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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Yukiko Murata ◽  
Sibylle Neuhoff ◽  
Amin Rostami-Hodjegan ◽  
Hiroyuki Takita ◽  
Zubida M. Al-Majdoub ◽  

AbstractDrug development for the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex endeavour with low success rates, as the structural complexity of the brain and specifically the blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses tremendous challenges. Several in vitro brain systems have been evaluated, but the ultimate use of these data in terms of translation to human brain concentration profiles remains to be fully developed. Thus, linking up in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) strategies to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of brain is a useful effort that allows better prediction of drug concentrations in CNS components. Such models may overcome some known aspects of inter-species differences in CNS drug disposition. Required physiological (i.e. systems) parameters in the model are derived from quantitative values in each organ. However, due to the inability to directly measure brain concentrations in humans, compound-specific (drug) parameters are often obtained from in silico or in vitro studies. Such data are translated through IVIVE which could be also applied to preclinical in vivo observations. In such exercises, the limitations of the assays and inter-species differences should be adequately understood in order to verify these predictions with the observed concentration data. This report summarizes the state of IVIVE-PBPK-linked models and discusses shortcomings and areas of further research for better prediction of CNS drug disposition.

Margaret M. Ewald ◽  
Amy J. Rankin ◽  
Jessica M. Meekins ◽  
Geraldine Magnin ◽  
Butch KuKanich

Abstract OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma concentrations of prednisolone and dexamethasone (peripheral and jugular) and cortisol following topical ophthalmic application of 1% prednisolone acetate and 0.1% dexamethasone to healthy adult dogs. ANIMALS 12 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs received 1 drop of 1% prednisolone acetate (n = 6) or neomycin polymyxin B dexamethasone (ie, 0.1% dexamethasone; 6) ophthalmic suspension in both eyes every 6 hours for 14 days. Blood samples (peripheral and jugular) were collected on days 0, 1, 7, and 14 and analyzed for plasma prednisolone and dexamethasone concentrations. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and following topical drug administration. RESULTS Both drugs demonstrated systemic absorption. Prednisolone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (median plasma concentration, 24.80 ng/mL; range, 6.20 to 74.00 ng/mL), and dexamethasone was detected on days 1, 7, and 14 (2.30 ng/mL; 0 to 17.70 ng/mL). Neither prednisolone nor dexamethasone were detected in plasma samples on day 0 (baseline). Sampling from the jugular vein resulted in higher plasma drug concentrations than from a peripheral vein when samples from each day were combined. Plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than baseline following 14 days of treatment with topical prednisolone acetate and dexamethasone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prednisolone and dexamethasone are detected in the plasma of healthy dogs following topical ophthalmic administration 4 times/d with prednisolone concentrations being close to a physiologic dose of orally administered prednisolone. Additional research is needed to evaluate the systemic absorption of these medications in dogs with ocular inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Khashayar Roohollahi ◽  
Yvonne de Jong ◽  
Govind Pai ◽  
Mohamad Amr Zaini ◽  
Klaas de Lint ◽  

AbstractHead-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are relatively common in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), a hereditary chromosomal instability disorder. Standard chemo-radiation therapy is not tolerated in FA due to an overall somatic hypersensitivity to such treatment. The question is how to find a suitable alternative treatment. We used whole-exome and whole genome mRNA sequencing to identify major genomic and transcriptomic events associated with FA-HNSCC. CRISPR-engineered FA-knockout models were used to validate a number of top hits that were likely to be druggable. We identified deletion of 18q21.2 and amplification of 11q22.2 as prevailing copy-number alterations in FA HNSCCs, the latter of which was associated with strong overexpression of the cancer-related genes YAP1, BIRC2, BIRC3 (at 11q22.1-2). We then found the drug AZD5582, a known small molecule inhibitor of BIRC2-3, to selectively kill FA tumor cells that overexpressed BIRC2-3. This occurred at drug concentrations that did not affect the viability of untransformed FA cells. Our data indicate that 11q22.2 amplifications are relatively common oncogenic events in FA-HNSCCs, as holds for non FA-HNSCC. Therefore, chemotherapeutic inhibition of overexpressed BIRC2-3 may provide the basis for an approach to develop a clinically realistic treatment of FA-HNSCCs that carry 11q22.2 amplifications.

