peripheral tissues
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2022 ◽  
William A Banks ◽  
Priyanka Sharma ◽  
K. M. Hansen ◽  
Nils Ludwig ◽  
T. L. Whiteside

Abstract Background: Exosomes function as an intercellular communication system conveying messages from donor to target cells in nearby or distant tissues. Many aspects of exosome trafficking remain unresolved, however. Here, we investigated uptake of ten radiolabeled murine or human exosomes of various cellular origins by the liver, kidney, spleen, and lung of male CD-1 mice. Methods: We radioactively labeled 10 exosomes from mouse or human cancerous or non-cancerous lines, injected them intravenously into male CD-1 mice, and studied their tissue uptake. We examined the ability of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA), mannose-6 phosphate (M6P), and inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to modulate uptake. We measured uptake rate using multiple-time regression analysis and used heat mapping and path analysis to correlate tissue and exosomal influences on uptake. Results: Except for the uptake of SCCVII exosomes by kidney, all exosomes were taken up by all tissues, although the uptake levels varied broadly among exosomes and tissues. The liver/serum uptake ratio for exosomes from primary human T-cells was the highest at 4,500 mL/g. Species of origin (mouse vs human) or source (cancerous vs noncancerous cells) did not influence tissue uptake. The uptake of some exosomes was altered by WGA and LPS but not by M6P, except for uptake inhibition of J774A.1 exosomes by liver, suggesting use of the M6P receptor. WGA or LPS treatments enhanced uptake of exosomes by brain and lung but inhibited uptake by liver and spleen. Response to LPS was not, however, predictive of response to WGA. No evidence for a universal binding site controlling exosome uptake was obtained. Applying path analysis and heat map analysis to the data, including our published results for brain, we found that exosome uptake patterns for lung and brain responded similarly to WGA or to LPS, whereas those for liver and spleen clustered together. In path analysis, the 10 exosomes clustered into distinct groups, suggesting that their bindings sites are similarly clustered. Conclusions: Uptake of exosomes by peripheral tissues is differentially regulated by both exosomes and target tissues and is dependent on the number and types of mutually interactive binding sites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 673
Vittoria Favero ◽  
Arianna Cremaschi ◽  
Chiara Parazzoli ◽  
Alberto Falchetti ◽  
Agostino Gaudio ◽  

Mild hypercortisolism is defined as biochemical evidence of abnormal cortisol secretion without the classical detectable manifestations of overt Cushing’s syndrome and, above all, lacking catabolic characteristics such as central muscle weakness, adipose tissue redistribution, skin fragility and unusual infections. Mild hypercortisolism is frequently discovered in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, with a prevalence ranging between 5 and 50%. This high variability is mainly due to the different criteria used for defining this condition. This subtle cortisol excess has also been described in patients with incidentally discovered pituitary tumors with an estimated prevalence of 5%. To date, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of mild hypercortisolism of pituitary origin are still not well clarified. At variance, recent advances have been made in understanding the genetic background of bilateral and unilateral adrenal adenomas causing mild hypercortisolism. Some recent data suggest that the clinical effects of glucocorticoid (GC) exposure on peripheral tissues are determined not only by the amount of the adrenal GC production but also by the peripheral GC metabolism and by the GC sensitivity. Indeed, in subjects with normal cortisol secretion, the combined estimate of cortisol secretion, cortisone-to-cortisol peripheral activation by the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme and GC receptor sensitizing variants have been suggested to be associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and bone fragility, which are three well-known consequences of hypercortisolism. This review focuses on the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying both the different sources of mild hypercortisolism and their clinical consequences (bone fragility, arterial hypertension, subclinical atherosclerosis, cardiovascular remodeling, dyslipidemia, glucose metabolism impairment, visceral adiposity, infections, muscle damage, mood disorders and coagulation).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sergio M. Borghi ◽  
Sylvia K. D. Bussulo ◽  
Felipe A. Pinho-Ribeiro ◽  
Victor Fattori ◽  
Thacyana T. Carvalho ◽  

Unaccustomed exercise involving eccentric contractions, high intensity, or long duration are recognized to induce delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Myocyte damage and inflammation in affected peripheral tissues contribute to sensitize muscle nociceptors leading to muscle pain. However, despite the essential role of the spinal cord in the regulation of pain, spinal cord neuroinflammatory mechanisms in intense swimming-induced DOMS remain to be investigated. We hypothesized that spinal cord neuroinflammation contributes to DOMS. C57BL/6 mice swam for 2 h to induce DOMS, and nociceptive spinal cord mechanisms were evaluated. DOMS triggered the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord 24 h after exercise compared to the sham group. DOMS and DOMS-induced spinal cord nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation were reduced by intrathecal treatments with glial inhibitors (fluorocitrate, α-aminoadipate, and minocycline) and NFκB inhibitor [pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)]. Moreover, DOMS was also reduced by intrathecal treatments targeting C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β or with recombinant IL-10. In agreement, DOMS induced the mRNA and protein expressions of CX3CR1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, c-Fos, and oxidative stress in the spinal cord. All these immune and cellular alterations triggered by DOMS were amenable by intrathecal treatments with glial and NFκB inhibitors. These results support a role for spinal cord glial cells, via NFκB, cytokines/chemokines, and oxidative stress, in DOMS. Thus, unveiling neuroinflammatory mechanisms by which unaccustomed exercise induces central sensitization and consequently DOMS.

