66 m34c = 66% de grain de maïs de maïs plus 34% d'épis de maïs traité, 34m66c = 34% de maïs Grain Plus 66% COBS de maïs traité et 100c = 100% cobs de maïs traités dans un design carré latin 4 × 4 (4 animaux ont été tournés en 4 périodes pour tous les traitements). Traitement 34M66C avait une consommation de protéines brutes (CPB), une consommation de matière sèche (CMS), une consommation de matière organique (CMO) et une consommation de fibres de détergents neutres de 0,1334, 0,9500, 0,8921 et 0,4800 kg / j respectivement (p <0,05) tandis que le Digestibilité des protéines brutes (DPB), digestibilité de la matière sèche (DMS), digestibilité de la matière organique (DMO) et digestibilité de fibres de détergent neutres (DFDN) étaient de 79,57, 68,02, 66,26 et 57,8% respectivement (p <0,05). Tous les traitements avaient des analgésiques similaires (p> 0,05) Rumen NH3 allant de 23,55 à 24,00 mg / ml tandis que le pH de rumen était différent (p <0,05) et allait de 6,117 - 6,937Cependant, le traitement 100M avait un pH inférieur. Traitement 100m et 34m66C avaient un gain quotidien moyen (GQM) de 0,1150 et 0,1417 kg / j, respectivement (p <0,05), cependant, le traitement 100M avait un rapport de conversion d'alimentation inférieur (CAI) de 5,217 par rapport à 7,059 (p <0,05) pour 34 m66c. Il a été conclu que les agriculteurs comprennent 34 m66c dans le régime alimentaire des moutons de Tswana pour des performances optimales et réduisent également le coût des aliments pour animaux.

2021 ◽  
Noel Ndlovu ◽  
Charles Spillane ◽  
Peter C. McKeown ◽  
Jill E. Cairns ◽  
Biswanath Das ◽  

Abstract Soils in sub-Saharan Africa are nitrogen deficient due to low fertilizer use and inadequate soil fertility management practices. This has resulted in a significant yield gap for the major staple crop maize, which is undermining nutritional security and livelihood sustainability across the region. Dissecting the genetic basis of grain protein, starch and oil content under nitrogen-starved soils can increase our understanding of the governing genetic systems and improve the efficacy of future breeding schemes. An association mapping panel of 410 inbred lines and four bi-parental populations were evaluated in field trials in Kenya and South Africa under optimum and low nitrogen conditions and genotyped with 259,798 SNP markers. Genetic correlations demonstrated that these populations may be utilized to select higher performing lines under low nitrogen stress. Furthermore, genotypic, environmental and GxE variations in nitrogen-starved soils were found to be significant for oil content. Broad sense heritabilities ranged from moderate (0.18) to high (0.86). Under low nitrogen stress, GWAS identified 42 SNPs linked to grain quality traits. These significant SNPs were associated with 51 putative candidate genes. Linkage mapping identified multiple QTLs for the grain quality traits. Under low nitrogen conditions, average prediction accuracies across the studied genotypes were higher for oil content (0.78) and lower for grain yield (0.08). Our findings indicate that grain quality traits are polygenic and that using genomic selection in maize breeding can improve genetic gain. Furthermore, the identified genomic regions and SNP markers can be utilized for selection to improve maize grain quality traits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (5) ◽  
pp. 239-244
A. Abdulazeez ◽  
O. R. Madibela ◽  
C. M. Tsopito