Zoe Oesterreicher ◽  
Sabine Eberl ◽  
Beatrix Wulkersdorfer ◽  
Peter Matzneller ◽  
Claudia Eder ◽  

Abstract Background and Objective In microdose studies, drug pharmacokinetics is measured in humans after administration of subtherapeutic doses. While previous microdose studies focused primarily on plasma pharmacokinetics, we set out to evaluate the feasibility of microdosing for a pharmacokinetic assessment in subcutaneous tissue and epithelial lining fluid. Methods Healthy subjects received a single intravenous bolus injection of a microdose of [14C]ciprofloxacin (1.1 µg, 7 kBq) with (cohort A, n = 9) or without (cohort B, n = 9) a prior intravenous infusion of a therapeutic dose of unlabeled ciprofloxacin (400 mg). Microdialysis and bronchoalveolar lavage were applied for determination of subcutaneous and intrapulmonary drug concentrations. Microdose [14C]ciprofloxacin was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry and therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The pharmacokinetics of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin (cohort A) in plasma, subcutaneous tissue, and epithelial lining fluid was in accordance with previous data. In plasma and subcutaneous tissue, the dose-adjusted area under the concentration–time curve of microdose ciprofloxacin was similar in cohorts A and B and within an 0.8-fold to 1.1-fold range of the area under the concentration–time curve of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into subcutaneous tissue was similar in cohorts A and B and comparable to that of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin with subcutaneous tissue-to-plasma area under the concentration–time curve ratios of 0.44, 0.44, and 0.38, respectively. Penetration of microdose ciprofloxacin into epithelial lining fluid was highly variable and failed to predict the epithelial lining fluid penetration of therapeutic-dose ciprofloxacin. Conclusions Our study confirms the feasibility of microdosing for pharmacokinetic measurements in plasma and subcutaneous tissue. Microdosing combined with microdialysis is a potentially useful tool in clinical antimicrobial drug development, but its applicability for the assessment of pulmonary pharmacokinetics with bronchoalveolar lavage requires further studies. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03177720 (registered 6 June, 2017).

2022 ◽  
Rosevalentine Bosire ◽  
Lina Fadel ◽  
Gábor Mocsár ◽  
Péter Nánási ◽  
Pialy Sen ◽  

Abstract Doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used anticancer DNA-binding drug, affects chromatin in multiple ways, and these effects contribute to both its efficacy and dose-limiting side-effects, especially cardiotoxicity. Here we studied the Dox effects on the chromatin binding of the architectural proteins high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) and the linker histone H1, and the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor (RARα) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), in live cells. At lower drug concentrations, Dox increased the binding of HMGB1 to DNA while decreasing the binding of the linker histone H1. At higher doses that correspond to the peak plasma concentrations reached in chemotherapy, Dox reduced the binding of HMGB1 as well. This biphasic effect is interpreted in terms of a hierarchy of competition between the ligands involved and Dox-induced local conformational changes of nucleosome-free DNA. When combined, FRAP and FCS mobility data suggest that Dox decreases the overall binding of RARα to DNA, an effect that was only partially overcome by agonist binding. The intertwined interactions described likely contribute to the effects as well as side-effects of Dox.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Alessio Malfanti ◽  
Giuseppina Catania ◽  
Quentin Degros ◽  
Mingchao Wang ◽  
Mathilde Bausart ◽  

Glioblastoma is an unmet clinical need. Local treatment strategies offer advantages, such as the possibility to bypass the blood–brain barrier, achieving high drug concentrations at the glioblastoma site, and consequently reducing systemic toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA) for the local treatment of glioblastoma. HA was conjugated to doxorubicin (DOX) with distinct bio-responsive linkers (direct amide conjugation HA-NH-DOX), direct hydrazone conjugation (HA-Hz-DOX), and adipic hydrazone (HA-AdpHz-DOX). All HA-DOX conjugates displayed a small size (less than 30 nm), suitable for brain diffusion. HA-Hz-DOX showed the best performance in killing GBM cells in both 2D and 3D in vitro models and displayed superior activity in a subcutaneous GL261 tumor model in vivo compared to free DOX and other HA-DOX conjugates. Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of HA as a polymeric platform for the local treatment of glioblastoma and the importance of rationally designing conjugates.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Philip Newsholme ◽  
Jordan Rowlands ◽  
Roselyn Rose’Meyer ◽  
Vinicius Cruzat

Irreversible pancreatic β-cell damage may be a result of chronic exposure to supraphysiological glucose or lipid concentrations or chronic exposure to therapeutic anti-diabetic drugs. The β-cells are able to respond to blood glucose in a narrow concentration range and release insulin in response, following activation of metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the TCA cycle. The β-cell cannot protect itself from glucose toxicity by blocking glucose uptake, but indeed relies on alternative metabolic protection mechanisms to avoid dysfunction and death. Alteration of normal metabolic pathway function occurs as a counter regulatory response to high nutrient, inflammatory factor, hormone or therapeutic drug concentrations. Metabolic reprogramming is a term widely used to describe a change in regulation of various metabolic enzymes and transporters, usually associated with cell growth and proliferation and may involve reshaping epigenetic responses, in particular the acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and DNA. Other metabolic modifications such as Malonylation, Succinylation, Hydroxybutyrylation, ADP-ribosylation, and Lactylation, may impact regulatory processes, many of which need to be investigated in detail to contribute to current advances in metabolism. By describing multiple mechanisms of metabolic adaption that are available to the β-cell across its lifespan, we hope to identify sites for metabolic reprogramming mechanisms, most of which are incompletely described or understood. Many of these mechanisms are related to prominent antioxidant responses. Here, we have attempted to describe the key β-cell metabolic adaptions and changes which are required for survival and function in various physiological, pathological and pharmacological conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Beatriz Orts ◽  
Ana Gutierrez ◽  
Lucía Madero ◽  
Laura Sempere ◽  
Ruben Frances ◽  