2022 ◽  
pp. 074873042110653
Xiangpan Kong ◽  
Simone M. Ota ◽  
Deborah Suchecki ◽  
Andy Lan ◽  
Anouk I. Peereboom ◽  

Uncontrollable stress is linked to the development of many diseases, some of which are associated with disrupted daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. While available data indicate that the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is unaffected by stress, accumulating evidence suggest that circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues and organs can be shifted by a variety of stressors and stress hormones. In the present study, we examined effects of acute and chronic social defeat stress in mice and addressed the question of whether effects of uncontrollable stress on peripheral clocks are tissue specific and depend on time of day of stress exposure. We used mice that carry a luciferase reporter gene fused to the circadian clock gene Period2 (PER2::LUC) to examine daily rhythms of PER2 expression in various peripheral tissues. Mice were exposed to social defeat stress in the early (ZT13-14) or late (ZT21-22) dark phase, either once (acute stress) or repeatedly on 10 consecutive days (chronic stress). One hour after the last stressor, tissue samples from liver, lung, kidney, and white adipose tissue (WAT) were collected. Social defeat stress caused a phase delay of several hours in the rhythm of PER2 expression in lung and kidney, but this delay was stronger after chronic than after acute stress. Moreover, shifts only occurred after stress in the late dark phase, not in the early dark phase. PER2 rhythms in liver and WAT were not significantly shifted by social defeat, suggesting a different response of various peripheral clocks to stress. This study indicates that uncontrollable social defeat stress is capable of shifting peripheral clocks in a time of day dependent and tissue specific manner. These shifts in peripheral clocks were smaller or absent after a single stress exposure and may therefore be the consequence of a cumulative chronic stress effect.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Joan Serrano ◽  
Nishita N. Meshram ◽  
Mangala M. Soundarapandian ◽  
Kathleen R. Smith ◽  
Carter Mason ◽  

Background: Saccharin is a common artificial sweetener and a bona fide ligand for sweet taste receptors (STR). STR can regulate insulin secretion in beta cells, so we investigated whether saccharin can stimulate insulin secretion dependent on STR and the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. Methods: We performed in vivo and in vitro approaches in mice and cells with loss-of-function of STR signaling and specifically assessed the involvement of a PLC signaling cascade using real-time biosensors and calcium imaging. Results: We found that the ingestion of a physiological amount of saccharin can potentiate insulin secretion dependent on STR. Similar to natural sweeteners, saccharin triggers the activation of the PLC signaling cascade, leading to calcium influx and the vesicular exocytosis of insulin. The effects of saccharin also partially require transient receptor potential cation channel M5 (TRPM5) activity. Conclusions: Saccharin ingestion may transiently potentiate insulin secretion through the activation of the canonical STR signaling pathway. These physiological effects provide a framework for understanding the potential health impact of saccharin use and the contribution of STR in peripheral tissues.

2022 ◽  
Teresa Cunha-Oliveira ◽  
Marcelo Carvalho ◽  
Vilma Sardão ◽  
Elisabete Ferreiro ◽  
Débora Mena ◽  

Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with a rapid progression and no effective treatment. Metabolic and mitochondrial alterations in peripheral tissues of ALS patients may present diagnostic and therapeutic interest. We aimed to identify mitochondrial fingerprints in lymphoblast from ALS patients harboring SOD1 mutations (mutSOD1) or with unidentified mutations (undSOD1), compared with age/sex matched controls. Three groups of lymphoblasts, from mutSOD1 or undSOD1 ALS patients and age/sex-matched controls, were obtained from Coriell Biobank and divided into 3 age/sex-matched cohorts. Mitochondria-associated metabolic pathways were analyzed using Seahorse MitoStress and ATP Rate assays, complemented with metabolic phenotype microarrays, metabolite levels, gene expression, and protein expression and activity. Pooled (all cohorts) and paired (intra-cohort) analyses were performed by using bioinformatic tools, and the features with higher information gain values were selected and used for principal component analysis and Naïve Bayes classification. Pooled analysis revealed that undSOD1 patients had statistically higher glycolytic ATP production rate and lower Tfam protein content compared to controls, which were also the experimental features highlighted by multidimensional analysis. Metabolic phenotypic profiles in lymphoblasts from ALS patients with mutSOD1 and undSOD1 revealed unique age-dependent different substrate oxidation profiles. For most parameters, different patterns of variation were found between cohorts, which may be due to age or sex. In the present work, we investigated several metabolic and mitochondrial hallmarks in lymphoblasts from each donor and, although a high heterogeneity of results was found, we identified specific metabolic and mitochondrial fingerprints that may have a diagnostic and therapeutic interest.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Qinling Zhu ◽  
Yue Yao ◽  
Lizhen Xu ◽  
Hasiximuke Wu ◽  
Wangsheng Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR) contributes to ovarian dysfunctions in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients. Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is an acute phase protein produced primarily by the liver in response to inflammation. In addition to its role in inflammation, SAA1 may participate in IR development in peripheral tissues. Yet, expressional regulation of SAA1 in the ovary and its role in the pathogenesis of ovarian IR in PCOS remain elusive. Methods Follicular fluid, granulosa cells and peripheral venous blood were collected from PCOS and non-PCOS patients with and without IR to measure SAA1 abundance for analysis of its correlation with IR status. The effects of SAA1 on its own expression and insulin signaling pathway were investigated in cultured primary granulosa cells. Results Ovarian granulosa cells were capable of producing SAA1, which could be induced by SAA1 per se. Moreover, the abundance of SAA1 significantly increased in granulosa cells and follicular fluid in PCOS patients with IR. SAA1 treatment significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 and glucose uptake in granulosa cells through induction of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression with subsequent inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. These effects of SAA1 could be blocked by inhibitors for toll-like receptors 2/4 (TLR 2/4) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B (NF-κB). Conclusions Human granulosa cells are capable of feedforward production of SAA1, which significantly increased in PCOS patients with IR. Excessive SAA1 reduces insulin sensitivity in granulosa cells via induction of PTEN and subsequent inhibition of Akt phosphorylation upon activation of TLR2/4 and NF-κB pathway. These findings highlight that elevation of SAA1 in the ovary promotes the development of IR in granulosa cells of PCOS patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 117864692110662
Yuhei Yajima ◽  
Alato Okuno ◽  
Isamu Nakamura ◽  
Teruo Miyazaki ◽  
Akira Honda ◽  

The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway plays crucial roles in several inflammation-induced disorders such as depression. In this study, we measured Kyn and other related molecules in the blood plasma, brain, and urine of male C57BL/6J mice (B6) fed non-purified (MF) and semi-purified (AIN-93G and AIN-93M) standard rodent diets. Mice fed MF had increased plasma Kyn levels compared with those on AIN93-based diets, as well as decreased hippocampal Kyn levels compared with those fed AIN-93G. Previous studies showed that branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) suppress peripheral blood Kyn transportation to the brain, but plasma BCAA levels were not significantly different between the diet groups in our study. Urine metabolome analysis revealed that feed ingredients affected the excretion of many metabolites, and MF-fed mice had elevated excretion of kynurenic and quinolinic acids, pivotal metabolites in the Kyn pathway. Collectively, the level of critical metabolites in the Kyn pathway in the central and peripheral tissues was strongly affected by feed ingredients. Therefore, feed selection is a critical factor to ensure the reproducibility of experimental data in studies involving rodent models.

Lab on a Chip ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yong-jun Choi ◽  
Vijaya Sunkara ◽  
Yeojin Lee ◽  
Yoon-Kyoung Cho

Dendritic cells (DCs), which are immune sentinels in the peripheral tissues, play a number of roles, including patrolling for pathogens, internalising antigens, transporting antigens to the lymph nodes (LNs), interacting...

2021 ◽  
Huibing Tan ◽  
Yinhua Li ◽  
Hangqi Liu ◽  
Siyu Tian ◽  
Torin W. Chiles ◽  

Bone cells might be considered in response to the distribution of nerves in the periosteum, epiphysis and bone marrow.The sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have trophic effects critically on normal osteogenic differentiation and bone metabolism in bone development and regeneration. It could modulate bone regeneration, bone remodeling, and articular cartilage homeostasis to their classic neurological actions. With touching and hearing mediated osseoperception, sensation can be adapted from the mechanical stimulation of a bone-anchored prosthesis. Investigations of the influence of music on the human brain showed structural and functional cerebro-neuroplasticity emerge as a result of long-term musical practice, which may cause cognitive differences between non-musicians and musicians. Meanwhile, the physical mechanical hits and touch strings and keys of instruments hypothetically were considered to cause adaptability for professional musicians in their peripheral tissues, especially bone sensation of fingers and correlated joints. Music practice is bone-strengthening activity. We hypothesis that it produces sensation adaptation in the fingers and correlated joints of instrument players, especially musicians after tremendous training and practice. Both the bone, correlated joint and its innervation are adapted by neuroplasticity for something part of “hardware constructing” to accomplish music performance. We thought that neuroplasticity occurred both in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Besides of developed in soft tissues of subcutaneous, connective tissue, muscle, inter-tissue coordination through neuro-network may occur in bone innervation coupled with correlated joint for specialized music-practice-oriented neuroplasticity. Soft tissues, such as muscle and tendon cannot directly hit instrument with stiffness to generate sound and rhythmic. Functionally, innervated-bone as bio-mechanical device becomes sensory musical target bone.

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