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with maize cobs treated with 25% urea (U) plus 75% wood ash (WA) on chemical composition and in sacco degradability. Maize grain was substituted with graded levels of 25U75WA in the dietary ingredients and the treatments were: 100M = 100% maize grain, 66M34C = 66% maize grain plus 34% treated maize cobs, 34M66C = 34% maize grain plus 66% treated maize cobs and 100C = 100% treated maize cobs. Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL); they were incubated in saccofor 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs and their DM degradation kinetics described using the equation y = a + b ct (1- e- ). Results indicated that as maize grain is substituted with treated maize cobs, NDF, ADF and ADL also increased, however only the neutral detergent soluble (NDS) for treatment 100C was reduced. At 72 hrs of incubation, treatment 34M66C had the highest DM degradation, rapidly soluble fraction 'a' and potential degradability 'a+b'. It was concluded that maize cobs treated with combinations of urea and WA could substitute 66% of maize grain in sheep diets.     Une expérience a été menée pour déterminer l'effet de la substitution du grain de maïs par des épis de maïs traités avec 25 % d'urée (U) plus 75 % de cendre de bois (WA) sur la composition chimique et la dégradabilité du sac. Le grain de maïs a été remplacé par des niveaux gradués de 25U75WA dans les ingrédients alimentaires et les traitements étaient : et 100C = 100 % d'épis de maïs traités. Les échantillons ont été analysés pour la matière sèche (MS), la matière organique (MO), les cendres, les protéines brutes (CP), les fibres au détergent neutre (NDF), les fibres au détergent acide (ADF) et la lignine au détergent acide (ADL) ; ils ont été incubés dans sacco pour 6, 12, 24, 48 et 72 heures et leur cinétique de dégradation de la matière sèche décrite en utilisant l'équation y = a + b (1-e-ct). Les résultats ont indiqué que lorsque le grain de maïs est remplacé par des épis de maïs traités, NDF, ADF et ADL ont également augmenté, mais que seul le détergent neutre soluble (NDS) pour le traitement 100C a été réduit. À 72 heures d'incubation, le traitement 34M66C présentait la plus forte dégradation de MS, la fraction rapidement soluble « a » et la dégradabilité potentielle « a+b ». Il a été conclu que les épis de maïs traités avec des combinaisons d'urée et d'AO pouvaient remplacer 66% des grains de maïs dans l'alimentation des moutons.

Rumila Sitaram Kumar, Koti DivyaLaasya and Ramaraju Godasritha

Adulteration is described as the addition of any substance to food OP in order to alter its natural composition and quality in order to boost its economic worth. Fruit is the fleshy or dry ripening ovary of a flowering plant that carries seed or seeds. As a result, apricots, bananas, grapes, maize grain pods, tomatoes, cucumbers, corns, and almonds (in their shells) are all classified as fruits. In common usage, however, the term refers to ripened ovaries that are tasty and either succulent or pulpy. Dietary fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants are abundant in fruits. Fresh fruits can be kept fresh for longer by refrigerating them or removing oxygen from their storage or packaging. Dehydrated fruits can be made into juices, jams, and jellies

Nisha Chaudhary ◽  
J. K. Parmar ◽  
Drashti Chaudhari ◽  
Manish Yadav

A pot experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2019 to carry out the study on “Interactive effect of potash (K2O), potassium mobilizing bacteria (KMB) and FYM on forage yield, nutrient uptake by forage maize and soil fertility in a loamy sand soil of middle Gujarat”. Application of K2O @ 60 kg ha-1, KMB and FYM recorded significantly the highest plant height of forage maize at harvest over respective control. Crop fertilized with K2O @ 60 kg ha-1 and KMB gave significantly the highest green forage and dry matter yield. The results indicated that application of K2O @ 60 kg ha-1, potassium mobilizing bacteria recorded significantly the highest uptake of N, P, K, Fe and Zn by crop at harvest. Significantly the highest uptake of N, K and Cu were found with application of FYM @10 t ha-1. Significantly the highest K uptake by maize as well as higher P and Zn uptake by maize were observed due to interaction effect of K × KMB (60 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB). In case of N and Cu uptake by maize were noted the Significantly higher due to interaction effect of K × KMB (30 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB) and K × KMB × FYM (60 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB and FYM), respectively. The integrated use of potassium fertilizers along with KBM or in combination with FYM significantly improved the maize grain and nutrient uptake.

Mtyobile Mxolisi

Maize is considered as one of the important grain crop in the world. Maize is in high demand within district because it is one of the staple food and also used for animal feed. Current yield attained by small scale farmers is lower than the potential of our existing varieties. In field experiment at Njizweni situated in Gqeleni sub-district was conducted in November 2018 to evaluate the agronomic and yield performance maize cultivars in a semi-arid environment. Plant population, plant height, leaf area, number of cobs/plant, cob length, number of grains per cob, 100 grain weight and number of cobs were significantly different (p<0.05) between cultivars. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on maize grain yield although maximum number of cobs per plant (1.76) was recorded on PAN 6R-710BR, PAN5R-591R, BG 5285 and WE 6208B.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (12) ◽  
pp. 3156-3169
Yue-e LIU ◽  
Peng HOU ◽  
Gui-rong HUANG ◽  
Xiu-li ZHONG ◽  
Hao-ru LI ◽  

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