Introduction: Up to 40% of patients with Crohn’s disease do not respond to treatment with anti-TNF or lose response after the initial benefit. Low drug concentrations have been proposed as the main predictor of treatment failure. Our aim was to study the immunological profile and clinical evolution of patients with Crohn’s disease according to the anti-TNF dose and serum trough levels.Methods: Crohn’s disease patients in remission treated with infliximab or adalimumab at stable doses for at least for 3 months were included. Serum levels of anti-TNF, TNF-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin IL-12, IL-10, and IL-26 were determined in blood samples taken just before drug administration. Patients were classified according to anti-TNF levels below, within, or above the target level range and the use of intensified doses. Clinical evolution at 6 months was analyzed.Results: A total of 62 patients treated with infliximab (8 on intensified schedule) and 49 treated with adalimumab (7 on intensified schedule) were included. All infliximab-treated patients showed levels within the recommended range, but half of adalimumab-treated patients were below the recommended range. A significant negative relationship between body weight and adalimumab levels was observed, especially in patients treated with intensified doses. Patients with infliximab levels over 8 µg/ml presented higher median IL-10 than patients with in-range levels (84.0 pg/ml, interquartile range [IQR] 77.0–84.8 vs. 26.2 pg/mL, IQR 22.6–38.0; p < 0.001), along with lower values of interferon-γ (312.9 pg/ml, IQR 282.7–350.4 vs. 405.6 pg/ml, IQR 352.2–526.6; p = 0.005). Patients receiving intensified versus non-intensified doses of infliximab showed significantly higher IL-26 levels (91.8 pg/ml, IQR 75.6–109.5 vs. 20.5 pg/ml, IQR 16.2–32.2; p = 0.012), irrespective of serum drug levels. Patients with in-range levels of adalimumab showed higher values of IL-10 than patients with below-range levels (43.3 pg/ml, IQR 35.3–54.0 vs. 26.3 pg/ml, IQR 21.6–33.2; p = 0.001). Patients treated with intensified vs regular doses of adalimumab had increased levels of IL-12 (612.3 pg/ml, IQR 570.2–1353.7 vs. 516.4 pg/mL, IQR 474.5–591.2; p = 0.023). Four patients with low adalimumab levels (19%) and four treated with intensified doses were admitted to a hospital during a follow-up compared to none of the patients with levels within the range.Conclusion: Patients with Crohn’s disease treated with infliximab and adalimumab exhibit differences in serum levels of cytokines depending on the drug, dose intensification, and steady state trough serum levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 107424842110690
Heather Torbic ◽  
Benjamin Hohlfelder ◽  
Sudhir Krishnan ◽  
Adriano R. Tonelli

Background: Little data is published describing the use of medications prescribed for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Even though many patients with PAH may require ECMO as a bridge to transplant or recovery, little is reported regarding the use of PAH medications in this setting. Methods: This retrospective case series summarizes the clinical experience of 8 patients with PAH receiving ECMO and reviews medication management in the setting of ECMO. Results: Eight PAH patients, 5 of whom were female, ranging in age from 21 to 61 years old, were initiated on ECMO. Veno-arterial (VA) ECMO was used in 4 patients, veno-venous (VV) ECMO and hybrid ECMO configurations in 2 patients respectively. Common indications for ECMO included cardiogenic shock, bridge to transplant, and cardiac arrest. All patients were on intravenous (IV) prostacyclin therapy at baseline. Refractory hypotension was noted in 7 patients of whom 5 patients required downtitration or discontinuation of baseline PAH therapies. Three patients had continuous inhaled epoprostenol added during their time on ECMO. In patients who were decannulated from ECMO, PAH therapies were typically resumed or titrated back to baseline dosages. One patient required no adjustment in PAH therapy while on ECMO. Two patients were not able to be decannulated from ECMO. Conclusion: The treatment of critically ill PAH patients is challenging given a variety of factors that could affect PAH drug concentrations. In particular, PAH patients on prostacyclin analogues placed on VA ECMO appear to have pronounced systemic vasodilation requiring vasopressors which is alleviated by temporarily reducing the intravenous prostacyclin dose. Patients should be closely monitored for potential need for rapid titrations in prostacyclin therapy to maintain hemodynamic stability.

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